###### 图中环长-Codeforces Round #369 Div.2-D

time limit per test2 seconds
memory limit per test256 megabytes
inputstandard input
outputstandard output
ZS the Coder and Chris the Baboon has explored Udayland for quite some time. They realize that it consists of n towns numbered from 1 to n.

There are n directed roads in the Udayland. i-th of them goes from town i to some other town ai (ai ≠ i). ZS the Coder can flip the direction of any road in Udayland, i.e. if it goes from town A to town B before the flip, it will go from town B to town A after.

ZS the Coder considers the roads in the Udayland confusing, if there is a sequence of distinct towns A1, A2, …, Ak (k > 1) such that for every 1 ≤ i < k there is a road from town Ai to town Ai + 1 and another road from town Ak to town A1. In other words, the roads are confusing if some of them form a directed cycle of some towns.

Now ZS the Coder wonders how many sets of roads (there are 2n variants) in initial configuration can he choose to flip such that after flipping each road in the set exactly once, the resulting network will not be confusing.

Note that it is allowed that after the flipping there are more than one directed road from some town and possibly some towns with no roads leading out of it, or multiple roads between any pair of cities.

Input
The first line of the input contains single integer n (2 ≤ n ≤ 2·105) — the number of towns in Udayland.

The next line contains n integers a1, a2, …, an (1 ≤ ai ≤ n, ai ≠ i), ai denotes a road going from town i to town ai.

Output
Print a single integer — the number of ways to flip some set of the roads so that the resulting whole set of all roads is not confusing. Since this number may be too large, print the answer modulo 109 + 7.

Examples
input
3
2 3 1
output
6
input
4
2 1 1 1
output
8
input
5
2 4 2 5 3
output
28
Note
Consider the first sample case. There are 3 towns and 3 roads. The towns are numbered from 1 to 3 and the roads are , , initially. Number the roads 1 to 3 in this order.

The sets of roads that ZS the Coder can flip (to make them not confusing) are {1}, {2}, {3}, {1, 2}, {1, 3}, {2, 3}. Note that the empty set is invalid because if no roads are flipped, then towns 1, 2, 3 is form a directed cycle, so it is confusing. Similarly, flipping all roads is confusing too. Thus, there are a total of 6 possible sets ZS the Coder can flip.

2的幂可以预处理。

//
//  main.cpp
//  cf-369-2-4
//
//  Created by 袁子涵 on 16/8/29.
//

#include <iostream>
#include <cstdio>
#include <cstring>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <cmath>
#include <algorithm>
#include <queue>
#include <set>
#include <stack>
#include <string>
#include <map>

using namespace std;
const int maxn=2e5+5;
const int mod=1e9+7;
vector<int>To[maxn];
int n,tmp;
int vis[maxn],now,circle;
long long int mi[maxn],ans;
bool flag;
void dfs(int num,int fa,int deep)
{
if (vis[num]) {
if (!flag)
circle=deep-vis[num];
flag=1;
return;
}
now++;
vis[num]=deep;
bool back=0;
for (int i=0; i<To[num].size(); i++) {
if (!back && To[num][i]==fa)
{
back=1;
continue;
}
dfs(To[num][i], num, deep+1);
}
}
int main(int argc, const char * argv[]) {
ios::sync_with_stdio(false);
cin >> n;
mi[0]=ans=1;
for (int i=1; i<=n; i++)
{
cin >> tmp;
To[tmp].push_back(i);
To[i].push_back(tmp);
mi[i]=(mi[i-1]<<1)%mod;
}
for (int i=1; i<=n; i++) {
if (!vis[i]) {
now=circle=0;
flag=0;
dfs(i,0,1);
ans=ans*mi[now-circle]%mod*(mi[circle]-2+mod)%mod;
}
}
cout << ans << endl;
return 0;
}


#### Codeforces Round #133 (Div. 2) 找奇环

2012-08-24 08:28:59

#### Codeforces 11D A Simple Task 统计简单无向图中环的个数

2015-10-12 19:01:50

#### Codeforces 233C Cycles（图的三元环）

2016-11-08 22:44:18

#### codeforces 117C 拓扑排序 找三元环

2012-08-01 15:41:05

#### Codeforces 741A （求环的大小）

2016-12-25 14:00:28

#### 【CodeForces】CodeForces Round #464 (Div. 2) 题解

2018-02-18 11:05:43

#### 算法 图中求最小环路径 最小环个数 最大平均环 求简单无向图中环的个数

2014-05-03 10:40:03

#### codeforces 369C

2016-10-09 12:40:16

#### Codeforces Round #471 div.2 ABC题解

2018-03-24 14:16:58

#### 【Codeforces Testing Round #4】Codeforces 147B Smile House

2016-12-05 19:53:02