# 数据结构——栈的应用（表达式求值）（C语言）

char Precede(char t1, char t2)函数用于输出t1,t2两个运算符的优先级（t1为先出现的运算符（已经压入栈OPTR中），t2为后出现的运算符）

char Precede(char t1, char t2){
int i,j;
char pre[][7]={
//运算符之间的优先级制作成一张表格
{'>','>','<','<','<','>','>'},
{'>','>','<','<','<','>','>'},
{'>','>','>','>','<','>','>'},
{'>','>','>','>','<','>','>'},
{'<','<','<','<','<','=','0'},
{'>','>','>','>','0','>','>'},
{'<','<','<','<','<','0','='}};
switch(t1){
case '+': i=0; break;
case '-': i=1; break;
case '*': i=2; break;
case '/': i=3; break;
case '(': i=4; break;
case ')': i=5; break;
case '=': i=6; break;
}
switch(t2){
case '+': j=0; break;
case '-': j=1; break;
case '*': j=2; break;
case '/': j=3; break;
case '(': j=4; break;
case ')': j=5; break;
case '=': j=6; break;
}
return pre[i][j];
}  


#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#define TRUE 1
#define FALSE 0
#define OK 1
#define ERROR 0
#define INFEASIBLE -1
#define OVERFLOW -2
#define STACK_INIT_SIZE 100   //存储空间初始分配量
#define STACKINCREMENT 10   //存储空间分配增量

typedef char SElemType;
typedef char OperandType;   //表达式求值的运算类型
typedef int Status;

typedef struct
{
SElemType *base;
SElemType *top;
int stacksize;
}SqStack;

//构造一个空栈
Status InitStack(SqStack *S)
{
S->base = (SElemType *)malloc(STACK_INIT_SIZE * sizeof(SElemType));
if(!S->base)
{
printf("内存分配失败!\n");
exit(OVERFLOW);
}

S->top = S->base;
S->stacksize = STACKINCREMENT;
return OK;
}

//若栈不为空，则用e返回S的栈顶元素，并返回OK；否则返回ERROR
Status GetTop(SqStack *S, SElemType *e)
{
if(S->top == S->base)
return ERROR;

*e = *(S->top - 1);
return OK;
}

//插入元素e为新的栈顶元素
Status Push(SqStack *S, SElemType e)
{
if(S->top - S->base >= STACK_INIT_SIZE)   //栈满， 追加存储空间
{
S->base = (SElemType *)realloc(S->base, (S->stacksize + STACKINCREMENT) * sizeof(SElemType));
if(!S->base)
{
printf("内存分配失败!\n");
exit(OVERFLOW);
}

S->top = S->base + S->stacksize;
S->stacksize += STACKINCREMENT;
}

*S->top++ = e;

return OK;
}

//若栈不为空，则删除S的栈顶元素，用e返回其值，并返回Ok；否则返回ERROR
Status Pop(SqStack *S, SElemType *e)
{
if(S->top == S->base)
return ERROR;

*e =  *--S->top;

return OK;
}
//销毁栈S，使其不复存在
Status StackDestroy(SqStack *S)
{
free(S->base);
S->base = NULL;
S->top = NULL;
S->stacksize = 0;
return OK;
}

//清空栈S，保留栈底指针
void ClearStack(SqStack *S)
{
S->top = S->base;
}

//根据教科书表3.1，判断两符号的优先关系
char Precede(char t1, char t2){
int i,j;
char pre[][7]={
//运算符之间的优先级制作成一张表格
{'>','>','<','<','<','>','>'},
{'>','>','<','<','<','>','>'},
{'>','>','>','>','<','>','>'},
{'>','>','>','>','<','>','>'},
{'<','<','<','<','<','=','0'},
{'>','>','>','>','0','>','>'},
{'<','<','<','<','<','0','='}};
switch(t1){
case '+': i=0; break;
case '-': i=1; break;
case '*': i=2; break;
case '/': i=3; break;
case '(': i=4; break;
case ')': i=5; break;
case '=': i=6; break;
}
switch(t2){
case '+': j=0; break;
case '-': j=1; break;
case '*': j=2; break;
case '/': j=3; break;
case '(': j=4; break;
case ')': j=5; break;
case '=': j=6; break;
}
return pre[i][j];
}
//判断c是否为运算符
Status In(OperandType c)
{
switch(c)
{
case '+':
case '-':
case '*':
case '/':
case '(':
case ')':
case '=':
return TRUE;
default:
return FALSE;
}

}

//二元运算(a theta b)
OperandType Operate(OperandType a, OperandType theta, OperandType b)
{
OperandType c;
switch(theta)
{
case '+':
c = a + b;
break;
case '-':
c = a - b;
break;
case '*':
c = a * b;
break;
case '/':
c = a / b;
break;
}
return c;
}

//算术表达式求值的算符优先算法，设OPTR和OPND分别为运算符栈和运算数栈，OP为运算符集合
OperandType EvaluateExpression()
{
SqStack OPTR, OPND;
OperandType a, b, d, x, theta;
char c;   //存放有键盘输入的字符串
char z[6];   //存放整数字符串
int i;
InitStack(&OPTR);   //初始化运算符栈
Push(&OPTR, '=');   //=是表达式结束符
InitStack(&OPND);   //初始化运算数栈

c = getchar();
GetTop(&OPTR, &x);
while(c != '=' || x != '=')
{
if(In(c))   //是7种运算符之一
{
switch(Precede(x, c))
{
case '<':   //当前已经压栈一个运算符（x）比后一个运算符（c）低时，就将c压栈
Push(&OPTR, c);
c = getchar();
break;
case '=':
Pop(&OPTR, &x);   //脱括号并接收下一字符
c = getchar();
break;
case '>':
Pop(&OPTR, &theta);   //退栈并将运算结果压入OPND中
Pop(&OPND, &b);
Pop(&OPND, &a);
Push(&OPND, Operate(a, theta, b));
break;
}
}
else if(c >= '0' && c <= '9')   //c是操作数
{
i = 0;
do
{
z[i] = c;
i ++;
c = getchar();
}while(c >= '0' && c <= '9');
z[i] = 0;
d = atoi(z);   //将字符数组转为整型存于d
Push(&OPND, d);
}
else   //c为非法字符
{
printf("ERROR3\n");
exit(1);
}
GetTop(&OPTR, &x);
}
GetTop(&OPND, &x);
StackDestroy(&OPTR);
StackDestroy(&OPND);
return x;
}

int main()
{
printf("请输入算术表达式，负数要用（0-正数），并以#结束:\n");
printf("%d\n", EvaluateExpression());
return 0;
}