MySQL防止SQL注入

一、SQL注入实例

$unsafe_variable = $_POST['user_input']; 
mysql_query("INSERT INTO `table` (`column`) VALUES ('$unsafe_variable')");
当POST的内容为:
value'); DROP TABLE table;--
以上的整个SQL查询语句变成:
INSERT INTO `table` (`column`) VALUES('value'); DROP TABLE table;--')

二、防止SQL注入措施

1.Use prepared statements and parameterized queries.

SQL语句和查询的参数分别发送给数据库服务器进行解析。这种方式有2种实现:
(1)使用PDO(PHP data object)
$stmt = $pdo->prepare('SELECT * FROM employees WHERE name = :name');
$stmt->execute(array('name' => $name));
foreach ($stmt as $row) {
    // do something with $row
}

(2)使用MySQLi

$stmt = $dbConnection->prepare('SELECT * FROM employees WHERE name = ?');
$stmt->bind_param('s', $name);
$stmt->execute();
$result = $stmt->get_result();
while ($row = $result->fetch_assoc()) {
    // do something with $row
}

2.对查询语句进行转义(最常见的方式)

$unsafe_variable = $_POST["user-input"];
$safe_variable = mysql_real_escape_string($unsafe_variable);
mysql_query("INSERT INTO table (column) VALUES ('" . $safe_variable . "')");

Warning:
As of PHP 5.5.0 mysql_real_escape_string and the mysql extension are deprecated. Please use mysqli extension and mysqli::escape_string function instead 

$mysqli = new mysqli("server", "username", "password", "database_name");
// TODO - Check that connection was successful.
$unsafe_variable = $_POST["user-input"];
$stmt = $mysqli->prepare("INSERT INTO table (column) VALUES (?)");
// TODO check that $stmt creation succeeded
// "s" means the database expects a string
$stmt->bind_param("s", $unsafe_variable);
$stmt->execute();
$stmt->close();
$mysqli->close();

3.限制引入的参数

$orders  = array("name","price","qty"); //field names
$key     = array_search($_GET['sort'],$orders)); // see if we have such a name
$orderby = $orders[$key]; //if not, first one will be set automatically. smart enuf :)
$query   = "SELECT * FROM `table` ORDER BY $orderby"; //value is safe

4.对引入参数进行编码

SELECT password FROM users WHERE name = 'root'            --普通方式
SELECT password FROM users WHERE name = 0x726f6f74        --防止注入
SELECT password FROM users WHERE name = UNHEX('726f6f74') --防止注入

set @INPUT =  hex("%实验%");
select * from login where reset_passwd_question like unhex(@INPUT) ;

There was some discussion in comments, so I finally want to make it clear. These two approaches are very similar, but they are a little different in some ways:
0x prefix can only be used on data columns such as char, varchar, text, block, binary, etc.
Also its use is a little complicated if you are about to insert an empty string. You'll have to entirely replace it with '', or you'll get an error.
UNHEX() works on any column; you do not have to worry about the empty string.

5.使用MySQL存储过程

其他:验证输入参数
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/60174/how-can-i-prevent-sql-injection-in-php
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/18026088/pdo-sends-raw-query-to-mysql-while-mysqli-sends-prepared-query-both-produce-the












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