nasm : 在bochs中使用真实U盘生成的硬盘映像

现在用U盘在做裸机的boot loader实验.

刚开始整时,在bochs中用的是软盘映像, 等逻辑没问题了,再贴到U盘扇区上.

这样和实际情况对不上, 已经遇到了由于MBR的产生者不通,导致BOOT代码到达不了的情况.

刚才用真实U盘生成硬盘映像,供bochs实验, 已经做通了。

运行效果也和在真实U盘上运行,基本一致.


* 将U盘插入计算机, 用WinHex打开.

* 在U盘第一个字节处 ALT+1 定义块头,拖动鼠标到U盘尾巴, 在最后一个字节处 ALT+2定义块尾.

*  再选中的阴影上右击, Edit => Copy Block => Write to new File, 生成到bochs虚拟机所在的目录. 就叫 c.img

* 修改bochs配置文件。

* 运行 run.bat 或 run-debug.bat 


由于MBR生成者不同,导致BOOT代码到达不了的问题,折腾我几天了,  刚才解决了实验环境问题,倍爽.

唯一不足的地方是, 硬盘映像和U盘的真实容量相同,显得比较大,  提交到svn比较划不来. 

我自己实验用的U盘是8GB, 这个硬盘映像容量就是8GB.


用真实U盘映像作为bochs硬盘映像的配置文件如下, 和软盘映像配置文件就有2句不同。

实验时,如果不行就从上翻到下,看哪没配置对就改哪.

# /// @file bochsrc-sample.bxrc

# You may now use double quotes around pathnames, in case
# your pathname includes spaces.

#=======================================================================
# PLUGIN_CTRL:
# Controls the presence of optional device plugins. These plugins are loaded
# directly with this option and some of them install a config option that is
# only available when the plugin device is loaded. The value "1" means to load
# the plugin and "0" will unload it (if loaded before).
#
# These plugins will be loaded by default (if present): 'biosdev', 'extfpuirq',
# 'gameport', 'iodebug','parallel', 'serial', 'speaker' and 'unmapped'.
#
# These plugins are also supported, but they are usually loaded directly with
# their bochsrc option: 'e1000', 'es1370', 'ne2k', 'pcidev', 'pcipnic', 'sb16',
# 'usb_ohci', 'usb_uhci', 'usb_xhci' and 'voodoo'.
#=======================================================================
#plugin_ctrl: unmapped=0, e1000=1 # unload 'unmapped' and load 'e1000'

#=======================================================================
# CONFIG_INTERFACE
#
# The configuration interface is a series of menus or dialog boxes that
# allows you to change all the settings that control Bochs's behavior.
# Depending on the platform there are up to 3 choices of configuration
# interface: a text mode version called "textconfig" and two graphical versions
# called "win32config" and "wx".  The text mode version uses stdin/stdout and
# is always compiled in, unless Bochs is compiled for wx only. The choice
# "win32config" is only available on win32 and it is the default there.
# The choice "wx" is only available when you use "--with-wx" on the configure
# command.  If you do not write a config_interface line, Bochs will
# choose a default for you.
#
# NOTE: if you use the "wx" configuration interface, you must also use
# the "wx" display library.
#=======================================================================
#config_interface: textconfig
#config_interface: win32config
#config_interface: wx

#=======================================================================
# DISPLAY_LIBRARY
#
# The display library is the code that displays the Bochs VGA screen.  Bochs 
# has a selection of about 10 different display library implementations for 
# different platforms.  If you run configure with multiple --with-* options, 
# the display_library command lets you choose which one you want to run with.
# If you do not write a display_library line, Bochs will choose a default for
# you.
#
# The choices are: 
#   x              use X windows interface, cross platform
#   win32          use native win32 libraries
#   carbon         use Carbon library (for MacOS X)
#   macintosh      use MacOS pre-10
#   amigaos        use native AmigaOS libraries
#   sdl            use SDL 1.2.x library, cross platform
#   sdl2           use SDL 2.x library, cross platform
#   svga           use SVGALIB library for Linux, allows graphics without X11
#   term           text only, uses curses/ncurses library, cross platform
#   rfb            provides an interface to AT&T's VNC viewer, cross platform
#   vncsrv         use LibVNCServer for extended RFB(VNC) support
#   wx             use wxWidgets library, cross platform
#   nogui          no display at all
#
# NOTE: if you use the "wx" configuration interface, you must also use
# the "wx" display library.
#
# Specific options:
# Some display libraries now support specific options to control their
# behaviour. These options are supported by more than one display library:
#
# "gui_debug"   - use GTK debugger gui (sdl, sdl2, x) / Win32 debugger gui (sdl,
#                 sdl2, win32)
# "hideIPS"     - disable IPS output in status bar (rfb, sdl, sdl2, vncsrv,
#                 win32, wx, x)
# "nokeyrepeat" - turn off host keyboard repeat (sdl, sdl2, win32, x)
# "timeout"     - time (in seconds) to wait for client (rfb, vncsrv)
#
# See the examples below for other currently supported options.
#=======================================================================
#display_library: amigaos
#display_library: carbon
#display_library: macintosh
#display_library: nogui
#display_library: rfb
#display_library: sdl, options="fullscreen" # startup in fullscreen mode
#display_library: sdl2, options="fullscreen" # startup in fullscreen mode
#display_library: term
#display_library: vncsrv
#display_library: win32
#display_library: wx
#display_library: x

#=======================================================================
# CPU:
# This defines cpu-related parameters inside Bochs:
#
#  MODEL:
#    Selects CPU configuration to emulate from pre-defined list of all
#    supported configurations. When this option is used and the value
#    is different from 'bx_generic', the parameters of the CPUID option
#    have no effect anymore.
#
#  CPU configurations that can be selected:
# -----------------------------------------------------------------
#  pentium                    Intel Pentium (P54C)
#  pentium_mmx                Intel Pentium MMX
#  amd_k6_2_chomper           AMD-K6(tm) 3D processor (Chomper)
#  p2_klamath                 Intel Pentium II (Klamath)
#  p3_katmai                  Intel Pentium III (Katmai)
#  p4_willamette              Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 (Willamette)
#  core_duo_t2400_yonah       Intel(R) Core(TM) Duo CPU T2400 (Yonah)
#  atom_n270                  Intel(R) Atom(TM) CPU N270
#  p4_prescott_celeron_336    Intel(R) Celeron(R) 336 (Prescott)
#  athlon64_clawhammer        AMD Athlon(tm) 64 Processor 2800+ (Clawhammer)
#  athlon64_venice            AMD Athlon(tm) 64 Processor 3000+ (Venice)
#  turion64_tyler             AMD Turion(tm) 64 X2 Mobile TL-60 (Tyler)
#  phenom_8650_toliman        AMD Phenom X3 8650 (Toliman)
#  core2_penryn_t9600         Intel Mobile Core 2 Duo T9600 (Penryn)
#  corei5_lynnfield_750       Intel(R) Core(TM) i5   750 (Lynnfield)
#  corei5_arrandale_m520      Intel(R) Core(TM) i5 M 520 (Arrandale)
#  zambezi                    AMD FX(tm)-4100 Quad-Core Processor (Zambezi)
#  trinity_apu                AMD A8-5600K APU (Trinity)
#  corei7_sandy_bridge_2600k  Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-2600K (Sandy Bridge)
#  corei7_ivy_bridge_3770k    Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-3770K CPU (Ivy Bridge)
#  corei7_haswell_4770        Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-4770 CPU (Haswell)
#  broadwell_ult              Intel(R) Processor 5Y70 CPU (Broadwell)
#
#  COUNT:
#    Set the number of processors:cores per processor:threads per core when
#    Bochs is compiled for SMP emulation. Bochs currently supports up to
#    14 threads (legacy APIC) or 254 threads (xAPIC or higher) running
#    simultaniosly. If Bochs is compiled without SMP support, it won't accept
#    values different from 1.
#
#  QUANTUM:
#    Maximum amount of instructions allowed to execute by processor before
#    returning control to another cpu. This option exists only in Bochs 
#    binary compiled with SMP support.
#
#  RESET_ON_TRIPLE_FAULT:
#    Reset the CPU when triple fault occur (highly recommended) rather than
#    PANIC. Remember that if you trying to continue after triple fault the 
#    simulation will be completely bogus !
#
#  CPUID_LIMIT_WINNT:
#    Determine whether to limit maximum CPUID function to 2. This mode is
#    required to workaround WinNT installation and boot issues.
#
#  MSRS:
#    Define path to user CPU Model Specific Registers (MSRs) specification.
#    See example in msrs.def.
#
#  IGNORE_BAD_MSRS:
#    Ignore MSR references that Bochs does not understand; print a warning
#    message instead of generating #GP exception. This option is enabled
#    by default but will not be avaiable if configurable MSRs are enabled.
#
#  MWAIT_IS_NOP:
#    When this option is enabled MWAIT will not put the CPU into a sleep state.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with --enable-monitor-mwait.
#
#  IPS:
#    Emulated Instructions Per Second. This is the number of IPS that bochs
#    is capable of running on your machine. You can recompile Bochs with
#    --enable-show-ips option enabled, to find your host's capability.
#    Measured IPS value will then be logged into your log file or shown
#    in the status bar (if supported by the gui).
#
#    IPS is used to calibrate many time-dependent events within the bochs 
#    simulation.  For example, changing IPS affects the frequency of VGA
#    updates, the duration of time before a key starts to autorepeat, and
#    the measurement of BogoMips and other benchmarks.
#
#  Examples:
#
#  Bochs Machine/Compiler                                 Mips
# ______________________________________________________________________
#  2.4.6 3.4Ghz Intel Core i7 2600 with Win7x64/g++ 4.5.2 85 to 95 Mips
#  2.3.7 3.2Ghz Intel Core 2 Q9770 with WinXP/g++ 3.4     50 to 55 Mips
#  2.3.7 2.6Ghz Intel Core 2 Duo with WinXP/g++ 3.4       38 to 43 Mips
#  2.2.6 2.6Ghz Intel Core 2 Duo with WinXP/g++ 3.4       21 to 25 Mips
#  2.2.6 2.1Ghz Athlon XP with Linux 2.6/g++ 3.4          12 to 15 Mips
#=======================================================================
cpu: model=core2_penryn_t9600, count=1, ips=50000000, reset_on_triple_fault=1, ignore_bad_msrs=1, msrs="msrs.def"
cpu: cpuid_limit_winnt=0

#=======================================================================
# CPUID:
#
# This defines features and functionality supported by Bochs emulated CPU.
# The option has no offect if CPU model was selected in CPU option.
#
#  MMX:
#    Select MMX instruction set support.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with BX_CPU_LEVEL >= 5.
#
#  APIC:
#    Select APIC configuration (LEGACY/XAPIC/XAPIC_EXT/X2APIC).
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with BX_CPU_LEVEL >= 5.
#
#  SEP:
#    Select SYSENTER/SYSEXIT instruction set support.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with BX_CPU_LEVEL >= 6.
#
#  SIMD:
#    Select SIMD instructions support.
#    Any of NONE/SSE/SSE2/SSE3/SSSE3/SSE4_1/SSE4_2/AVX/AVX2/AVX512
#    could be selected.
#
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with BX_CPU_LEVEL >= 6.
#    The AVX choises exists only if Bochs compiled with --enable-avx option.
#
#  SSE4A:
#    Select AMD SSE4A instructions support.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with BX_CPU_LEVEL >= 6.
#
#  MISALIGNED_SSE:
#    Select AMD Misaligned SSE mode support.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with BX_CPU_LEVEL >= 6.
#
#  AES:
#    Select AES instruction set support.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with BX_CPU_LEVEL >= 6.
#
#  SHA:
#    Select SHA instruction set support.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with BX_CPU_LEVEL >= 6.
#
#  MOVBE:
#    Select MOVBE Intel(R) Atom instruction support.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with BX_CPU_LEVEL >= 6.
#
#  ADX:
#    Select ADCX/ADOX instructions support.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with BX_CPU_LEVEL >= 6.
#
#  XSAVE:
#    Select XSAVE extensions support.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with BX_CPU_LEVEL >= 6.
#
#  XSAVEOPT:
#    Select XSAVEOPT instruction support.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with BX_CPU_LEVEL >= 6.
#
#  AVX_F16C:
#    Select AVX float16 convert instructions support.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with --enable-avx option.
#
#  AVX_FMA:
#    Select AVX fused multiply add (FMA) instructions support.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with --enable-avx option.
#
#  BMI:
#    Select BMI1/BMI2 instructions support.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with --enable-avx option.
#
#  XOP:
#    Select AMD XOP instructions support.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with --enable-avx option.
#
#  FMA4:
#    Select AMD four operand FMA instructions support.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with --enable-avx option.
#
#  TBM:
#    Select AMD Trailing Bit Manipulation (TBM) instructions support.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with --enable-avx option.
#
#  X86-64:
#    Enable x86-64 and long mode support.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with x86-64 support.
#
#  1G_PAGES:
#    Enable 1G page size support in long mode.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with x86-64 support.
#
#  PCID:
#    Enable Process-Context Identifiers (PCID) support in long mode.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with x86-64 support.
#
#  FSGSBASE:
#    Enable GS/GS BASE access instructions support in long mode.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with x86-64 support.
#
#  SMEP:
#    Enable Supervisor Mode Execution Protection (SMEP) support.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with BX_CPU_LEVEL >= 6.
#
#  SMAP:
#    Enable Supervisor Mode Access Prevention (SMAP) support.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with BX_CPU_LEVEL >= 6.
#
#  MWAIT:
#    Select MONITOR/MWAIT instructions support.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with --enable-monitor-mwait.
#
#  VMX:
#    Select VMX extensions emulation support.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with --enable-vmx option.
#
#  SVM:
#    Select AMD SVM (Secure Virtual Machine) extensions emulation support.
#    This option exists only if Bochs compiled with --enable-svm option.
#
#  VENDOR_STRING:
#    Set the CPUID vendor string returned by CPUID(0x0). This should be a
#    twelve-character ASCII string.  
#
#  BRAND_STRING:
#    Set the CPUID vendor string returned by CPUID(0x80000002 .. 0x80000004).  
#    This should be at most a forty-eight-character ASCII string.  
#
#  LEVEL:
#    Set emulated CPU level information returned by CPUID. Default value is
#    determined by configure option --enable-cpu-level. Currently supported
#    values are 5 (for Pentium and similar processors) and 6 (for P6 and
#    later processors).
#
#  FAMILY:
#    Set model information returned by CPUID. Default family value determined
#    by configure option --enable-cpu-level.
#
#  MODEL:
#    Set model information returned by CPUID. Default model value is 3.
#
#  STEPPING:
#    Set stepping information returned by CPUID. Default stepping value is 3.
#=======================================================================
#cpuid: x86_64=1, mmx=1, sep=1, simd=sse4_2, apic=xapic, aes=1, movbe=1, xsave=1
#cpuid: family=6, model=0x1a, stepping=5

#=======================================================================
# MEMORY
# Set the amount of physical memory you want to emulate.
#
# GUEST:
# Set amount of guest physical memory to emulate. The default is 32MB,
# the maximum amount limited only by physical address space limitations.
#
# HOST:
# Set amount of host memory you want to allocate for guest RAM emulation.
# It is possible to allocate less memory than you want to emulate in guest
# system. This will fake guest to see the non-existing memory. Once guest
# system touches new memory block it will be dynamically taken from the
# memory pool. You will be warned (by FATAL PANIC) in case guest already
# used all allocated host memory and wants more.
#
#=======================================================================
memory: guest=512, host=256

#=======================================================================
# ROMIMAGE:
# The ROM BIOS controls what the PC does when it first powers on.
# Normally, you can use a precompiled BIOS in the source or binary
# distribution called BIOS-bochs-latest. The default ROM BIOS is usually loaded
# starting at address 0xfffe0000, and it is exactly 128k long. The legacy
# version of the Bochs BIOS is usually loaded starting at address 0xffff0000,
# and it is exactly 64k long.
# You can use the environment variable $BXSHARE to specify the location
# of the BIOS.
# The usage of external large BIOS images (up to 512k) at memory top is
# now supported, but we still recommend to use the BIOS distributed with Bochs.
# The start address is optional, since it can be calculated from image size.
#=======================================================================
romimage: file=$BXSHARE/BIOS-bochs-latest 
#romimage: file=$BXSHARE/bios.bin-1.7.5 # http://www.seabios.org/SeaBIOS
#romimage: file=mybios.bin, address=0xfff80000 # 512k at memory top

#=======================================================================
# VGAROMIMAGE
# You now need to load a VGA ROM BIOS into C0000.
#=======================================================================
#vgaromimage: file=bios/VGABIOS-elpin-2.40
vgaromimage: file=$BXSHARE/VGABIOS-lgpl-latest
#vgaromimage: file=bios/VGABIOS-lgpl-latest-cirrus

#=======================================================================
# OPTROMIMAGE[1-4]:
# You may now load up to 4 optional ROM images. Be sure to use a 
# read-only area, typically between C8000 and EFFFF. These optional
# ROM images should not overwrite the rombios (located at
# F0000-FFFFF) and the videobios (located at C0000-C7FFF).
# Those ROM images will be initialized by the bios if they contain 
# the right signature (0x55AA) and a valid checksum.
# It can also be a convenient way to upload some arbitrary code/data
# in the simulation, that can be retrieved by the boot loader
#=======================================================================
#optromimage1: file=optionalrom.bin, address=0xd0000
#optromimage2: file=optionalrom.bin, address=0xd1000
#optromimage3: file=optionalrom.bin, address=0xd2000
#optromimage4: file=optionalrom.bin, address=0xd3000

#optramimage1: file=/path/file1.img, address=0x0010000
#optramimage2: file=/path/file2.img, address=0x0020000
#optramimage3: file=/path/file3.img, address=0x0030000
#optramimage4: file=/path/file4.img, address=0x0040000

#=======================================================================
# VGA:
# This defines parameters related to the VGA display
#
#   EXTENSION
#     Here you can specify the display extension to be used. With the value
#     'none' you can use standard VGA with no extension. Other supported
#     values are 'vbe' for Bochs VBE and 'cirrus' for Cirrus SVGA support.
#
#   UPDATE_FREQ
#     This parameter specifies the number of display updates per second.
#     The VGA update timer now uses the realtime engine and the default
#     value is 5. This parameter can be changed at runtime.
#
#   REALTIME
#     If set to 1, the VGA timer is based on realtime, otherwise it is based
#     on the ips setting. If the host is slow (low ips, update_freq) and the
#     guest uses HLT appropriately, setting this to 0 and "clock: sync=none"
#     may improve the responsiveness of the guest GUI when the guest is
#     otherwise idle. The default value is 1.
#
# Examples:
#   vga: extension=cirrus, update_freq=10
#=======================================================================
#vga: extension=vbe, update_freq=5, realtime=1

#=======================================================================
# VOODOO:
# This defines the Voodoo Graphics emulation (experimental). Currently
# supported models are 'voodoo1' and 'voodoo2'. The Voodoo2 support is
# not yet complete.
#
# Examples:
#   voodoo: enabled=1, model=voodoo1
#=======================================================================
#voodoo: enabled=1, model=voodoo1

#=======================================================================
# KEYBOARD:
# This defines parameters related to the emulated keyboard
#
#   TYPE:
#     Type of keyboard return by a "identify keyboard" command to the
#     keyboard controller. It must be one of "xt", "at" or "mf".
#     Defaults to "mf". It should be ok for almost everybody. A known
#     exception is french macs, that do have a "at"-like keyboard.
#
#   SERIAL_DELAY:
#     Approximate time in microseconds that it takes one character to
#     be transferred from the keyboard to controller over the serial path.
#
#   PASTE_DELAY:
#     Approximate time in microseconds between attempts to paste
#     characters to the keyboard controller. This leaves time for the
#     guest os to deal with the flow of characters.  The ideal setting
#     depends on how your operating system processes characters.  The
#     default of 100000 usec (.1 seconds) was chosen because it works 
#     consistently in Windows.
#     If your OS is losing characters during a paste, increase the paste
#     delay until it stops losing characters.
#
#   KEYMAP:
#     This enables a remap of a physical localized keyboard to a
#     virtualized us keyboard, as the PC architecture expects.
#
#   USER_SHORTCUT:
#     This defines the keyboard shortcut to be sent when you press the "user"
#     button in the headerbar. The shortcut string is a combination of maximum
#     3 key names (listed below) separated with a '-' character.
#     Valid key names:
#     "alt", "bksl", "bksp", "ctrl", "del", "down", "end", "enter", "esc",
#     "f1", ... "f12", "home", "ins", "left", "menu", "minus", "pgdwn", "pgup",
#     "plus", "power", "print", "right", "scrlck", "shift", "space", "tab", "up"
#     and "win".

# Examples:
#   keyboard: type=mf, serial_delay=200, paste_delay=100000
#   keyboard: keymap=gui/keymaps/x11-pc-de.map
#   keyboard: user_shortcut=ctrl-alt-del
#=======================================================================
#keyboard: type=mf, serial_delay=250

#=======================================================================
# MOUSE:
# This defines parameters for the emulated mouse type, the initial status
# of the mouse capture and the runtime method to toggle it.
#
#  TYPE:
#  With the mouse type option you can select the type of mouse to emulate.
#  The default value is 'ps2'. The other choices are 'imps2' (wheel mouse
#  on PS/2), 'serial', 'serial_wheel', 'serial_msys' (one com port requires
#  setting 'mode=mouse') and 'bus' (if present). To connect a mouse to an
#  USB port, see the 'usb_uhci', 'usb_ohci' or 'usb_xhci' options (requires
#  PCI and USB support).
#
#  ENABLED:
#  The Bochs gui creates mouse "events" unless the 'enabled' option is
#  set to 0. The hardware emulation itself is not disabled by this.
#  Unless you have a particular reason for enabling the mouse by default,
#  it is recommended that you leave it off. You can also toggle the mouse
#  usage at runtime (RFB, SDL, Win32, wxWidgets and X11 - see below).
#
#  TOGGLE:
#  The default method to toggle the mouse capture at runtime is to press the
#  CTRL key and the middle mouse button ('ctrl+mbutton'). This option allows
#  to change the method to 'ctrl+f10' (like DOSBox), 'ctrl+alt' (like QEMU)
#  or 'f12' (replaces win32 'legacyF12' option).
#
# Examples:
#   mouse: enabled=1
#   mouse: type=imps2, enabled=1
#   mouse: type=serial, enabled=1
#   mouse: enabled=0, toggle=ctrl+f10
#=======================================================================
mouse: enabled=0

#=======================================================================
# PCI:
# This option controls the presence of a PCI chipset in Bochs. Currently it only
# supports the i430FX and i440FX chipsets. You can also specify the devices
# connected to PCI slots. Up to 5 slots are available. For these combined PCI/ISA
# devices assigning to slot is mandatory if you want to emulate the PCI model:
# cirrus, ne2k and pcivga. These PCI-only devices are also supported, but they
# are auto-assigned if you don't use the slot configuration: e1000, es1370,
# pcidev, pcipnic, usb_ohci, usb_xhci and voodoo.
#
# Example:
#   pci: enabled=1, chipset=i440fx, slot1=pcivga, slot2=ne2k
#=======================================================================
pci: enabled=1, chipset=i440fx

#=======================================================================
# CLOCK:
# This defines the parameters of the clock inside Bochs:
#
#  SYNC:
#  This defines the method how to synchronize the Bochs internal time
#  with realtime. With the value 'none' the Bochs time relies on the IPS
#  value and no host time synchronization is used. The 'slowdown' method
#  sacrifices performance to preserve reproducibility while allowing host
#  time correlation. The 'realtime' method sacrifices reproducibility to
#  preserve performance and host-time correlation.
#  It is possible to enable both synchronization methods.
#
#  RTC_SYNC:
#  If this option is enabled together with the realtime synchronization,
#  the RTC runs at realtime speed. This feature is disabled by default.
#
#  TIME0:
#  Specifies the start (boot) time of the virtual machine. Use a time
#  value as returned by the time(2) system call or a string as returned
#  by the ctime(3) system call. If no time0 value is set or if time0
#  equal to 1 (special case) or if time0 equal 'local', the simulation
#  will be started at the current local host time. If time0 equal to 2
#  (special case) or if time0 equal 'utc', the simulation will be started
#  at the current utc time.
#
# Syntax:
#  clock: sync=[none|slowdown|realtime|both], time0=[timeValue|local|utc]
#
# Example:
#   clock: sync=none,     time0=local       # Now (localtime)
#   clock: sync=slowdown, time0=315529200   # Tue Jan  1 00:00:00 1980
#   clock: sync=none,     time0="Mon Jan  1 00:00:00 1990" # 631148400
#   clock: sync=realtime, time0=938581955   # Wed Sep 29 07:12:35 1999
#   clock: sync=realtime, time0="Sat Jan  1 00:00:00 2000" # 946681200
#   clock: sync=none,     time0=1           # Now (localtime)
#   clock: sync=none,     time0=utc         # Now (utc/gmt)
#
# Default value are sync=none, rtc_sync=0, time0=local
#=======================================================================
#clock: sync=none, time0=local

#=======================================================================
# CMOSIMAGE:
# This defines image file that can be loaded into the CMOS RAM at startup.
# The rtc_init parameter controls whether initialize the RTC with values stored
# in the image. By default the time0 argument given to the clock option is used.
# With 'rtc_init=image' the image is the source for the initial time.
#
# Example:
#   cmosimage: file=cmos.img, rtc_init=image
#=======================================================================
#cmosimage: file=cmos.img, rtc_init=time0

#=======================================================================
# private_colormap: Request that the GUI create and use it's own
#                   non-shared colormap.  This colormap will be used
#                   when in the bochs window.  If not enabled, a
#                   shared colormap scheme may be used.  Not implemented
#                   on all GUI's.
#
# Examples:
#   private_colormap: enabled=1
#   private_colormap: enabled=0
#=======================================================================
private_colormap: enabled=0

#=======================================================================
# FLOPPYA:
# Point this to pathname of floppy image file or device
# This should be of a bootable floppy(image/device) if you're
# booting from 'a' (or 'floppy').
#
# You can set the initial status of the media to 'ejected' or 'inserted'.
#   floppya: 2_88=path, status=ejected    (2.88M 3.5"  media)
#   floppya: 1_44=path, status=inserted   (1.44M 3.5"  media)
#   floppya: 1_2=path, status=ejected     (1.2M  5.25" media)
#   floppya: 720k=path, status=inserted   (720K  3.5"  media)
#   floppya: 360k=path, status=inserted   (360K  5.25" media)
#   floppya: 320k=path, status=inserted   (320K  5.25" media)
#   floppya: 180k=path, status=inserted   (180K  5.25" media)
#   floppya: 160k=path, status=inserted   (160K  5.25" media)
#   floppya: image=path, status=inserted  (guess media type from image size)
#   floppya: 1_44=vvfat:path, status=inserted  (use directory as VFAT media)
#   floppya: type=1_44                    (1.44M 3.5" floppy drive, no media)
#
# The path should be the name of a disk image file.  On Unix, you can use a raw
# device name such as /dev/fd0 on Linux.  On win32 platforms, use drive letters
# such as a: or b: as the path.  The parameter 'image' works with image files
# only. In that case the size must match one of the supported types.
# The parameter 'type' can be used to enable the floppy drive without media
# and status specified. Usually the drive type is set up based on the media type.
# The optional parameter 'write_protected' can be used to control the media
# write protect switch. By default it is turned off.
#=======================================================================
#floppya: 1_44=/dev/fd0, status=inserted
#floppya: image=../1.44, status=inserted
#floppya: 1_44=/dev/fd0H1440, status=inserted
#floppya: 1_2=../1_2, status=inserted
#floppya: 1_44=a:, status=inserted
#floppya: 1_44=a.img, status=inserted, write_protected=1
#floppya: 1_44=/dev/rfd0a, status=inserted
#floppya: image="demo.img", status=inserted

#=======================================================================
# FLOPPYB:
# See FLOPPYA above for syntax
#=======================================================================
#floppyb: 1_44=b:, status=inserted
#floppyb: 1_44=b.img, status=inserted

#=======================================================================
# ATA0, ATA1, ATA2, ATA3
# ATA controller for hard disks and cdroms
#
# ata[0-3]: enabled=[0|1], ioaddr1=addr, ioaddr2=addr, irq=number
# 
# These options enables up to 4 ata channels. For each channel
# the two base io addresses and the irq must be specified.
# 
# ata0 and ata1 are enabled by default with the values shown below
#
# Examples:
#   ata0: enabled=1, ioaddr1=0x1f0, ioaddr2=0x3f0, irq=14
#   ata1: enabled=1, ioaddr1=0x170, ioaddr2=0x370, irq=15
#   ata2: enabled=1, ioaddr1=0x1e8, ioaddr2=0x3e0, irq=11
#   ata3: enabled=1, ioaddr1=0x168, ioaddr2=0x360, irq=9
#=======================================================================
ata0: enabled=1, ioaddr1=0x1f0, ioaddr2=0x3f0, irq=14
ata1: enabled=1, ioaddr1=0x170, ioaddr2=0x370, irq=15
ata2: enabled=0, ioaddr1=0x1e8, ioaddr2=0x3e0, irq=11
ata3: enabled=0, ioaddr1=0x168, ioaddr2=0x360, irq=9

#=======================================================================
# ATA[0-3]-MASTER, ATA[0-3]-SLAVE
#
# This defines the type and characteristics of all attached ata devices:
#   type=       type of attached device [disk|cdrom] 
#   mode=       only valid for disks [flat|concat|external|dll|sparse|vmware3]
#                                    [vmware4|undoable|growing|volatile|vpc]
#                                    [vbox|vvfat]
#   path=       path of the image / directory
#   cylinders=  only valid for disks
#   heads=      only valid for disks
#   spt=        only valid for disks
#   status=     only valid for cdroms [inserted|ejected]
#   biosdetect= type of biosdetection [none|auto], only for disks on ata0 [cmos]
#   translation=type of translation of the bios, only for disks [none|lba|large|rechs|auto]
#   model=      string returned by identify device command
#   journal=    optional filename of the redolog for undoable, volatile and vvfat disks
#
# Point this at a hard disk image file, cdrom iso file, or physical cdrom
# device.  To create a hard disk image, try running bximage.  It will help you
# choose the size and then suggest a line that works with it.
#
# In UNIX it may be possible to use a raw device as a Bochs hard disk, 
# but WE DON'T RECOMMEND IT.  In Windows there is no easy way.
#
# In windows, the drive letter + colon notation should be used for cdroms.
# Depending on versions of windows and drivers, you may only be able to 
# access the "first" cdrom in the system.  On MacOSX, use path="drive"
# to access the physical drive.
#
# The path is mandatory for hard disks. Disk geometry autodetection works with
# images created by bximage if CHS is set to 0/0/0 (cylinders are calculated
# using  heads=16 and spt=63). For other hard disk images and modes the
# cylinders, heads, and spt are mandatory. In all cases the disk size reported
# from the image must be exactly C*H*S*512.
#
# Default values are:
#   mode=flat, biosdetect=auto, translation=auto, model="Generic 1234"
#
# The biosdetect option has currently no effect on the bios
#
# Examples:
#   ata0-master: type=disk, mode=flat, path=10M.sample, cylinders=306, heads=4, spt=17
#   ata0-slave:  type=disk, mode=flat, path=20M.sample, cylinders=615, heads=4, spt=17
#   ata1-master: type=disk, mode=flat, path=30M.sample, cylinders=615, heads=6, spt=17
#   ata1-slave:  type=disk, mode=flat, path=46M.sample, cylinders=940, heads=6, spt=17
#   ata2-master: type=disk, mode=flat, path=62M.sample, cylinders=940, heads=8, spt=17
#   ata2-slave:  type=disk, mode=flat, path=112M.sample, cylinders=900, heads=15, spt=17
#   ata3-master: type=disk, mode=flat, path=483M.sample, cylinders=1024, heads=15, spt=63
#   ata3-slave:  type=cdrom, path=iso.sample, status=inserted
#=======================================================================
#ata0-master: type=disk, mode=flat, path="30M.sample"
#ata0-master: type=disk, mode=flat, path="30M.sample", cylinders=615, heads=6, spt=17
#ata0-master: type=disk, mode=flat, path="c.img", cylinders=0 # autodetect
ata0-master: type=disk, path="c.img", mode=flat

#ata0-slave: type=disk, mode=vvfat, path=/bochs/images/vvfat, journal=vvfat.redolog
#ata0-slave: type=cdrom, path=D:, status=inserted
#ata0-slave: type=cdrom, path=/dev/cdrom, status=inserted
#ata0-slave: type=cdrom, path="drive", status=inserted
#ata0-slave: type=cdrom, path=/dev/rcd0d, status=inserted 

#=======================================================================
# BOOT:
# This defines the boot sequence. Now you can specify up to 3 boot drives,
# which can be 'floppy', 'disk', 'cdrom' or 'network' (boot ROM).
# Legacy 'a' and 'c' are also supported.
# Examples:
#   boot: floppy
#   boot: cdrom, disk
#   boot: network, disk
#   boot: cdrom, floppy, disk
#=======================================================================
#boot: floppy
boot: disk

#=======================================================================
# FLOPPY_BOOTSIG_CHECK: disabled=[0|1]
# Enables or disables the 0xaa55 signature check on boot floppies
# Defaults to disabled=0
# Examples:
#   floppy_bootsig_check: disabled=0
#   floppy_bootsig_check: disabled=1
#=======================================================================
floppy_bootsig_check: disabled=0

#=======================================================================
# LOG:
# Give the path of the log file you'd like Bochs debug and misc. verbiage
# to be written to. If you don't use this option or set the filename to
# '-' the output is written to the console. If you really don't want it,
# make it "/dev/null" (Unix) or "nul" (win32). :^(
#
# Examples:
#   log: ./bochs.out
#   log: /dev/tty
#=======================================================================
#log: /dev/null
log: bochsout.txt

#=======================================================================
# LOGPREFIX:
# This handles the format of the string prepended to each log line.
# You may use those special tokens :
#   %t : 11 decimal digits timer tick
#   %i : 8 hexadecimal digits of cpu current eip (ignored in SMP configuration)
#   %e : 1 character event type ('i'nfo, 'd'ebug, 'p'anic, 'e'rror)
#   %d : 5 characters string of the device, between brackets
# 
# Default : %t%e%d
# Examples:
#   logprefix: %t-%e-@%i-%d
#   logprefix: %i%e%d
#=======================================================================
#logprefix: %t%e%d

#=======================================================================
# LOG CONTROLS
#
# Bochs has four severity levels for event logging.
#   panic: cannot proceed.  If you choose to continue after a panic, 
#          don't be surprised if you get strange behavior or crashes.
#   error: something went wrong, but it is probably safe to continue the
#          simulation.
#   info: interesting or useful messages.
#   debug: messages useful only when debugging the code.  This may
#          spit out thousands per second.
#
# For events of each level, you can choose to exit Bochs ('fatal'), 'report'
# or 'ignore'. On some guis you have the additional choice 'ask'. A gui dialog
# appears asks how to proceed.
#
# It is also possible to specify the 'action' to do for each Bochs facility
# separately (e.g. crash on panics from everything except the cdrom, and only
# report those). See the 'log function' module list in the user documentation.
#
# If you are experiencing many panics, it can be helpful to change
# the panic action to report instead of fatal.  However, be aware
# that anything executed after a panic is uncharted territory and can 
# cause bochs to become unstable.  The panic is a "graceful exit," so
# if you disable it you may get a spectacular disaster instead.
#=======================================================================
panic: action=ask
error: action=report
info: action=report
debug: action=ignore, pci=report # report BX_DEBUG from module 'pci'

#=======================================================================
# DEBUGGER_LOG:
# Give the path of the log file you'd like Bochs to log debugger output.
# If you really don't want it, make it /dev/null or '-'. :^(
#
# Examples:
#   debugger_log: ./debugger.out
#=======================================================================
#debugger_log: /dev/null
#debugger_log: debugger.out
debugger_log: -

#=======================================================================
# COM1, COM2, COM3, COM4:
# This defines a serial port (UART type 16550A). In the 'term' mode you can
# specify a device to use as com1. This can be a real serial line, or a pty.
# To use a pty (under X/Unix), create two windows (xterms, usually).  One of
# them will run bochs, and the other will act as com1. Find out the tty the com1
# window using the `tty' command, and use that as the `dev' parameter.
# Then do `sleep 1000000' in the com1 window to keep the shell from
# messing with things, and run bochs in the other window.  Serial I/O to
# com1 (port 0x3f8) will all go to the other window.
# In socket* and pipe* (win32 only) modes Bochs becomes either socket/named pipe
# client or server. In client mode it connects to an already running server (if
# connection fails Bochs treats com port as not connected). In server mode it
# opens socket/named pipe and waits until a client application connects to it
# before starting simulation. This mode is useful for remote debugging (e.g.
# with gdb's "target remote host:port" command or windbg's command line option
# -k com:pipe,port=\\.\pipe\pipename). Socket modes use simple TCP communication,
#  pipe modes use duplex byte mode pipes.
# Other serial modes are 'null' (no input/output), 'file' (output to a file
# specified as the 'dev' parameter), 'raw' (use the real serial port - under
# construction for win32), 'mouse' (standard serial mouse - requires
# mouse option setting 'type=serial', 'type=serial_wheel' or 'type=serial_msys').
#
# Examples:
#   com1: enabled=1, mode=null
#   com1: enabled=1, mode=mouse
#   com2: enabled=1, mode=file, dev=serial.out
#   com3: enabled=1, mode=raw, dev=com1
#   com3: enabled=1, mode=socket-client, dev=localhost:8888
#   com3: enabled=1, mode=socket-server, dev=localhost:8888
#   com4: enabled=1, mode=pipe-client, dev=\\.\pipe\mypipe
#   com4: enabled=1, mode=pipe-server, dev=\\.\pipe\mypipe
#=======================================================================
#com1: enabled=1, mode=term, dev=/dev/ttyp9


#=======================================================================
# PARPORT1, PARPORT2:
# This defines a parallel (printer) port. When turned on and an output file is
# defined the emulated printer port sends characters printed by the guest OS
# into the output file. On some platforms a device filename can be used to
# send the data to the real parallel port (e.g. "/dev/lp0" on Linux, "lpt1" on
# win32 platforms).
#
# Examples:
#   parport1: enabled=1, file="parport.out"
#   parport2: enabled=1, file="/dev/lp0"
#   parport1: enabled=0
#=======================================================================
parport1: enabled=1, file="parport.out"

#=======================================================================
# SOUND:
# This defines the lowlevel sound driver(s) for the wave (PCM) input / output
# and the MIDI output feature and (if necessary) the devices to be used.
# It can have several of the following properties.
# All properties are in the format sound: property=value
#
# waveoutdrv:
#      This defines the driver to be used for the waveout feature.
#      Possible values are 'file' (all wave data sent to file), 'dummy' (no
#      output) and the platform-dependant drivers 'alsa', 'oss', 'osx', 'sdl'
#      and 'win'.
# waveout:
#      This defines the device to be used for wave output (if necessary) or
#      the output file for the 'file' driver.
# waveindrv:
#      This defines the driver to be used for the wavein feature.
#      Possible values are 'dummy' (recording silence) and platform-dependent
#      drivers 'alsa', 'oss' and 'win'.
# wavein:
#      This defines the device to be used for wave output (if necessary).
# midioutdrv:
#      This defines the driver to be used for the MIDI output feature.
#      Possible values are 'file' (all MIDI data sent to file), 'dummy' (no
#      output) and platform-dependent drivers 'alsa', 'oss', 'osx' and 'win'.
# midiout:
#      This defines the device to be used for MIDI output (if necessary).
# driver:
#      This defines the driver to be used for all sound features with one
#      property. Possible values are 'default' (platform default) and all
#      other choices described above. Overriding one or more settings with
#      the specific driver parameter is possible.
#
# Example for different drivers:
#   sound: waveoutdrv=sdl, waveindrv=alsa, midioutdrv=dummy
#=======================================================================
sound: driver=default, waveout=/dev/dsp. wavein=, midiout=

#=======================================================================
# SPEAKER:
# This defines the PC speaker output mode. In the 'sound' mode the beep
# is generated by the square wave generator which is a part of the
# lowlevel sound support. The 'system' mode is only available on Linux
# and Windows. On Linux /dev/console is used for output and on Windows
# the Beep() function. The 'gui' mode forwards the beep to the related
# gui methods (currently only used by the Carbon gui).
#=======================================================================
speaker: enabled=1, mode=sound

#=======================================================================
# SB16:
# This defines the SB16 sound emulation. It can have several of the
# following properties.
# All properties are in the format sb16: property=value
#
# enabled:
#      This optional property controls the presence of the SB16 emulation.
#      The emulation is turned on unless this property is used and set to 0.
# midimode: This parameter specifies what to do with the MIDI output.
#      0 = no output
#      1 = output to device specified with the sound option (system dependent)
#      2 = MIDI or raw data output to file (depends on file name extension)
#      3 = dual output (mode 1 and 2 at the same time)
# midifile: This is the file where the midi output is stored (midimode 2 or 3).
# wavemode: This parameter specifies what to do with the PCM output.
#      0 = no output
#      1 = output to device specified with the sound option (system dependent)
#      2 = VOC, WAV or raw data output to file (depends on file name extension)
#      3 = dual output (mode 1 and 2 at the same time)
# wavefile: This is the file where the wave output is stored (wavemode 2 or 3).
# loglevel:
#      0=no log
#      1=resource changes, midi program and bank changes
#      2=severe errors
#      3=all errors
#      4=all errors plus all port accesses
#      5=all errors and port accesses plus a lot of extra info
# log:  The file to write the sb16 emulator messages to.
# dmatimer:
#      microseconds per second for a DMA cycle.  Make it smaller to fix
#      non-continuous sound.  750000 is usually a good value.  This needs a
#      reasonably correct setting for the IPS parameter of the CPU option.
#
# Examples for output modes:
#   sb16: midimode=2, midifile="output.mid", wavemode=1 # MIDI to file
#   sb16: midimode=1, wavemode=3, wavefile="output.wav" # wave to file and device
#=======================================================================
#sb16: midimode=1, wavemode=1, loglevel=2, log=sb16.log, dmatimer=600000

#=======================================================================
# ES1370:
# This defines the ES1370 sound emulation (recording and playback - except
# DAC1+DAC2 output at the same time). The parameter 'enabled' controls the
# presence of the device. The wave and MIDI output can be sent to device, file
# or both using the parameters 'wavemode', 'wavefile', 'midimode' and
# 'midifile'. See the description of these parameters at the SB16 directive.
#
# Examples:
#   es1370: enabled=1, wavemode=1                       # use 'sound' parameters
#   es1370: enabled=1, wavemode=2, wavefile=output.voc  # send output to file
#=======================================================================
#es1370: enabled=1, wavemode=1

#=======================================================================
# ne2k: NE2000 compatible ethernet adapter
#
# Format:
# ne2k: enabled=1, ioaddr=IOADDR, irq=IRQ, mac=MACADDR, ethmod=MODULE,
#       ethdev=DEVICE, script=SCRIPT, bootrom=BOOTROM
#
# IOADDR, IRQ: You probably won't need to change ioaddr and irq, unless there
# are IRQ conflicts. These arguments are ignored when assign the ne2k to a
# PCI slot.
#
# MAC: The MAC address MUST NOT match the address of any machine on the net.
# Also, the first byte must be an even number (bit 0 set means a multicast
# address), and you cannot use ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff because that's the broadcast
# address.  For the ethertap module, you must use fe:fd:00:00:00:01.  There may
# be other restrictions too.  To be safe, just use the b0:c4... address.
#
# ETHDEV: The ethdev value is the name of the network interface on your host
# platform.  On UNIX machines, you can get the name by running ifconfig.  On
# Windows machines, you must run niclist to get the name of the ethdev.
# Niclist source code is in misc/niclist.c and it is included in Windows 
# binary releases.
#
# SCRIPT: The script value is optional, and is the name of a script that 
# is executed after bochs initialize the network interface. You can use 
# this script to configure this network interface, or enable masquerading.
# This is mainly useful for the tun/tap devices that only exist during
# Bochs execution. The network interface name is supplied to the script
# as first parameter. The 'slirp' module uses this parameter to specify
# a config file for setting up an alternative IP configuration or additional
# features.
#
# BOOTROM: The bootrom value is optional, and is the name of the ROM image
# to load. Note that this feature is only implemented for the PCI version of
# the NE2000.
#
# If you don't want to make connections to any physical networks,
# you can use the following 'ethmod's to simulate a virtual network.
#   null: All packets are discarded, but logged to a few files.
#   vde:  Virtual Distributed Ethernet
#   vnet: ARP, ICMP-echo(ping), DHCP and read/write TFTP are simulated.
#         The virtual host uses 192.168.10.1.
#         DHCP assigns 192.168.10.2 to the guest.
#         TFTP uses the 'ethdev' value for the root directory and doesn't
#         overwrite files.
#
#=======================================================================
# ne2k: ioaddr=0x300, irq=9, mac=fe:fd:00:00:00:01, ethmod=fbsd, ethdev=en0 #macosx
# ne2k: ioaddr=0x300, irq=9, mac=b0:c4:20:00:00:00, ethmod=fbsd, ethdev=xl0
# ne2k: ioaddr=0x300, irq=9, mac=b0:c4:20:00:00:00, ethmod=linux, ethdev=eth0
# ne2k: ioaddr=0x300, irq=9, mac=b0:c4:20:00:00:01, ethmod=win32, ethdev=MYCARD
# ne2k: ioaddr=0x300, irq=9, mac=fe:fd:00:00:00:01, ethmod=tap, ethdev=tap0
# ne2k: ioaddr=0x300, irq=9, mac=fe:fd:00:00:00:01, ethmod=tuntap, ethdev=/dev/net/tun0, script=./tunconfig
# ne2k: ioaddr=0x300, irq=9, mac=b0:c4:20:00:00:01, ethmod=null, ethdev=eth0
# ne2k: ioaddr=0x300, irq=9, mac=b0:c4:20:00:00:01, ethmod=vde, ethdev="/tmp/vde.ctl"
# ne2k: ioaddr=0x300, irq=9, mac=b0:c4:20:00:00:01, ethmod=vnet, ethdev="c:/temp"
# ne2k: mac=b0:c4:20:00:00:01, ethmod=slirp, script=slirp.conf, bootrom=ne2k_pci.rom

#=======================================================================
# pcipnic: Bochs/Etherboot pseudo-NIC
#
# Format:
# pcipnic: enabled=1, mac=MACADDR, ethmod=MODULE, ethdev=DEVICE, script=SCRIPT,
#          bootrom=BOOTROM
#
# The pseudo-NIC accepts the same syntax (for mac, ethmod, ethdev, script,
# bootrom) and supports the same networking modules as the NE2000 adapter.
#=======================================================================
#pcipnic: enabled=1, mac=b0:c4:20:00:00:00, ethmod=vnet

#=======================================================================
# e1000: Intel(R) 82540EM Gigabit Ethernet adapter
#
# Format:
# e1000: enabled=1, mac=MACADDR, ethmod=MODULE, ethdev=DEVICE, script=SCRIPT
#        bootrom=BOOTROM
#
# The E1000 accepts the same syntax (for mac, ethmod, ethdev, script, bootrom)
# and supports the same networking modules as the NE2000 adapter.
#=======================================================================
#e1000: enabled=1, mac=52:54:00:12:34:56, ethmod=slirp, script=slirp.conf

#=======================================================================
# USB_UHCI:
# This option controls the presence of the USB root hub which is a part
# of the i440FX PCI chipset. With the portX parameter you can connect devices
# to the hub (currently supported: 'mouse', 'tablet', 'keypad', 'disk', 'cdrom'
# 'hub' and 'printer').
#
# If you connect the mouse or tablet to one of the ports, Bochs forwards the
# mouse movement data to the USB device instead of the selected mouse type.
# When connecting the keypad to one of the ports, Bochs forwards the input of
# the numeric keypad to the USB device instead of the PS/2 keyboard.
#
# To connect a 'flat' mode image as an USB hardisk you can use the 'disk' device
# with the path to the image separated with a colon. To use other disk image modes
# similar to ATA disks the syntax 'disk:mode:filename' must be used (see below).
#
# To emulate an USB cdrom you can use the 'cdrom' device name and the path to
# an ISO image or raw device name also separated with a colon. An option to
# insert/eject media is available in the runtime configuration.
#
# The device name 'hub' connects an external hub with max. 8 ports (default: 4)
# to the root hub. To specify the number of ports you have to add the value
# separated with a colon. Connecting devices to the external hub ports is only
# available in the runtime configuration.
#
# The device 'printer' emulates the HP Deskjet 920C printer. The PCL data is
# sent to a file specified in bochsrc.txt. The current code appends the PCL
# code to the file if the file already existed. It would probably be nice to
# overwrite the file instead, asking user first.
#
# The optionsX parameter can be used to assign specific options to the device
# connected to the corresponding USB port. Currently this feature is used to
# set the speed reported by device ('low', 'full', 'high' or 'super'). The
# availabe speed choices depend on both HC and device. For the USB 'disk' device
# the optionsX parameter can be used to specify an alternative redolog file
# (journal) of some image modes. For 'vvfat' mode USB disks the optionsX
# parameter can be used to specify the disk size (range 128M ... 128G). If the
# size is not specified, it defaults to 504M.
#=======================================================================
#usb_uhci: enabled=1
#usb_uhci: enabled=1, port1=mouse, port2=disk:usbstick.img
#usb_uhci: enabled=1, port1=hub:7, port2=disk:growing:usbdisk.img
#usb_uhci: enabled=1, port2=disk:undoable:usbdisk.img, options2=journal:redo.log
#usb_uhci: enabled=1, port2=disk:vvfat:vvfat, options2=speed:full
#usb_uhci: enabled=1, port1=printer:printdata.bin, port2=cdrom:image.iso

#=======================================================================
# USB_OHCI:
# This option controls the presence of the USB OHCI host controller with a
# 2-port hub. The portX parameter accepts the same device types with the same
# syntax as the UHCI controller (see above). The optionsX parameter is also
# available on OHCI.
#=======================================================================
#usb_ohci: enabled=1
#usb_ohci: enabled=1, port1=printer:usbprinter.bin

#=======================================================================
# USB_XHCI:
# This option controls the presence of the experimental USB xHCI host controller
# with a 4-port hub. The portX parameter accepts the same device types with the
# same syntax as the UHCI controller (see above). The optionsX parameter is
# also available on xHCI. NOTE: port 1 and 2 are USB3 and only support
# super-speed devices, but port 3 and 4 are USB2 and support speed settings
# low, full and high.
#=======================================================================
#usb_xhci: enabled=1

#=======================================================================
# PCIDEV:
# PCI host device mapping
#=======================================================================
#pcidev: vendor=0x1234, device=0x5678

#=======================================================================
# GDBSTUB:
# Enable GDB stub. See user documentation for details.
# Default value is enabled=0.
#=======================================================================
#gdbstub: enabled=0, port=1234, text_base=0, data_base=0, bss_base=0

#=======================================================================
# MAGIC_BREAK:
# This enables the "magic breakpoint" feature when using the debugger.
# The useless cpu instruction XCHG BX, BX causes Bochs to enter the
# debugger mode. This might be useful for software development.
#
# Example:
#   magic_break: enabled=1
#=======================================================================
#magic_break: enabled=1

#=======================================================================
# DEBUG_SYMBOLS:
# This loads symbols from the specified file for use in Bochs' internal
# debugger. Symbols are loaded into global context. This is equivalent to
# issuing ldsym debugger command at start up.
#
# Example:
#   debug_symbols: file="kernel.sym"
#   debug_symbols: file="kernel.sym", offset=0x80000000
#=======================================================================
#debug_symbols: file="kernel.sym"

#print_timestamps: enabled=1

#=======================================================================
# PORT_E9_HACK:
# The 0xE9 port doesn't exists in normal ISA architecture. However, we
# define a convention here, to display on the console of the system running
# Bochs anything that is written to it. The idea is to provide debug output
# very early when writing BIOS or OS code for example, without having to
# bother with setting up a serial port or etc. Reading from port 0xE9 will
# will return 0xe9 to let you know if the feature is available.
# Leave this 0 unless you have a reason to use it.
#
# Example:
#   port_e9_hack: enabled=1
#=======================================================================
#port_e9_hack: enabled=1

#=======================================================================
# other stuff
#=======================================================================
#load32bitOSImage: os=nullkernel, path=../kernel.img, iolog=../vga_io.log
#load32bitOSImage: os=linux, path=../linux.img, iolog=../vga_io.log, initrd=../initrd.img

#=======================================================================
# fullscreen: ONLY IMPLEMENTED ON AMIGA
#             Request that Bochs occupy the entire screen instead of a
#             window.
#
# Examples:
#   fullscreen: enabled=0
#   fullscreen: enabled=1
#=======================================================================
#fullscreen: enabled=0
#screenmode: name="sample"

#=======================================================================
# USER_PLUGIN:
# Load user-defined plugin. This option is available only if Bochs is
# compiled with plugin support. Maximum 8 different plugins are supported.
# See the example in the Bochs sources how to write a plugin device.
#=======================================================================
#user_plugin: name=testdev

#=======================================================================
# for Macintosh, use the style of pathnames in the following
# examples.
#
# vgaromimage: :bios:VGABIOS-elpin-2.40
# romimage: file=:bios:BIOS-bochs-latest, address=0xf0000
# floppya: 1_44=[fd:], status=inserted
#=======================================================================

#=======================================================================
# MEGS
# Set the number of Megabytes of physical memory you want to emulate. 
# The default is 32MB, most OS's won't need more than that.
# The maximum amount of memory supported is 2048Mb.
# The 'MEGS' option is deprecated. Use 'MEMORY' option instead.
#=======================================================================
#megs: 256
#megs: 128
#megs: 64
#megs: 32
#megs: 16
#megs: 8






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