LHX_ldm的博客

一起学习

java实现HTTP请求的三种方式

目前JAVA实现HTTP请求的方法用的最多的有两种:一种是通过HTTPClient这种第三方的开源框架去实现。HTTPClient对HTTP的封装性比较不错,通过它基本上能够满足我们大部分的需求,HttpClient3.1 是 org.apache.commons.httpclient下操作远程 url的工具包,虽然已不再更新,但实现工作中使用httpClient3.1的代码还是很多,HttpClient4.5是org.apache.http.client下操作远程 url的工具包,最新的;另一种则是通过HttpURLConnection去实现,HttpURLConnection是JAVA的标准类,是JAVA比较原生的一种实现方式。

  自己在工作中三种方式都用到过,总结一下分享给大家,也方便自己以后使用,话不多说上代码。

  第一种方式:java原生HttpURLConnection

  

复制代码
package com.powerX.httpClient;

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.io.OutputStream;
import java.net.HttpURLConnection;
import java.net.MalformedURLException;
import java.net.URL;

public class HttpClient {
    public static String doGet(String httpurl) {
        HttpURLConnection connection = null;
        InputStream is = null;
        BufferedReader br = null;
        String result = null;// 返回结果字符串
        try {
            // 创建远程url连接对象
            URL url = new URL(httpurl);
            // 通过远程url连接对象打开一个连接,强转成httpURLConnection类
            connection = (HttpURLConnection) url.openConnection();
            // 设置连接方式:get
            connection.setRequestMethod("GET");
            // 设置连接主机服务器的超时时间:15000毫秒
            connection.setConnectTimeout(15000);
            // 设置读取远程返回的数据时间:60000毫秒
            connection.setReadTimeout(60000);
            // 发送请求
            connection.connect();
            // 通过connection连接,获取输入流
            if (connection.getResponseCode() == 200) {
                is = connection.getInputStream();
                // 封装输入流is,并指定字符集
                br = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(is, "UTF-8"));
                // 存放数据
                StringBuffer sbf = new StringBuffer();
                String temp = null;
                while ((temp = br.readLine()) != null) {
                    sbf.append(temp);
                    sbf.append("\r\n");
                }
                result = sbf.toString();
            }
        } catch (MalformedURLException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            // 关闭资源
            if (null != br) {
                try {
                    br.close();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }

            if (null != is) {
                try {
                    is.close();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }

            connection.disconnect();// 关闭远程连接
        }

        return result;
    }

    public static String doPost(String httpUrl, String param) {

        HttpURLConnection connection = null;
        InputStream is = null;
        OutputStream os = null;
        BufferedReader br = null;
        String result = null;
        try {
            URL url = new URL(httpUrl);
            // 通过远程url连接对象打开连接
            connection = (HttpURLConnection) url.openConnection();
            // 设置连接请求方式
            connection.setRequestMethod("POST");
            // 设置连接主机服务器超时时间:15000毫秒
            connection.setConnectTimeout(15000);
            // 设置读取主机服务器返回数据超时时间:60000毫秒
            connection.setReadTimeout(60000);

            // 默认值为:false,当向远程服务器传送数据/写数据时,需要设置为true
            connection.setDoOutput(true);
            // 默认值为:true,当前向远程服务读取数据时,设置为true,该参数可有可无
            connection.setDoInput(true);
            // 设置传入参数的格式:请求参数应该是 name1=value1&name2=value2 的形式。
            connection.setRequestProperty("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded");
            // 设置鉴权信息:Authorization: Bearer da3efcbf-0845-4fe3-8aba-ee040be542c0
            connection.setRequestProperty("Authorization", "Bearer da3efcbf-0845-4fe3-8aba-ee040be542c0");
            // 通过连接对象获取一个输出流
            os = connection.getOutputStream();
            // 通过输出流对象将参数写出去/传输出去,它是通过字节数组写出的
            os.write(param.getBytes());
            // 通过连接对象获取一个输入流,向远程读取
            if (connection.getResponseCode() == 200) {

                is = connection.getInputStream();
                // 对输入流对象进行包装:charset根据工作项目组的要求来设置
                br = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(is, "UTF-8"));

                StringBuffer sbf = new StringBuffer();
                String temp = null;
                // 循环遍历一行一行读取数据
                while ((temp = br.readLine()) != null) {
                    sbf.append(temp);
                    sbf.append("\r\n");
                }
                result = sbf.toString();
            }
        } catch (MalformedURLException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            // 关闭资源
            if (null != br) {
                try {
                    br.close();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
            if (null != os) {
                try {
                    os.close();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
            if (null != is) {
                try {
                    is.close();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
            // 断开与远程地址url的连接
            connection.disconnect();
        }
        return result;
    }
}
复制代码

  第二种方式:apache HttpClient3.1

复制代码
package com.powerX.httpClient;

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.io.UnsupportedEncodingException;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.Map.Entry;
import java.util.Set;

import org.apache.commons.httpclient.DefaultHttpMethodRetryHandler;
import org.apache.commons.httpclient.HttpClient;
import org.apache.commons.httpclient.HttpStatus;
import org.apache.commons.httpclient.NameValuePair;
import org.apache.commons.httpclient.methods.GetMethod;
import org.apache.commons.httpclient.methods.PostMethod;
import org.apache.commons.httpclient.params.HttpMethodParams;

public class HttpClient3 {

    public static String doGet(String url) {
        // 输入流
        InputStream is = null;
        BufferedReader br = null;
        String result = null;
        // 创建httpClient实例
        HttpClient httpClient = new HttpClient();
        // 设置http连接主机服务超时时间:15000毫秒
        // 先获取连接管理器对象,再获取参数对象,再进行参数的赋值
        httpClient.getHttpConnectionManager().getParams().setConnectionTimeout(15000);
        // 创建一个Get方法实例对象
        GetMethod getMethod = new GetMethod(url);
        // 设置get请求超时为60000毫秒
        getMethod.getParams().setParameter(HttpMethodParams.SO_TIMEOUT, 60000);
        // 设置请求重试机制,默认重试次数:3次,参数设置为true,重试机制可用,false相反
        getMethod.getParams().setParameter(HttpMethodParams.RETRY_HANDLER, new DefaultHttpMethodRetryHandler(3, true));
        try {
            // 执行Get方法
            int statusCode = httpClient.executeMethod(getMethod);
            // 判断返回码
            if (statusCode != HttpStatus.SC_OK) {
                // 如果状态码返回的不是ok,说明失败了,打印错误信息
                System.err.println("Method faild: " + getMethod.getStatusLine());
            } else {
                // 通过getMethod实例,获取远程的一个输入流
                is = getMethod.getResponseBodyAsStream();
                // 包装输入流
                br = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(is, "UTF-8"));

                StringBuffer sbf = new StringBuffer();
                // 读取封装的输入流
                String temp = null;
                while ((temp = br.readLine()) != null) {
                    sbf.append(temp).append("\r\n");
                }

                result = sbf.toString();
            }

        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            // 关闭资源
            if (null != br) {
                try {
                    br.close();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
            if (null != is) {
                try {
                    is.close();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
            // 释放连接
            getMethod.releaseConnection();
        }
        return result;
    }

    public static String doPost(String url, Map<String, Object> paramMap) {
        // 获取输入流
        InputStream is = null;
        BufferedReader br = null;
        String result = null;
        // 创建httpClient实例对象
        HttpClient httpClient = new HttpClient();
        // 设置httpClient连接主机服务器超时时间:15000毫秒
        httpClient.getHttpConnectionManager().getParams().setConnectionTimeout(15000);
        // 创建post请求方法实例对象
        PostMethod postMethod = new PostMethod(url);
        // 设置post请求超时时间
        postMethod.getParams().setParameter(HttpMethodParams.SO_TIMEOUT, 60000);

        NameValuePair[] nvp = null;
        // 判断参数map集合paramMap是否为空
        if (null != paramMap && paramMap.size() > 0) {// 不为空
            // 创建键值参数对象数组,大小为参数的个数
            nvp = new NameValuePair[paramMap.size()];
            // 循环遍历参数集合map
            Set<Entry<String, Object>> entrySet = paramMap.entrySet();
            // 获取迭代器
            Iterator<Entry<String, Object>> iterator = entrySet.iterator();

            int index = 0;
            while (iterator.hasNext()) {
                Entry<String, Object> mapEntry = iterator.next();
                // 从mapEntry中获取key和value创建键值对象存放到数组中
                try {
                    nvp[index] = new NameValuePair(mapEntry.getKey(),
                            new String(mapEntry.getValue().toString().getBytes("UTF-8"), "UTF-8"));
                } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
                index++;
            }
        }
        // 判断nvp数组是否为空
        if (null != nvp && nvp.length > 0) {
            // 将参数存放到requestBody对象中
            postMethod.setRequestBody(nvp);
        }
        // 执行POST方法
        try {
            int statusCode = httpClient.executeMethod(postMethod);
            // 判断是否成功
            if (statusCode != HttpStatus.SC_OK) {
                System.err.println("Method faild: " + postMethod.getStatusLine());
            }
            // 获取远程返回的数据
            is = postMethod.getResponseBodyAsStream();
            // 封装输入流
            br = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(is, "UTF-8"));

            StringBuffer sbf = new StringBuffer();
            String temp = null;
            while ((temp = br.readLine()) != null) {
                sbf.append(temp).append("\r\n");
            }

            result = sbf.toString();
        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            // 关闭资源
            if (null != br) {
                try {
                    br.close();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
            if (null != is) {
                try {
                    is.close();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
            // 释放连接
            postMethod.releaseConnection();
        }
        return result;
    }
}
复制代码

  第三种方式:apache  httpClient4.5

复制代码
package com.powerX.httpClient;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.UnsupportedEncodingException;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.Map.Entry;
import java.util.Set;

import org.apache.http.HttpEntity;
import org.apache.http.NameValuePair;
import org.apache.http.client.ClientProtocolException;
import org.apache.http.client.config.RequestConfig;
import org.apache.http.client.entity.UrlEncodedFormEntity;
import org.apache.http.client.methods.CloseableHttpResponse;
import org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpGet;
import org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpPost;
import org.apache.http.impl.client.CloseableHttpClient;
import org.apache.http.impl.client.HttpClients;
import org.apache.http.message.BasicNameValuePair;
import org.apache.http.util.EntityUtils;

public class HttpClient4 {

    public static String doGet(String url) {
        CloseableHttpClient httpClient = null;
        CloseableHttpResponse response = null;
        String result = "";
        try {
            // 通过址默认配置创建一个httpClient实例
            httpClient = HttpClients.createDefault();
            // 创建httpGet远程连接实例
            HttpGet httpGet = new HttpGet(url);
            // 设置请求头信息,鉴权
            httpGet.setHeader("Authorization", "Bearer da3efcbf-0845-4fe3-8aba-ee040be542c0");
            // 设置配置请求参数
            RequestConfig requestConfig = RequestConfig.custom().setConnectTimeout(35000)// 连接主机服务超时时间
                    .setConnectionRequestTimeout(35000)// 请求超时时间
                    .setSocketTimeout(60000)// 数据读取超时时间
                    .build();
            // 为httpGet实例设置配置
            httpGet.setConfig(requestConfig);
            // 执行get请求得到返回对象
            response = httpClient.execute(httpGet);
            // 通过返回对象获取返回数据
            HttpEntity entity = response.getEntity();
            // 通过EntityUtils中的toString方法将结果转换为字符串
            result = EntityUtils.toString(entity);
        } catch (ClientProtocolException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            // 关闭资源
            if (null != response) {
                try {
                    response.close();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
            if (null != httpClient) {
                try {
                    httpClient.close();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
        }
        return result;
    }

    public static String doPost(String url, Map<String, Object> paramMap) {
        CloseableHttpClient httpClient = null;
        CloseableHttpResponse httpResponse = null;
        String result = "";
        // 创建httpClient实例
        httpClient = HttpClients.createDefault();
        // 创建httpPost远程连接实例
        HttpPost httpPost = new HttpPost(url);
        // 配置请求参数实例
        RequestConfig requestConfig = RequestConfig.custom().setConnectTimeout(35000)// 设置连接主机服务超时时间
                .setConnectionRequestTimeout(35000)// 设置连接请求超时时间
                .setSocketTimeout(60000)// 设置读取数据连接超时时间
                .build();
        // 为httpPost实例设置配置
        httpPost.setConfig(requestConfig);
        // 设置请求头
        httpPost.addHeader("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded");
        // 封装post请求参数
        if (null != paramMap && paramMap.size() > 0) {
            List<NameValuePair> nvps = new ArrayList<NameValuePair>();
            // 通过map集成entrySet方法获取entity
            Set<Entry<String, Object>> entrySet = paramMap.entrySet();
            // 循环遍历,获取迭代器
            Iterator<Entry<String, Object>> iterator = entrySet.iterator();
            while (iterator.hasNext()) {
                Entry<String, Object> mapEntry = iterator.next();
                nvps.add(new BasicNameValuePair(mapEntry.getKey(), mapEntry.getValue().toString()));
            }

            // 为httpPost设置封装好的请求参数
            try {
                httpPost.setEntity(new UrlEncodedFormEntity(nvps, "UTF-8"));
            } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
        try {
            // httpClient对象执行post请求,并返回响应参数对象
            httpResponse = httpClient.execute(httpPost);
            // 从响应对象中获取响应内容
            HttpEntity entity = httpResponse.getEntity();
            result = EntityUtils.toString(entity);
        } catch (ClientProtocolException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            // 关闭资源
            if (null != httpResponse) {
                try {
                    httpResponse.close();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
            if (null != httpClient) {
                try {
                    httpClient.close();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
        }
        return result;
    }
}
复制代码

  有时候我们在使用post请求时,可能传入的参数是json或者其他格式,此时我们则需要更改请求头及参数的设置信息,以httpClient4.5为例,更改下面两列配置:httpPost.setEntity(new StringEntity("你的json串"));      httpPost.addHeader("Content-Type", "application/json")。

阅读更多
文章标签: java http
个人分类: java
想对作者说点什么? 我来说一句

java后台请求http

2017年07月27日 5KB 下载

没有更多推荐了,返回首页

加入CSDN,享受更精准的内容推荐,与500万程序员共同成长!
关闭
关闭