初识字典

一、什么是字典集合

字典集合:一组无序的且不重复的数据(key-value)集合

字典是一个特殊的set集合

 

1 字典的基本介绍

dic01 = {95001: "张三", 95002: "李四", 95003: "王五"}

# 字典的元素:key,value 比如:95001:"张三"是一个元素

# 冒号前面的称为key,冒号后面的称为value

# 通过key可以访问value,反之不可以

print(dic01[95001])

 

2 字典的元素不重复

dic01 = {95001: "张三", 95002: "李四", 95003: "王五", 95001: "张三"}

print(dic01)

 

3 字典的无序

dic01 = {95001: "张三", 95002: "李四", 95003: "王五", 95001: "张三"}

print(dic01[0]) # 报错

 

执行结果:

C:\python\python.exeC:/python/demo/file3.py

张三

{95001: '张三',95002: '李四', 95003: '王五'}

Traceback (most recent call last):

 File "C:/python/demo/file3.py", line 19, in <module>

   print(dic01[0])

KeyError: 0

 

Process finished with exit code 1

二、什么情况下会用字典

1比如:学号 + 姓名

list01 = {"张三", "李四"}

dic01 = {95001: "张三", 95002: "李四", 95003: "王五", 95001: "张三"}

 

2比如:姓名 + 成绩

dic02 = {"张三": [23,98, 56],"李四":[98,56, 97],"王五":[78,67, 90]}

print(dic02["李四"])

 

2比如:科目 + 成绩

dic03 = {"语文": 95,"数学": 89,"英语": 76}

 

执行结果:

C:\python\python.exeC:/python/demo/file3.py

[98, 56, 97]

 

Process finished with exit code 0

 

三、key-value

1)在字典中,key-value不能重复

 

2)在字典中,key不能重复,如果一个key对应多个values,最后一个有效

如:

dic01= {95001: 200,95002: 345,95003: 346,95003: 500}

print(dic01) # 95003的值为500,因为覆盖了前面的346

 

3)在字典中,value可以重复

如:

dic01= {95001: 200,95002: 345,95003: 346,95004: 200}

print(dic01)

 

4)key必须要不可改变的类型:int,str,float,bool,tuple

如:

dic01= {1.11: "AAA", 2.22: "BBB", 3.33: "CCC", 4.44: "DDD"}

print(dic01)

dic01= {True: "AAA", False: "BBB"}

print(dic01)

dic01={(11.11, 22.22):"徐家汇", (11.34,33.33):"人民广场", (45.34, 78.12):"东方明珠"}

print(dic01)

 

 

5)value可以是任何类型

dic01={(11.11, 22.22):["徐家汇", "人民广场", "东方明珠"],(11.34,33.33):{"AAA", "BBB", "CCC"},(45.34, 78.12):(111, 222,333)}

print(dic01)


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