使用Valgrind Memcheck检查内存

使用Valgrind Memcheck

memcheck工具的使用方式如下:

valgrind --tool=memcheck ./a.out

从上面的命令可以清楚的看到, 主要的命令是valgrind,而我们想使用的工具是通过'-tool'选项来指定的. 上面的‘a.out’指的是我们想使用memcheck运行的可执行文件.

该工具可以检测下列与内存相关的问题 :

·       未释放内存的使用

·       对释放后内存的读/写

·       对已分配内存块尾部的读/写

·       内存泄露

·       不匹配的使用malloc/new/new[] 和free/delete/delete[]

·       重复释放内存

注意: 上面列出的并不很全面,但却包含了能被该工具检测到的很多普遍的问题.

让我们一个一个地对上面的场景进行讨论:

注意: 下面讨论的所有测试代码都应该使用gcc并且加上-g选项(用来在memcheck的输出中生成行号)进行编译. 就想我们之前讨论过的 C程序被编译成可执行文件, 它需要经历四个不同的阶段.

1. 使用未初始化的内存

Code :

#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
 
intmain(void)
{
    char *p; 
 
    char c = *p; 
 
    printf("\n [%c]\n",c); 
 
    return0;
}

在上面的代码中,我们尝试使用未初始化的指针 ‘p’.

让我们运行Memcheck来看下结果.

$ valgrind --tool=memcheck ./val
==2862== Memcheck, a memory error detector
==2862== Copyright (C) 2002-2009, and GNU GPL'd, by Julian Seward et al.
==2862== Using Valgrind-3.6.0.SVN-Debian and LibVEX; rerun with -h for copyright info
==2862== Command: ./val
==2862==
==2862== Use of uninitialised value of size 8
==2862==    at 0x400530: main (valgrind.c:8)
==2862==
 
[#]
==2862==
==2862== HEAP SUMMARY:
==2862==     in use at exit: 0 bytes in 0 blocks
==2862==   total heap usage: 0 allocs, 0 frees, 0 bytes allocated
==2862==
==2862== All heap blocks were freed -- no leaks are possible
==2862==
==2862== For counts of detected and suppressed errors, rerun with: -v
==2862== Use --track-origins=yes to see where uninitialized values come from
==2862== ERROR SUMMARY: 1 errors from 1 contexts (suppressed: 4 from 4)

从上面的输出可以看到,Valgrind检测到了未初始化的变量,然后给出了警告(上面加粗的几行(译者注:貌似上面没有加粗的)).

2. 在内存被释放后进行读/写

Code :

#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
 
intmain(void)
{
    char *p = malloc(1);
    *p = 'a'; 
 
    char c = *p; 
 
    printf("\n [%c]\n",c); 
 
    free(p);
    c = *p;
    return0;
}

上面的代码中,我们有一个释放了内存的指针 ‘p’ 然后我们又尝试利用指针获取值.

让我们运行memcheck来看一下Valgrind对这种情况是如何反应的.

$ valgrind --tool=memcheck ./val
==2849== Memcheck, a memory error detector
==2849== Copyright (C) 2002-2009, and GNU GPL'd, by Julian Seward et al.
==2849== Using Valgrind-3.6.0.SVN-Debian and LibVEX; rerun with -h for copyright info
==2849== Command: ./val
==2849== 
 
 [a]
==2849== Invalid read of size 1
==2849==    at 0x400603: main (valgrind.c:30)
==2849==  Address 0x51b0040 is 0 bytes inside a block of size 1free'd
==2849==    at 0x4C270BD: free (vg_replace_malloc.c:366)
==2849==    by 0x4005FE: main (valgrind.c:29)
==2849==
==2849==
==2849== HEAP SUMMARY:
==2849==     in use at exit: 0 bytes in 0 blocks
==2849==   total heap usage: 1 allocs, 1 frees, 1 bytes allocated
==2849==
==2849== All heap blocks were freed -- no leaks are possible
==2849==
==2849== For counts of detected and suppressed errors, rerun with: -v
==2849== ERROR SUMMARY: 1 errors from 1 contexts (suppressed: 4 from 4)

从上面的输出内容可以看到,Valgrind检测到了无效的读取操作然后输出了警告 ‘Invalid read of size 1′.

另注,使用gdb来调试c程序.

3. 从已分配内存块的尾部进行读/写

Code :

#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
 
intmain(void)
{
    char *p = malloc(1);
    *p = 'a'; 
 
    char c = *(p+1); 
 
    printf("\n [%c]\n",c); 
 
    free(p);
    return0;
}

在上面的代码中,我们已经为‘p’分配了一个字节的内存,但我们在将值读取到 ‘c’中的时候使用的是地址p+1.

现在我们使用Valgrind运行上面的代码 :

$ valgrind --tool=memcheck ./val
==2835== Memcheck, a memory error detector
==2835== Copyright (C) 2002-2009, and GNU GPL'd, by Julian Seward et al.
==2835== Using Valgrind-3.6.0.SVN-Debian and LibVEX; rerun with -h for copyright info
==2835== Command: ./val
==2835==
==2835== Invalid read of size 1
==2835==    at 0x4005D9: main (valgrind.c:25)
==2835==  Address 0x51b0041 is 0 bytes after a block of size 1 alloc'd
==2835==    at 0x4C274A8: malloc (vg_replace_malloc.c:236)
==2835==    by 0x4005C5: main (valgrind.c:22)
==2835== 
 
 []
==2835==
==2835== HEAP SUMMARY:
==2835==     in use at exit: 0 bytes in 0 blocks
==2835==   total heap usage: 1 allocs, 1 frees, 1 bytes allocated
==2835==
==2835== All heap blocks were freed -- no leaks are possible
==2835==
==2835== For counts of detected and suppressed errors, rerun with: -v
==2835== ERROR SUMMARY: 1 errors from 1 contexts (suppressed: 4 from 4)

同样,该工具在这种情况下也检测到了无效的读取操作.

4. 内存泄露

Code:

#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
 
intmain(void)
{
    char *p = malloc(1);
    *p = 'a'; 
 
    char c = *p; 
 
    printf("\n [%c]\n",c); 
 
    return0;
}

在这次的代码中, 我们申请了一个字节但是没有将它释放.现在让我们运行Valgrind看看会发生什么:

$ valgrind --tool=memcheck --leak-check=full ./val
==2888== Memcheck, a memory error detector
==2888== Copyright (C) 2002-2009, and GNU GPL'd, by Julian Seward et al.
==2888== Using Valgrind-3.6.0.SVN-Debian and LibVEX; rerun with -h for copyright info
==2888== Command: ./val
==2888== 
 
 [a]
==2888==
==2888== HEAP SUMMARY:
==2888==     in use at exit: 1 bytes in 1 blocks
==2888==   total heap usage: 1 allocs, 0 frees, 1 bytes allocated
==2888==
==2888== 1 bytes in 1 blocks are definitely lost in loss record 1 of 1
==2888==    at 0x4C274A8: malloc (vg_replace_malloc.c:236)
==2888==    by 0x400575: main (valgrind.c:6)
==2888==
==2888== LEAK SUMMARY:
==2888==    definitely lost: 1 bytes in 1 blocks
==2888==    indirectly lost: 0 bytes in 0 blocks
==2888==      possibly lost: 0 bytes in 0 blocks
==2888==    still reachable: 0 bytes in 0 blocks
==2888==         suppressed: 0 bytes in 0 blocks
==2888==
==2888== For counts of detected and suppressed errors, rerun with: -v
==2888== ERROR SUMMARY: 1 errors from 1 contexts (suppressed: 4 from 4)

输出行(上面加粗的部分)显示,该工具能够检测到内存的泄露.

注意: 在这里我们增加了一个选项‘–leak-check=full’来得到内存泄露的详细细节.

5. 不匹配地使用malloc/new/new[]和 free/delete/delete[]

Code:

#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<iostream>
 
intmain(void)
{
    char *p = (char*)malloc(1);
    *p = 'a'; 
 
    char c = *p; 
 
    printf("\n [%c]\n",c);
    delete p;
    return0;
}

上面的代码中,我们使用了malloc()来分配内存,但是使用了delete操作符来删除内存.

注意 : 使用g++来编译上面的代码,因为delete操作符是在C++中引进的,而要编译C++需要使用g++.

让我们运行来看一下 :

$ valgrind --tool=memcheck --leak-check=full ./val
==2972== Memcheck, a memory error detector
==2972== Copyright (C) 2002-2009, and GNU GPL'd, by Julian Seward et al.
==2972== Using Valgrind-3.6.0.SVN-Debian and LibVEX; rerun with -h for copyright info
==2972== Command: ./val
==2972== 
 
 [a]
==2972== Mismatched free() / delete / delete []
==2972==    at 0x4C26DCF: operatordelete(void*) (vg_replace_malloc.c:387)
==2972==    by 0x40080B: main (valgrind.c:13)
==2972==  Address 0x595e040 is 0 bytes inside a block of size 1 alloc'd
==2972==    at 0x4C274A8: malloc (vg_replace_malloc.c:236)
==2972==    by 0x4007D5: main (valgrind.c:7)
==2972==
==2972==
==2972== HEAP SUMMARY:
==2972==     in use at exit: 0 bytes in 0 blocks
==2972==   total heap usage: 1 allocs, 1 frees, 1 bytes allocated
==2972==
==2972== All heap blocks were freed -- no leaks are possible
==2972==
==2972== For counts of detected and suppressed errors, rerun with: -v
==2972== ERROR SUMMARY: 1 errors from 1 contexts (suppressed: 4 from 4)

从上面的输出可以看到 (加粗的行),Valgrind清楚的说明了‘不匹配的使用了free() / delete / delete []‘

你可以尝试在测试代码中使用'new'和'free'进行组合来看看Valgrind给出的结果是什么.

6. 两次释放内存

Code :

#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
 
intmain(void)
{
    char *p = (char*)malloc(1);
    *p = 'a'; 
 
    char c = *p;
    printf("\n [%c]\n",c);
    free(p);
    free(p);
    return0;
}

在上面的代码中, 我们两次释放了'p'指向的内存. 现在让我们运行memcheck :

$ valgrind --tool=memcheck --leak-check=full ./val
==3167== Memcheck, a memory error detector
==3167== Copyright (C) 2002-2009, and GNU GPL'd, by Julian Seward et al.
==3167== Using Valgrind-3.6.0.SVN-Debian and LibVEX; rerun with -h for copyright info
==3167== Command: ./val
==3167== 
 
 [a]
==3167== Invalid free() / delete / delete[]
==3167==    at 0x4C270BD: free (vg_replace_malloc.c:366)
==3167==    by 0x40060A: main (valgrind.c:12)
==3167==  Address 0x51b0040 is 0 bytes inside a block of size 1free'd
==3167==    at 0x4C270BD: free (vg_replace_malloc.c:366)
==3167==    by 0x4005FE: main (valgrind.c:11)
==3167==
==3167==
==3167== HEAP SUMMARY:
==3167==     in use at exit: 0 bytes in 0 blocks
==3167==   total heap usage: 1 allocs, 2 frees, 1 bytes allocated
==3167==
==3167== All heap blocks were freed -- no leaks are possible
==3167==
==3167== For counts of detected and suppressed errors, rerun with: -v
==3167== ERROR SUMMARY: 1 errors from 1 contexts (suppressed: 4 from 4)

从上面的输出可以看到(加粗的行), 该功能检测到我们对同一个指针调用了两次释放内存操作.

在本文中,我们把注意力放在了内存管理框架Valgrind,然后使用memcheck(Valgrind框架提供的)工具来了解它是如何降低需要经常操作内存的程序员的负担的. 该工具能够检测到很多手动检测不到的与内存相关的问题

ubuntu下安装 valgrind

apt-get install valgrind

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