Python-Day07-图形用户界面和游戏开发

Python-100Day-学习打卡
Author: Seven_0507
Date: 2019-05-22

在这里插入图片描述

Python图形用户界面和游戏开发

1. tkinter模块

"""
使用tkinter创建GUI
- 顶层窗口
- 控件
- 布局
- 事件回调
"""
import tkinter
import tkinter.messagebox


def main():
    # 类属性flag
    flag = True

    # 修改标签上的文字
    def change_label_text():
        nonlocal flag # nonlocal关键字用来在函数或其他作用域中使用外层(非全局)变量
        flag = not flag
        if flag:
            color, msg = ('red', 'Hello, world!')
        else:
            color, msg = ('blue', 'Goodbye, world!')
        label.config(text=msg, fg=color)

    # 确认退出
    def confirm_to_quit():
        if tkinter.messagebox.askokcancel('温馨提示', '确定要退出吗?'):
            top.quit()

    # 创建顶层窗口
    top = tkinter.Tk()
    # 设置窗口大小
    top.geometry('240x160')
    # 设置窗口标题
    top.title('小游戏')
    # 创建标签对象并添加到顶层窗口
    label = tkinter.Label(top, text='Hello, world!', font='Arial -32', fg='red')
    label.pack(expand=1)
    # 创建一个装按钮的容器
    panel = tkinter.Frame(top)
    # 创建按钮对象 指定添加到哪个容器中 通过command参数绑定事件回调函数
    button1 = tkinter.Button(panel, text='修改', command=change_label_text)
    button1.pack(side='left')
    button2 = tkinter.Button(panel, text='退出', command=confirm_to_quit)
    button2.pack(side='right')
    panel.pack(side='bottom')
    # 开启主事件循环
    tkinter.mainloop()


if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()
"""
使用tkinter创建GUI
- 在窗口上制作动画
"""
import tkinter
import time


# 播放动画效果的函数
def play_animation():
    canvas.move(oval, 2, 2)
    canvas.update()
    top.after(50, play_animation)


x = 10
y = 10
top = tkinter.Tk()
top.geometry('600x600')
top.title('动画效果')
top.resizable(False, False)
top.wm_attributes('-topmost', 1)
canvas = tkinter.Canvas(top, width=600, height=600, bd=0, highlightthickness=0)
canvas.create_rectangle(0, 0, 600, 600, fill='gray')
oval = canvas.create_oval(10, 10, 60, 60, fill='red')
canvas.pack()
top.update()
play_animation()
tkinter.mainloop()

# 请思考如何让小球碰到屏幕的边界就弹回
# 请思考如何用面向对象的编程思想对上面的代码进行封装
"""
用turtle模块绘图
这是一个非常有趣的模块 它模拟一只乌龟在窗口上爬行的方式来进行绘图
"""
import turtle

turtle.pensize(3)
turtle.penup()
turtle.goto(-180, 150)
turtle.pencolor('red')
turtle.fillcolor('yellow')
turtle.pendown()
turtle.begin_fill()
for _ in range(36):
    turtle.forward(200)
    turtle.right(170)
turtle.end_fill()
turtle.mainloop()

2. Pygame进行游戏开发

"""
大球吃小球游戏步骤
 - 制作游戏窗口
 - 在窗口中绘图
 - 加载图像
 - 实现动画效果
 - 碰撞检测
"""
from enum import Enum, unique
from math import sqrt
from random import randint

import pygame

# 碰撞检测
@unique
class Color(Enum):
    """颜色"""

    RED = (255, 0, 0)
    GREEN = (0, 255, 0)
    BLUE = (0, 0, 255)
    BLACK = (0, 0, 0)
    WHITE = (255, 255, 255)
    GRAY = (242, 242, 242)

    @staticmethod
    def random_color():
        """获得随机颜色"""
        r = randint(0, 255)
        g = randint(0, 255)
        b = randint(0, 255)
        return (r, g, b)


class Ball(object):
    """球"""

    def __init__(self, x, y, radius, sx, sy, color=Color.RED):
        """初始化方法"""
        self.x = x
        self.y = y
        self.radius = radius
        self.sx = sx
        self.sy = sy
        self.color = color
        self.alive = True

    def move(self, screen):
        """移动"""
        self.x += self.sx
        self.y += self.sy
        if self.x - self.radius <= 0 or self.x + self.radius >= screen.get_width():
            self.sx = -self.sx
        if self.y - self.radius <= 0 or self.y + self.radius >= screen.get_height():
            self.sy = -self.sy

    def eat(self, other):
        """吃其他球"""
        if self.alive and other.alive and self != other:
            dx, dy = self.x - other.x, self.y - other.y
            distance = sqrt(dx ** 2 + dy ** 2)
            if distance < self.radius + other.radius \
                    and self.radius > other.radius:
                other.alive = False
               	self.radius = self.radius + int(other.radius * 0.146)

    def draw(self, screen):
        """在窗口上绘制球"""
        pygame.draw.circle(screen, self.color,
                           (self.x, self.y), self.radius, 0)

# 事件处理
def main():
    # 定义用来装所有球的容器
    balls = []
    # 初始化导入的pygame中的模块
    pygame.init()
    # 初始化用于显示的窗口并设置窗口尺寸
    screen = pygame.display.set_mode((800, 600))
    print(screen.get_width())
    print(screen.get_height())
    # 设置当前窗口的标题
    pygame.display.set_caption('大球吃小球')
    # 定义变量来表示小球在屏幕上的位置
    x, y = 50, 50
    running = True
    # 开启一个事件循环处理发生的事件
    while running:
        # 从消息队列中获取事件并对事件进行处理
        for event in pygame.event.get():
            if event.type == pygame.QUIT:
                running = False
            if event.type == pygame.MOUSEBUTTONDOWN and event.button == 1:
                x, y = event.pos
                radius = randint(10, 100)
                sx, sy = randint(-10, 10), randint(-10, 10)
                color = Color.random_color()
                ball = Ball(x, y, radius, sx, sy, color)
                balls.append(ball)
        screen.fill((255, 255, 255))
        for ball in balls:
            if ball.alive:
                ball.draw(screen)
            else:
                balls.remove(ball)
        pygame.display.flip()
        # 每隔50毫秒就改变小球的位置再刷新窗口
        pygame.time.delay(50)
        for ball in balls:
            ball.move(screen)
            for other in balls:
                ball.eat(other)


if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()
pygame 1.9.6
Hello from the pygame community. https://www.pygame.org/contribute.html
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