初识Spring Boot(五)

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本文链接:https://blog.csdn.net/Mrxuchen/article/details/79856059
自动配置原理

1)、SpringBoot启动的时候加载主配置类,开启了自动配置功能 ==@EnableAutoConfiguration==

@EnableAutoConfiguration 作用:

-  利用EnableAutoConfigurationImportSelector给容器中导入一些组件

- 导入那些组件可以查看selectImports()方法的内容;
- List<String> configurations = getCandidateConfigurations(annotationMetadata,  attributes);获取候选的配置

作用:

    SpringFactoriesLoader.loadFactoryNames()
    扫描所有jar包类路径下  META-INF/spring.factories
    把扫描到的这些文件的内容包装成properties对象

    从properties中获取到EnableAutoConfiguration.class类(类名)对应的值,然后把他们添加在容器中

总结:将 类路径下  META-INF/spring.factories 里面配置的所有EnableAutoConfiguration的值加入到了容器中

自动配置之源
# Auto Configure
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.EnableAutoConfiguration=\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.admin.SpringApplicationAdminJmxAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.aop.AopAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.amqp.RabbitAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.batch.BatchAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.cache.CacheAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.cassandra.CassandraAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.cloud.CloudAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.context.ConfigurationPropertiesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.context.MessageSourceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.context.PropertyPlaceholderAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.couchbase.CouchbaseAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.dao.PersistenceExceptionTranslationAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.cassandra.CassandraDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.cassandra.CassandraRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.couchbase.CouchbaseDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.couchbase.CouchbaseRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.elasticsearch.ElasticsearchAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.elasticsearch.ElasticsearchDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.elasticsearch.ElasticsearchRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.jpa.JpaRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.ldap.LdapDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.ldap.LdapRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.mongo.MongoDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.mongo.MongoRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.neo4j.Neo4jDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.neo4j.Neo4jRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.solr.SolrRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.redis.RedisAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.redis.RedisRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.rest.RepositoryRestMvcAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.web.SpringDataWebAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.elasticsearch.jest.JestAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.freemarker.FreeMarkerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.gson.GsonAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.h2.H2ConsoleAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.hateoas.HypermediaAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.hazelcast.HazelcastAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.hazelcast.HazelcastJpaDependencyAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.info.ProjectInfoAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.integration.IntegrationAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jackson.JacksonAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.DataSourceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.JdbcTemplateAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.JndiDataSourceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.XADataSourceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.DataSourceTransactionManagerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jms.JmsAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jmx.JmxAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jms.JndiConnectionFactoryAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jms.activemq.ActiveMQAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jms.artemis.ArtemisAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.flyway.FlywayAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.groovy.template.GroovyTemplateAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jersey.JerseyAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jooq.JooqAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.kafka.KafkaAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.ldap.embedded.EmbeddedLdapAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.ldap.LdapAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.liquibase.LiquibaseAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mail.MailSenderAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mail.MailSenderValidatorAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mobile.DeviceResolverAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mobile.DeviceDelegatingViewResolverAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mobile.SitePreferenceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mongo.embedded.EmbeddedMongoAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mongo.MongoAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mustache.MustacheAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.orm.jpa.HibernateJpaAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.reactor.ReactorAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.SecurityAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.SecurityFilterAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.FallbackWebSecurityAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.oauth2.OAuth2AutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.sendgrid.SendGridAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.session.SessionAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.social.SocialWebAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.social.FacebookAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.social.LinkedInAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.social.TwitterAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.solr.SolrAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.thymeleaf.ThymeleafAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.transaction.TransactionAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.transaction.jta.JtaAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.validation.ValidationAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.DispatcherServletAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.EmbeddedServletContainerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.ErrorMvcAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.HttpEncodingAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.HttpMessageConvertersAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.MultipartAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.ServerPropertiesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.WebClientAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.WebMvcAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.websocket.WebSocketAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.websocket.WebSocketMessagingAutoConfiguration,\

org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.webservices.WebServicesAutoConfiguration\

每一个这样的  xxxAutoConfiguration类都是容器中的一个组件,都加入到容器中;用他们来做自动配置;

以上xxxAutoConfiguration就是我们自动配置的开始,只有这些自动配置进入到容器以后,自动配置类才能器作用

2)、每一个自动配置类进行自动配置功能;

3)、以**HttpEncodingAutoConfiguration(Http编码自动配置)**为例解释自动配置原理;

@Configuration   //表示这是一个配置类,以前编写的配置文件一样,也可以给容器中添加组件
@EnableConfigurationProperties(HttpEncodingProperties.class)  //启动指定类的ConfigurationProperties功能;将配置文件中对应的值和HttpEncodingProperties绑定起来;并把HttpEncodingProperties加入到ioc容器中


@ConditionalOnWebApplication //Spring底层@Conditional注解(Spring注解版),根据不同的条件,如果满足指定的条件,整个配置类里面的配置就会生效;    判断当前应用是否是web应用,如果是,当前配置类生效


@ConditionalOnClass(CharacterEncodingFilter.class)  //判断当前项目有没有这个类CharacterEncodingFilter;SpringMVC中进行乱码解决的过滤器;


@ConditionalOnProperty(prefix = "spring.http.encoding", value = "enabled", matchIfMissing = true)  //判断配置文件中是否存在某个配置  spring.http.encoding.enabled;如果不存在,判断也是成立的
//即使我们配置文件中不配置pring.http.encoding.enabled=true,也是默认生效的;
public class HttpEncodingAutoConfiguration {
  
  //他已经和SpringBoot的配置文件映射了
  private final HttpEncodingProperties properties;
  
   //只有一个有参构造器的情况下,参数的值就会从容器中拿
  public HttpEncodingAutoConfiguration(HttpEncodingProperties properties) {
this.properties = properties;
}
  
    @Bean   //给容器中添加一个组件,这个组件的某些值需要从properties中获取
@ConditionalOnMissingBean(CharacterEncodingFilter.class) //判断容器没有这个组件?
public CharacterEncodingFilter characterEncodingFilter() {
CharacterEncodingFilter filter = new OrderedCharacterEncodingFilter();
filter.setEncoding(this.properties.getCharset().name());
filter.setForceRequestEncoding(this.properties.shouldForce(Type.REQUEST));
filter.setForceResponseEncoding(this.properties.shouldForce(Type.RESPONSE));
return filter;

}


根据当前不同的条件判断,决定这个配置类是否生效。


一但这个配置类生效;这个配置类就会给容器中添加各种组件;这些组件的属性是从对应的properties类中获取的,这些类里面的每一个属性又是和配置文件绑定的;





**精髓:**


**1)、SpringBoot启动会加载大量的自动配置类**


**2)、我们看我们需要的功能有没有SpringBoot默认写好的自动配置类;**


**3)、我们再来看这个自动配置类中到底配置了哪些组件;(只要我们要用的组件有,我们就不需要再来配置了)**


**4)、给容器中自动配置类添加组件的时候,会从properties类中获取某些属性。我们就可以在配置文件中指定这些属性的值;**

xxxxAutoConfigurartion:自动配置类;
给容器中添加组件

xxxxProperties:封装配置文件中相关属性;

细节注意:
 1、@Conditional派生注解

作用:必须是@Conditional指定的条件成立,才给容器中添加组件,配置配里面的所有内容才生效;


| @Conditional扩展注解                | 作用(判断是否满足当前指定条件)               |
| ------------------------------- | ------------------------------ |
| @ConditionalOnJava              | 系统的java版本是否符合要求                |
| @ConditionalOnBean              | 容器中存在指定Bean;                   |
| @ConditionalOnMissingBean       | 容器中不存在指定Bean;                  |
| @ConditionalOnExpression        | 满足SpEL表达式指定                    |
| @ConditionalOnClass             | 系统中有指定的类                       |
| @ConditionalOnMissingClass      | 系统中没有指定的类                      |
| @ConditionalOnSingleCandidate   | 容器中只有一个指定的Bean,或者这个Bean是首选Bean |
| @ConditionalOnProperty          | 系统中指定的属性是否有指定的值                |
| @ConditionalOnResource          | 类路径下是否存在指定资源文件                 |
| @ConditionalOnWebApplication    | 当前是web环境                       |
| @ConditionalOnNotWebApplication | 当前不是web环境                      |
| @ConditionalOnJndi              | JNDI存在指定项                      |


**自动配置类必须在一定的条件下才能生效;**


我们怎么知道哪些自动配置类生效;

**==我们可以通过在配置文件中启用  debug=true属性;来让控制台打印自动配置报告==**,这样我们就可以很方便的知道哪些自动配置类生效;



=========================
AUTO-CONFIGURATION REPORT
=========================




Positive matches:(自动配置类启用的)
-----------------


   DispatcherServletAutoConfiguration matched:
      - @ConditionalOnClass found required class 'org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet'; @ConditionalOnMissingClass did not find unwanted class (OnClassCondition)
      - @ConditionalOnWebApplication (required) found StandardServletEnvironment (OnWebApplicationCondition)
        
    
Negative matches:(没有启动,没有匹配成功的自动配置类)
-----------------


   ActiveMQAutoConfiguration:
      Did not match:
         - @ConditionalOnClass did not find required classes 'javax.jms.ConnectionFactory', 'org.apache.activemq.ActiveMQConnectionFactory' (OnClassCondition)


   AopAutoConfiguration:
      Did not match:
         - @ConditionalOnClass did not find required classes 'org.aspectj.lang.annotation.Aspect', 'org.aspectj.lang.reflect.Advice' (OnClassCondition)

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