std::bind

#include <random>
#include <iostream>
#include <memory>
#include <functional>
 
void f(int n1, int n2, int n3, const int& n4, int n5)
{
    std::cout << n1 << ' ' << n2 << ' ' << n3 << ' ' << n4 << ' ' << n5 << '\n';
}
 
int g(int n1)
{
    return n1;
}
 
struct Foo {
    void print_sum(int n1, int n2)
    {
        std::cout << n1+n2 << '\n';
    }
    int data = 10;
};
 
int main()
{
    using namespace std::placeholders;  // for _1, _2, _3...
 
    // demonstrates argument reordering and pass-by-reference
    int n = 7;
    // (_1 and _2 are from std::placeholders, and represent future
    // arguments that will be passed to f1)
    auto f1 = std::bind(f, _2, _1, 42, std::cref(n), n);
    n = 10;
    f1(1, 2, 1001); // 1 is bound by _1, 2 is bound by _2, 1001 is unused
                    // makes a call to f(2, 1, 42, n, 7)
 
    // nested bind subexpressions share the placeholders
    auto f2 = std::bind(f, _3, std::bind(g, _3), _3, 4, 5);
    f2(10, 11, 12); // makes a call to f(12, g(12), 12, 4, 5);
 
    // common use case: binding a RNG with a distribution
    std::default_random_engine e;
    std::uniform_int_distribution<> d(0, 10);
    auto rnd = std::bind(d, e); // a copy of e is stored in rnd
    for(int n=0; n<10; ++n)
        std::cout << rnd() << ' ';
    std::cout << '\n';
 
    // bind to a pointer to member function
    Foo foo;
    auto f3 = std::bind(&Foo::print_sum, &foo, 95, _1);
    f3(5);
 
    // bind to a pointer to data member
    auto f4 = std::bind(&Foo::data, _1);
    std::cout << f4(foo) << '\n';
 
    // smart pointers can be used to call members of the referenced objects, too
    std::cout << f4(std::make_shared<Foo>(foo)) << '\n'
              << f4(std::make_unique<Foo>(foo)) << '\n';
}
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