k8s dashboard认证及分级授权

Dashboard官方地址: https://github.com/kubernetes/dashboard

    dashbord是作为一个pod来运行,需要serviceaccount账号来登录。

    先给dashboad创建一个专用的认证信息。

    先建立私钥: 

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[root@master ~]# cd /etc/kubernetes/pki/

[root@master pki]# (umask 077; openssl genrsa -out dashboard.key 2048)

Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus

.............................................................................................................................+++

.................................+++

     建立一个证书签署请求:

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[root@master pki]# openssl req -new -key dashboard.key  -out dashboard.csr -subj "/O=zhixin/CN=dashboard"

     下面开始签署证书:

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 [root@master pki]# openssl  x509 -req -in dashboard.csr -CA ca.crt -CAkey ca.key  -CAcreateserial -out dashboard.crt -days 365

Signature ok

subject=/O=zhixin/CN=dashboard

Getting CA Private Key

       把上面生成的私钥和证书创建成secret

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[root@master pki]# kubectl create secret generic dashboard-cert -n kube-system --from-file=dashboard.crt=./dashboard.crt  --from-file=dashboard.key=./dashboard.key 

secret/dashboard-cert created

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[root@master pki]# kubectl get secret -n kube-system |grep dashboard

dashboard-cert                                   Opaque                                2         5m

    创建一个serviceaccount,因为dashborad需要serviceaccount(pod之间登录验证的用户)验证登录。

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[root@master pki]# kubectl create serviceaccount dashboard-admin -n kube-system

serviceaccount/dashboard-admin created

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[root@master pki]# kubectl get sa -n kube-system |grep admin

dashboard-admin                      1         23s

    下面通过clusterrolebinding把dashboard-admin加入到clusterrole里面。

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[root@master pki]# kubectl create clusterrolebinding dashboard-cluster-admin --clusterrole=cluster-admin --serviceaccount=kube-system:dashboard-admin

clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/dashboard-cluster-admin created

      这样serviceaccount 用户dashboard-admin就拥有了管理所有集群的权限。 

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[root@master pki]# kubectl get secret -n kube-system |grep dashboard

dashboard-admin-token-hfxg9                      kubernetes.io/service-account-token   3         7m

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[root@master pki]# kubectl describe secret dashboard-admin-token-hfxg9 -n kube-system

token:      eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IiJ9.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.PyE0q9sZl8uDF-KGvpwG3nDfny9i2wdP-24Jf8d5GlWDfaHO3vkEe1zs56K7qkRPvrg-iQ0tVvoVG8SAj2cBKjLYP6oSiQcVS3ax2TyiSG7j5Ibupc1TXKj0Yc4FfcIKu1tMZwtezHdKUDDY7RJ2sp81rYHbJdkjXe-40cITCKcjadSU-6sfNJnq4E4E-bp1LYrBvokUbBW4xkHzruS7QFQAnEZ3v257R_xjXx23NPsqwCH6dx8OWYgIXdtUos7vNjLw8xy-_rO9VEuGRnzni5m9SBdVwEF7edtJh_psZBe7yfGAkgfRPpxbwB_wyyProM-aIn6LL4aekUwBqbwOLQ

    上面的token就是serviceaccount用户dashboad-admin的认证令牌。

    下面开始部署dashboard 

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[root@master pki]# kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/dashboard/master/src/deploy/recommended/kubernetes-dashboard.yaml

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[root@master ~]# kubectl get pods -n kube-system

NAME                                   READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE

kubernetes-dashboard-767dc7d4d-4mq9z   1/1       Running   2          2h

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[root@master ~]# kubectl get svc -n kube-system

NAME                   TYPE        CLUSTER-IP    EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)         AGE

kube-dns               ClusterIP   10.96.0.10    <none>        53/UDP,53/TCP   21d

kubernetes-dashboard   ClusterIP   10.104.8.78   <none>        443/TCP         45m

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[root@master ~]# kubectl  patch svc kubernetes-dashboard -p '{"spec":{"type":"NodePort"}}' -n kube-system

service/kubernetes-dashboard patched

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[root@master ~]# kubectl get svc -n kube-system

NAME                   TYPE        CLUSTER-IP    EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)         AGE

kube-dns               ClusterIP   10.96.0.10    <none>        53/UDP,53/TCP   21d

kubernetes-dashboard   NodePort    10.104.8.78   <none>        443:31647/TCP   47m

    这样我们就可以在集群外部使用31647端口访问dashboard了,ip就使用node master宿主机的ip。 

    用浏览器打开: https://172..16.1.100:31647,并把上面得到的token粘贴到令牌里面进行登录:

      注意,要用火狐浏览器打开,其他浏览器打不开的,注意注意!!!    

    

    上面认证的方法,这个用户能看到所有集群的所有东西,是个超级管理员。下面我们再设置个用户,限定它只能访问default名称空间。

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[root@master ~]# kubectl create serviceaccount def-ns-admin -n default

serviceaccount/def-ns-admin created

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[root@master ~]# kubectl create rolebinding def-ns-admin --clusterrole=admin --serviceaccount=default:def-ns-admin

rolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/def-ns-admin created

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[root@master ~]# kubectl get secret

NAME                       TYPE                                  DATA      AGE

admin-token-6jpc5          kubernetes.io/service-account-token   3         1d

def-ns-admin-token-646gx   kubernetes.io/service-account-token   3         2m

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[root@master ~]# kubectl describe secret def-ns-admin-token-646gx

token:      eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IiJ9.eyJpc3MiOiJrdWJlcm5ldGVzL3NlcnZpY2VhY2NvdW50Iiwia3ViZXJuZXRlcy5pby9zZXJ2aWNlYWNjb3VudC9uYW1lc3BhY2UiOiJkZWZhdWx0Iiwia3ViZXJuZXRlcy5pby9zZXJ2aWNlYWNjb3VudC9zZWNyZXQubmFtZSI6ImRlZi1ucy1hZG1pbi10b2tlbi02NDZneCIsImt1YmVybmV0ZXMuaW8vc2VydmljZWFjY291bnQvc2VydmljZS1hY2NvdW50Lm5hbWUiOiJkZWYtbnMtYWRtaW4iLCJrdWJlcm5ldGVzLmlvL3NlcnZpY2VhY2NvdW50L3NlcnZpY2UtYWNjb3VudC51aWQiOiI4ODZiOGI2NC1jM2JmLTExZTgtYmIzNS0wMDUwNTZhMjRlY2IiLCJzdWIiOiJzeXN0ZW06c2VydmljZWFjY291bnQ6ZGVmYXVsdDpkZWYtbnMtYWRtaW4ifQ.MTyQW7Vn_1j9cfmtYAE4CepmLsaMsMfE5VG6xkx4LsfrsKOO2FAo1bQuUtjLtAj52UzC7I0dVqQKpcx1DPxkr8QIpNm37PLE01geQ0C0me7QiRiM9KrFXmDtxUSLlhPBahxg-krlaANEWDKX69nss6qKiFgip7KHM_uP-b1d1caSE8y-zdEtTHK8QJ9reMb-EHG6iPkFpYJ-2guDOUhL5559usR16o2AWoN8yRdcKtnpqwBV_n2UE4m83kLjA30PtYpqraIQp9yTa21jiVlceHZpWxx-HlOEjDE4ekNCe_xTorJ7MbHVTyfqr37o8fh8Gsh-P5_tK-qaDOO7pSMkHA

    把上面的token登录到web页面的令牌,登录进去后只能看default名称空间的内容。 

    

    下面我们再用Kubeconf的方法来验证登录试试。 

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[root@master pki]# cd /etc/kubernetes/pki

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[root@master pki]# kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes --certificate-authority=./ca.crt --server="https://172.16.1.100:6443" --embed-certs=true --kubeconfig=/root/def-ns-admin.conf

Cluster "kubernetes" set.

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[root@master pki]# kubectl config view --kubeconfig=/root/def-ns-admin.conf 

apiVersion: v1

clusters:

- cluster:

    certificate-authority-data: REDACTED

    server: https://172.16.1.100:6443

  name: kubernetes

contexts: []

current-context: ""

kind: Config

preferences: {}

users: []

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[root@master pki]# kubectl get secret

NAME                       TYPE                                  DATA      AGE

admin-token-6jpc5          kubernetes.io/service-account-token   3         1d

def-ns-admin-token-646gx   kubernetes.io/service-account-token   3         33m

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[root@master pki]# kubectl get secret  def-ns-admin-token-646gx  -o json

 "token""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"

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[root@master pki]# DEF_NS_ADMIN_TOKEN=$(kubectl get secret  def-ns-admin-token-646gx  -o jsonpath={.data.token}|base64 -d)

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[root@master pki]# kubectl config set-credentials def-ns-admin --token=$DEF_NS_ADMIN_TOKEN --kubeconfig=/root/def-ns-admin.conf 

User "def-ns-admin" set.

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[root@master pki]# kubectl config view  --kubeconfig=/root/def-ns-admin.conf 

apiVersion: v1

clusters:

- cluster:

    certificate-authority-data: REDACTED

    server: https://172.16.1.100:6443

  name: kubernetes

contexts: []

current-context: ""

kind: Config

preferences: {}

users:

- name: def-ns-admin

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[root@master pki]# kubectl config set-context def-ns-admin@kubernetes --cluster=kubernetes --user=def-ns-admin --kubeconfig=/root/def-ns-admin.conf 

Context "def-ns-admin@kubernetes" created.

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[root@master pki]# kubectl config view  --kubeconfig=/root/def-ns-admin.conf 

apiVersion: v1

clusters:

- cluster:

    certificate-authority-data: REDACTED

    server: https://172.16.1.100:6443

  name: kubernetes

contexts:

- context:

    cluster: kubernetes

    user: def-ns-admin

  name: def-ns-admin@kubernetes

current-context: ""

kind: Config

preferences: {}

users:

- name: def-ns-admin

  user:

    token: eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IiJ9.eyJpc3MiOiJrdWJlcm5ldGVzL3NlcnZpY2VhY2NvdW50Iiwia3ViZXJuZXRlcy5pby9zZXJ2aWNlYWNjb3VudC9uYW1lc3BhY2UiOiJkZWZhdWx0Iiwia3ViZXJuZXRlcy5pby9zZXJ2aWNlYWNjb3VudC9zZWNyZXQubmFtZSI6ImRlZi1ucy1hZG1pbi10b2tlbi02NDZneCIsImt1YmVybmV0ZXMuaW8vc2VydmljZWFjY291bnQvc2VydmljZS1hY2NvdW50Lm5hbWUiOiJkZWYtbnMtYWRtaW4iLCJrdWJlcm5ldGVzLmlvL3NlcnZpY2VhY2NvdW50L3NlcnZpY2UtYWNjb3VudC51aWQiOiI4ODZiOGI2NC1jM2JmLTExZTgtYmIzNS0wMDUwNTZhMjRlY2IiLCJzdWIiOiJzeXN0ZW06c2VydmljZWFjY291bnQ6ZGVmYXVsdDpkZWYtbnMtYWRtaW4ifQ.MTyQW7Vn_1j9cfmtYAE4CepmLsaMsMfE5VG6xkx4LsfrsKOO2FAo1bQuUtjLtAj52UzC7I0dVqQKpcx1DPxkr8QIpNm37PLE01geQ0C0me7QiRiM9KrFXmDtxUSLlhPBahxg-krlaANEWDKX69nss6qKiFgip7KHM_uP-b1d1caSE8y-zdEtTHK8QJ9reMb-EHG6iPkFpYJ-2guDOUhL5559usR16o2AWoN8yRdcKtnpqwBV_n2UE4m83kLjA30PtYpqraIQp9yTa21jiVlceHZpWxx-HlOEjDE4ekNCe_xTorJ7MbHVTyfqr37o8fh8Gsh-P5_tK-qaDOO7pSMkHA

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[root@master pki]# kubectl config use-context def-ns-admin@kubernetes --kubeconfig=/root/def-ns-admin.conf 

Switched to context "def-ns-admin@kubernetes".

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[root@master pki]# kubectl config view --kubeconfig=/root/def-ns-admin.conf 

apiVersion: v1

clusters:

- cluster:

    certificate-authority-data: REDACTED

    server: https://172.16.1.100:6443

  name: kubernetes

contexts:

- context:

    cluster: kubernetes

    user: def-ns-admin

  name: def-ns-admin@kubernetes

current-context: def-ns-admin@kubernetes

kind: Config

preferences: {}

users:

- name: def-ns-admin

  user:

    token: eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IiJ9.eyJpc3MiOiJrdWJlcm5ldGVzL3NlcnZpY2VhY2NvdW50Iiwia3ViZXJuZXRlcy5pby9zZXJ2aWNlYWNjb3VudC9uYW1lc3BhY2UiOiJkZWZhdWx0Iiwia3ViZXJuZXRlcy5pby9zZXJ2aWNlYWNjb3VudC9zZWNyZXQubmFtZSI6ImRlZi1ucy1hZG1pbi10b2tlbi02NDZneCIsImt1YmVybmV0ZXMuaW8vc2VydmljZWFjY291bnQvc2VydmljZS1hY2NvdW50Lm5hbWUiOiJkZWYtbnMtYWRtaW4iLCJrdWJlcm5ldGVzLmlvL3NlcnZpY2VhY2NvdW50L3NlcnZpY2UtYWNjb3VudC51aWQiOiI4ODZiOGI2NC1jM2JmLTExZTgtYmIzNS0wMDUwNTZhMjRlY2IiLCJzdWIiOiJzeXN0ZW06c2VydmljZWFjY291bnQ6ZGVmYXVsdDpkZWYtbnMtYWRtaW4ifQ.MTyQW7Vn_1j9cfmtYAE4CepmLsaMsMfE5VG6xkx4LsfrsKOO2FAo1bQuUtjLtAj52UzC7I0dVqQKpcx1DPxkr8QIpNm37PLE01geQ0C0me7QiRiM9KrFXmDtxUSLlhPBahxg-krlaANEWDKX69nss6qKiFgip7KHM_uP-b1d1caSE8y-zdEtTHK8QJ9reMb-EHG6iPkFpYJ-2guDOUhL5559usR16o2AWoN8yRdcKtnpqwBV_n2UE4m83kLjA30PtYpqraIQp9yTa21jiVlceHZpWxx-HlOEjDE4ekNCe_xTorJ7MbHVTyfqr37o8fh8Gsh-P5_tK-qaDOO7pSMkHA

    这时候/root/def-ns-admin.conf文件就可以用在dashboard中,用它进行登录了。

总结

     1、部署: 

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kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/dashboard/master/src/deploy/recommended/kubernetes-dashboard.yaml

     2、将service改为NodePort: 

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    kubectl  patch svc kubernetes-dashboard -p '{"spec":{"type":"NodePort"}}' -n kube-system

     3、认证: 

        认证时的账户必须为ServiceAccount:作用是被dashboard pod拿来由kubernetes进行认证。 

        第一种:token方式认证: 

            a) 创建serviceaccount,根据其管理目标,使用rolebinding或者clusterrolebinding绑定至合理role或者clusterrole; 

            b)获取到此serviceAccount的secret,查看secret的详细信息,其中就有token,粘贴到web界面的令牌里面 

        第二种: kubeconfig方式认证: 把serviceaccount的token封装为kubeconfig文件。 

            a) 创建serviceaccount,根据其管理目标,使用rolebinding或者clusterrolebinding绑定至合理role或者clusterrole;

            b)

        kubect get secret | awk '/^ServiceAccountName/{print $1}'

       KUBE_TOKEN=DEF_NS_ADMIN_TOKEN=$(kubectl get secret  SERVICEACCOUNT_SERCRET_NAME -o jsonpath={.data.token}|base64 -d)

            c) 生成kubeconfig文件 

            kubectl config set-cluster --kubeconfig=/PATH/TO/SOMEFILE 

            kubectl config set-credentials NAME --token=$KUBE_TOKEN --kubeconfig=/PATH/TO/SOMEFILE

            kubctl config set-context 

            kubectl config use-context 

 

kubernetes集群的管理方式

    1、命令式:create,run,expose,delete,edit.... 

    2、命令式配置文件:create -f /PATH/TO/RESOURCE_CONFIGURATION_FILE,delete -f,replace -f  

    3、声明式配置文件:apply -f,patch, 

    一般建议不要混合使用上面三种方式。建议使用apply和patch这样的命令。 

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