Android Loader机制全面详解及源码浅析

原文出处:csdn@工匠若水,http://blog.csdn.net/yanbober/article/details/48861457

一、概述

在Android中任何耗时的操作都不能放在UI主线程中,所以耗时的操作都需要使用异步实现。同样的,在ContentProvider中也可能存在耗时操作,这时也该使用异步操作,而3.0之后最推荐的异步操作就是Loader。它可以方便我们在Activity和Fragment中异步加载数据,而不是用线程或AsyncTask,他的优点如下:

  • 提供异步加载数据机制;
  • 对数据源变化进行监听,实时更新数据;
  • 在Activity配置发生变化(如横竖屏切换)时不用重复加载数据;
  • 适用于任何Activity和Fragment;

注意:由于在我们现在的多个项目中都大量的使用了Loader来处理数据加载(而且由于粗心跳过几个坑,譬如Loader ID重复导致数据逻辑异常、多线程中restartLoader导致Loader抛出异常(最后保证都在UI线程中执行即可)等),所以接下来我们进行下使用及源码浅析。

PPPS:前方高能,文章巨长,请做好心理准备(您可以选择通过左上角目录点击索引到感兴趣的章节直接查看,或者,或者,或者直接高能往下看)。

二、基础使用实例

该基础实例讲解完全来自于官方文档,详细可以点击我查看英文原文。

既然接下来准备要说说他的使用强大之处了,那不妨我们先来一张图直观的感性认识下不用Loader(左)与用Loader(右)对我们开发者及代码复杂度和框架的影响吧,如下:
这里写图片描述

Loader API概述说明

如下是我们开发中常用的一些Loader相关接口:

Class/Interface Description
LoaderManager 一个与Activity、Fragment关联的抽象类,用于管理一个或多个Loader实例。每个Activity或Fragment只能有一个LoaderManager,而一个LoaderManager可以有多个Loader。
LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks 用于和LoaderManager交互的回调接口。譬如,可以使用onCreateLoader()创建一个新的Loader。
AsyncTaskLoader 抽象的Loader,提供一个AsyncTask继承实现。
CursorLoader AsyncTaskLoader的子类,用于向ContentResover请求返回一个Cursor。该类以标准游标查询实现了Loader协议,使用后台线程进行查询,使用这个Loader是从ContentProvider加载异步数据最好的方式。

在应用中使用Loader

在我们开发的一个App里,使用Loader时常规的步骤包含如下一些操作需求:

  • 一个Activity或Fragment;
  • 一个LoaderManager实例;
  • 一个CursorLoader,从ContentProvider加载数据;
  • 一个LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks实现,创建新Loader及管理已存在Loader;
  • 一个组织Loader数据的Adapter,如SimpleCursorAdapter;

下面我们看下具体流程。

启动一个Loader(initLoader)

一个Activity或Fragment中LoaderManager管理一个或多个Loader实例,每个Activity或Fragment只有一个LoaderManager,我们可以在Activity的onCreate()或Fragment的onActivityCreated()里初始化一个Loader。例如:

// Prepare the loader.  Either re-connect with an existing one,
// or start a new one.
getLoaderManager().initLoader(0, null, this);

可以看见上面的initLoader()方法有三个参数:

  • 第一个参数代表当前Loader的ID;
  • 第二个参数代表提供给Loader构造函数的参数,可选;
  • 第三个参数代表LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks的回调实现;

上面initLoader()方法的调用确保了一个Loader被初始化和激活的状态,该方法的调运有如下两种结果:

  • 如果代表该Loader的ID已经存在,则后面创建的Loader将直接复用已经存在的;
  • 如果代表该Loader的ID不存在,initLoader()会触发LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks回调的onCreateLoader()方法创建一个Loader;

可以看见通过initLoader()方法可以将LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks实例与Loader进行关联,且当Loader的状态变化时就被回调。所以说,如果调用者正处于其开始状态并且被请求的Loader已经存在,且已产生了数据,那么系统会立即调用onLoadFinished()(在initLoader()调用期间),所以你必须考虑到这种情况的发生。

当然了,intiLoader()会返回一个创建的Loader,但是你不用获取它的引用,因为LoadeManager会自动管理该Loader的生命周期,你只用在它回调提供的生命周期方法中做自己数据逻辑的处理即可。

重启一个Loader(restartLoader)

通过上面initLoader()方法介绍我们可以知道initLoader调运后要么得到一个ID已存在的Loader,要么创建一个新的Loader;但是有时我们想丢弃旧数据然后重新开始创建一个新Loader,这可怎么办呢?别担心,要丢弃旧数据调用restartLoader()即可。例如,SearchView.OnQueryTextListener的实现重启了Loader,当用户查询发生变化时Loader需要重启,如下:

public boolean onQueryTextChanged(String newText) {
    // Called when the action bar search text has changed.  Update
    // the search filter, and restart the loader to do a new query
    // with this filter.
    mCurFilter = !TextUtils.isEmpty(newText) ? newText : null;
    getLoaderManager().restartLoader(0, null, this);
    return true;
}

上面方法的参数啥的和再上面的init方法类似,就不再罗嗦了。

使用LoaderManager Callbacks

LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks是LoaderManager的回调交互接口。LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks包含如下三个方法:

  • onCreateLoader()
    实例化并返回一个新创建给定ID的Loader对象;
  • onLoadFinished()
    当创建好的Loader完成了数据的load之后回调此方法;
  • onLoaderReset()
    当创建好的Loader被reset时调用此方法,这样保证它的数据无效;

onCreateLoader说明

当你尝试使用一个Loader(譬如通过initLoader()方法),它会检查给定Loader的ID是否存在,如果不存在就触发LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks里的onCreateLoader()方法创建一个新Loader。创建新Loader实例典型的做法就是通过CursorLoader类创建,不过你也可以自定义一个继承自Loader的子类来实现自己的Loader。

下面的例子中我们通过onCreateLoader()回调创建一个CursorLoader实例,使用CursorLoader的构造方法创建实例时需要一些参数去查询一个ContentProvider。具体参数如下:

参数 说明
uri 准备获取内容的URI
projection 要返回的列key list,null表示返回所有列,但是返回所有列很多时候会降低性能
selection 要返回的行过滤,也就是SQL中的WHERE语句,null代表返回uri指定的所有行
selectionArgs 用来替换上面selection中包含的"?"
sortOrder 结果的行排序,也就是SQL中的ORDER BY,传递null则无序

.

 // If non-null, this is the current filter the user has provided.
String mCurFilter;
...
public Loader<Cursor> onCreateLoader(int id, Bundle args) {
    // This is called when a new Loader needs to be created.  This
    // sample only has one Loader, so we don't care about the ID.
    // First, pick the base URI to use depending on whether we are
    // currently filtering.
    Uri baseUri;
    if (mCurFilter != null) {
        baseUri = Uri.withAppendedPath(Contacts.CONTENT_FILTER_URI,
                  Uri.encode(mCurFilter));
    } else {
        baseUri = Contacts.CONTENT_URI;
    }

    // Now create and return a CursorLoader that will take care of
    // creating a Cursor for the data being displayed.
    String select = "((" + Contacts.DISPLAY_NAME + " NOTNULL) AND ("
            + Contacts.HAS_PHONE_NUMBER + "=1) AND ("
            + Contacts.DISPLAY_NAME + " != '' ))";
    return new CursorLoader(getActivity(), baseUri,
            CONTACTS_SUMMARY_PROJECTION, select, null,
            Contacts.DISPLAY_NAME + " COLLATE LOCALIZED ASC");
}

onLoadFinished说明

当创建好的Loader完成数据加载时回调此方法,我们要确保该方法在Loader释放现有维持的数据之前被调用。在这里我们应该移除所有对旧数据的使用(因为旧数据不久就会被释放),但是不用释放旧数据,因为Loader会帮我们完成旧数据的释放。

Loader一旦知道App不再使用旧数据就会释放掉。例如,如果数据来自CursorLoader里的一个Cursor,我们不应该自己在代码中调用close()方法;如果一个Cursor正在被放置到一个CursorAdapter时我们应当使用swapCursor()进行新数据交换,这样正在被放置的旧的Cursor就不会被关掉,也就不会导致Adapter的加载异常。

// This is the Adapter being used to display the list's data.
SimpleCursorAdapter mAdapter;
...

public void onLoadFinished(Loader<Cursor> loader, Cursor data) {
    // Swap the new cursor in.  (The framework will take care of closing the
    // old cursor once we return.)
    mAdapter.swapCursor(data);
}

onLoaderReset说明

当实例化好的Loader被重启时该方法被回调,这里会让Loader的数据置于无效状态。这个回调方法其实就是为了告诉我们啥时候数据要被释放掉,所以我们应该在这个时候移除对它的引用。如下移除实例:

// This is the Adapter being used to display the list's data.
SimpleCursorAdapter mAdapter;
...

public void onLoaderReset(Loader<Cursor> loader) {
    // This is called when the last Cursor provided to onLoadFinished()
    // above is about to be closed.  We need to make sure we are no
    // longer using it.
    mAdapter.swapCursor(null);
}

Loader使用实例实战

下面这个实例是一个Fragment,模拟的是用ListView显示通讯录的实时匹配查询结果,使用CursorLoader管理通讯录Provider查询。如下源码,比较简单,注释也很丰富了,所以不过多解释:

public static class CursorLoaderListFragment extends ListFragment
        implements OnQueryTextListener, LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks<Cursor> {

    // This is the Adapter being used to display the list's data.
    SimpleCursorAdapter mAdapter;

    // If non-null, this is the current filter the user has provided.
    String mCurFilter;

    @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState);

        // Give some text to display if there is no data.  In a real
        // application this would come from a resource.
        setEmptyText("No phone numbers");

        // We have a menu item to show in action bar.
        setHasOptionsMenu(true);

        // Create an empty adapter we will use to display the loaded data.
        mAdapter = new SimpleCursorAdapter(getActivity(),
                android.R.layout.simple_list_item_2, null,
                new String[] { Contacts.DISPLAY_NAME, Contacts.CONTACT_STATUS },
                new int[] { android.R.id.text1, android.R.id.text2 }, 0);
        setListAdapter(mAdapter);

        // Prepare the loader.  Either re-connect with an existing one,
        // or start a new one.
        getLoaderManager().initLoader(0, null, this);
    }

    @Override public void onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu, MenuInflater inflater) {
        // Place an action bar item for searching.
        MenuItem item = menu.add("Search");
        item.setIcon(android.R.drawable.ic_menu_search);
        item.setShowAsAction(MenuItem.SHOW_AS_ACTION_IF_ROOM);
        SearchView sv = new SearchView(getActivity());
        sv.setOnQueryTextListener(this);
        item.setActionView(sv);
    }

    public boolean onQueryTextChange(String newText) {
        // Called when the action bar search text has changed.  Update
        // the search filter, and restart the loader to do a new query
        // with this filter.
        mCurFilter = !TextUtils.isEmpty(newText) ? newText : null;
        getLoaderManager().restartLoader(0, null, this);
        return true;
    }

    @Override public boolean onQueryTextSubmit(String query) {
        // Don't care about this.
        return true;
    }

    @Override public void onListItemClick(ListView l, View v, int position, long id) {
        // Insert desired behavior here.
        Log.i("FragmentComplexList", "Item clicked: " + id);
    }

    // These are the Contacts rows that we will retrieve.
    static final String[] CONTACTS_SUMMARY_PROJECTION = new String[] {
        Contacts._ID,
        Contacts.DISPLAY_NAME,
        Contacts.CONTACT_STATUS,
        Contacts.CONTACT_PRESENCE,
        Contacts.PHOTO_ID,
        Contacts.LOOKUP_KEY,
    };
    public Loader<Cursor> onCreateLoader(int id, Bundle args) {
        // This is called when a new Loader needs to be created.  This
        // sample only has one Loader, so we don't care about the ID.
        // First, pick the base URI to use depending on whether we are
        // currently filtering.
        Uri baseUri;
        if (mCurFilter != null) {
            baseUri = Uri.withAppendedPath(Contacts.CONTENT_FILTER_URI,
                    Uri.encode(mCurFilter));
        } else {
            baseUri = Contacts.CONTENT_URI;
        }

        // Now create and return a CursorLoader that will take care of
        // creating a Cursor for the data being displayed.
        String select = "((" + Contacts.DISPLAY_NAME + " NOTNULL) AND ("
                + Contacts.HAS_PHONE_NUMBER + "=1) AND ("
                + Contacts.DISPLAY_NAME + " != '' ))";
        return new CursorLoader(getActivity(), baseUri,
                CONTACTS_SUMMARY_PROJECTION, select, null,
                Contacts.DISPLAY_NAME + " COLLATE LOCALIZED ASC");
    }

    public void onLoadFinished(Loader<Cursor> loader, Cursor data) {
        // Swap the new cursor in.  (The framework will take care of closing the
        // old cursor once we return.)
        mAdapter.swapCursor(data);
    }

    public void onLoaderReset(Loader<Cursor> loader) {
        // This is called when the last Cursor provided to onLoadFinished()
        // above is about to be closed.  We need to make sure we are no
        // longer using it.
        mAdapter.swapCursor(null);
    }
}

到此整个Loader基础使用就介绍完了,关于Loader的高级功能,譬如自定义Loader等内容这里先不贴代码说明,因为在这里一下子说完都会觉得蒙圈,而且接受难度也比较大,所以我们在上面这些基础铺垫之后乘热先来源码浅析,有了源码浅析把持住全局结构后再去用Loader的高级用法就会觉得得心应手许多。

三、源码浅析

和上面的基本使用介绍一样,关于Loader的源码浅析过程会涉及到Activity、Fragment、LoaderManager、Loader、AsyncLoader、CursorLoader等类。所以我们分析的过程还是和以前一样,依据使用顺序进行分析。

我们在分析之前先来看一个Loader框架概要图,如下:
这里写图片描述

通过上面图和前面的基础实例你会发现Loader的框架和各个类的职责都很明确。Activity和Fragment管理LoaderManager,LoaderManager管理Loader,Loader得到数据后触发在LoaderManager中实现的Loader的callback接口,LoaderManager在接收到Loader的callback回传调运时触发我们Activity或Fragment中实现的LoaderManager回调callback接口,就这样就实现了Loader的所有功能,而我们平时写代码一般只用关心LoaderManager的callback实现即可;对于自定义Loader可能还需要关心AsyncTaskLoader子类的实现。

Activity及Fragment中LoadManager的管理浅析

首先我们都知道,在使用Loader的第一步就是在Activity或者Fragment中获取LoaderManager实例,所以我们先来看下Activity和Fragment是如何管理这些LoaderManager的。

先来看看Fragment中的LoaderManager,如下:

final class FragmentState implements Parcelable {
    ......
    LoaderManagerImpl mLoaderManager;
    boolean mLoadersStarted;
    boolean mCheckedForLoaderManager;
    ......
    //fragment中获取LoaderManager办法
    public LoaderManager getLoaderManager() {
        //可以看见,一个Fragment只有一个LoaderManager
        if (mLoaderManager != null) {
            return mLoaderManager;
        }
        if (mActivity == null) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("Fragment " + this + " not attached to Activity");
        }
        mCheckedForLoaderManager = true;
        //从Activity中获取LoaderManager,传入的mWho为当前Fragment的识别key,然后create传入true表示创建!!!!!!
        mLoaderManager = mActivity.getLoaderManager(mWho, mLoadersStarted, true);
        return mLoaderManager;
    }

    public void onStart() {
        mCalled = true;

        if (!mLoadersStarted) {
            mLoadersStarted = true;
            if (!mCheckedForLoaderManager) {
                mCheckedForLoaderManager = true;
                //如果还没调运过getLoaderManager,那就尝试获取LoaderManager,传入的create为false!!!!!
                mLoaderManager = mActivity.getLoaderManager(mWho, mLoadersStarted, false);
            }
            //生命周期依附上LoaderManager
            if (mLoaderManager != null) {
                mLoaderManager.doStart();
            }
        }
    }

    public void onDestroy() {
        mCalled = true;
        if (!mCheckedForLoaderManager) {
            mCheckedForLoaderManager = true;
            //如果还没调运过getLoaderManager,那就尝试获取LoaderManager,传入的create为false!!!!!
            mLoaderManager = mActivity.getLoaderManager(mWho, mLoadersStarted, false);
        }
        //生命周期依附上LoaderManager
        if (mLoaderManager != null) {
            mLoaderManager.doDestroy();
        }
    }

    void performStart() {
        ......
        mCalled = false;
        onStart();
        ......
        //生命周期依附上LoaderManager
        if (mLoaderManager != null) {
            mLoaderManager.doReportStart();
        }
    }

    void performStop() {
        ......
        mCalled = false;
        onStop();
        ......
        if (mLoadersStarted) {
            mLoadersStarted = false;
            if (!mCheckedForLoaderManager) {
                mCheckedForLoaderManager = true;
                //如果还没调运过getLoaderManager,那就尝试获取LoaderManager,传入的create为false!!!!!
                mLoaderManager = mActivity.getLoaderManager(mWho, mLoadersStarted, false);
            }
            if (mLoaderManager != null) {
                //生命周期依附上LoaderManager
                if (mActivity == null || !mActivity.mChangingConfigurations) {
                    mLoaderManager.doStop();
                } else {
                    mLoaderManager.doRetain();
                }
            }
        }
    }

    void performDestroyView() {
        ......
        mCalled = false;
        onDestroyView();
        ......
        //生命周期依附上LoaderManager
        if (mLoaderManager != null) {
            mLoaderManager.doReportNextStart();
        }
    }
}

从上面可以看出,Fragment在其生命周期内会控制LoaderManager(LoaderManager其实控制了Loader)的doStart、doDestroy等方法,也就是说我们在Fragment中只管通过getLoaderManager方法来获取LoaderManager实例,然后使用就行,别的Fragment都会帮我们处理OK的。

接下来看看Activity中的LoaderManager,如下:

public class Activity extends ContextThemeWrapper
        implements ... {
        //mAllLoaderManagers保存了Activity与Fragment的所有LoaderManager
    ArrayMap<String, LoaderManagerImpl> mAllLoaderManagers;
    LoaderManagerImpl mLoaderManager;
    ......
    //Activity中获取LoaderManager实例的方法
    public LoaderManager getLoaderManager() {
        //可以看见,一个Activity只有一个LoaderManager
        if (mLoaderManager != null) {
            return mLoaderManager;
        }
        mCheckedForLoaderManager = true;
        //咦?这不就是上面Fragment的getLoaderManager中调运的那个activity中的getLoaderManager吗,只是和这里的参数不一样而已
        mLoaderManager = getLoaderManager("(root)", mLoadersStarted, true);
        return mLoaderManager;
    }
    //Activity与Fragment获取LoaderManager实例的真正方法!!
    LoaderManagerImpl getLoaderManager(String who, boolean started, boolean create) {
        //可见一个Activity维护一个mAllLoaderManagers的MAP
        if (mAllLoaderManagers == null) {
            mAllLoaderManagers = new ArrayMap<String, LoaderManagerImpl>();
        }
        //尝试从缓存mAllLoaderManagers的MAP中获取已经实例化的LoaderManager实例
        LoaderManagerImpl lm = mAllLoaderManagers.get(who);
        if (lm == null) {
            if (create) {
                //如果没有找到并且需要实例化create(切记这个create参数是很重要的),就调运LoaderManagerImpl构造方法实例化一个LoaderManager对象,然后存入缓存mAllLoaderManagers的MAP中
                lm = new LoaderManagerImpl(who, this, started);
                mAllLoaderManagers.put(who, lm);
            }
        } else {
            lm.updateActivity(this);
        }
        return lm;
    }

    void invalidateFragment(String who) {
        if (mAllLoaderManagers != null) {
            LoaderManagerImpl lm = mAllLoaderManagers.get(who);
            if (lm != null && !lm.mRetaining) {
                //生命周期依附上LoaderManager
                lm.doDestroy();
                mAllLoaderManagers.remove(who);
            }
        }
    }

    final void performStop() {
        if (mLoadersStarted) {
            mLoadersStarted = false;
            //生命周期依附上LoaderManager
            if (mLoaderManager != null) {
                //mChangingConfigurations表示如果当前发生了配置变化则为true,否则为false!!!!!!!重点,Loader特性之一
                if (!mChangingConfigurations) {
                    //当前Activity的stop不是由配置变化引起则直接调用LoaderManager的doStop()方法!!!!!!
                    mLoaderManager.doStop();
                } else {
                    //当前Activity配置变化,所以需要保存当前的loaderManager,在Activity恢复时恢复这个LoaderManager!!!!!!
                    mLoaderManager.doRetain();
                }
            }
        }
    ......
    }

    final void performDestroy() {
        ......
        onDestroy();
        //生命周期依附上LoaderManager
        if (mLoaderManager != null) {
            mLoaderManager.doDestroy();
        }
        ......
    }

    protected void onCreate(@Nullable Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        if (mLastNonConfigurationInstances != null) {
            //从mLastNonConfigurationInstances中恢复mAllLoaderManagers(mLastNonConfigurationInstances是从onAttach中恢复的),Activity配置变化时会走这里!!!!
            mAllLoaderManagers = mLastNonConfigurationInstances.loaders;
        }
        ......
        mCalled = true;
    }

    final void performStart() {
    ......
        if (mAllLoaderManagers != null) {
            final int N = mAllLoaderManagers.size();
            LoaderManagerImpl loaders[] = new LoaderManagerImpl[N];
            for (int i=N-1; i>=0; i--) {
                loaders[i] = mAllLoaderManagers.valueAt(i);
            }
            //生命周期依附上LoaderManager
            for (int i=0; i<N; i++) {
                LoaderManagerImpl lm = loaders[i];
                //调用LoaderManager.finishRetain()以及doReportStart()方法来恢复LoaderManager的状态!!!!!
                lm.finishRetain();
                lm.doReportStart();
            }
        }
        mActivityTransitionState.enterReady(this);
    }
    //该方法会被ActivityThread类调用,且调运时机早于performDestroy()方法!!!!!!
    NonConfigurationInstances retainNonConfigurationInstances() {
        ......
        NonConfigurationInstances nci = new NonConfigurationInstances();
        ......
        //配置变化时保存mAllLoaderManagers!!!!!!
        nci.loaders = mAllLoaderManagers;
        return nci;
    }
}

通过上面的分析可以发现,Activity其实真正的管理了Activity及Fragment的LoaderManager(Fragment也会管理一部分自己LoaderManager的周期),而LoaderManager又管理了Loader,可以发现他们各自的管理范围都是十分的清晰明了的。

LoadManager及其实现类LoadManagerImpl的浅析

上面分析Activity及Fragment中获取LoaderManager实例时已经知道,我们获取的LoaderManager实例其实就是LoaderManagerImpl对象,而LoaderManagerImpl又是LoaderManager类的子类,所以接下来我们来分析这两个父子类。

先看下抽象父类LoaderManager,如下

public abstract class LoaderManager {
    //LoaderManager的回调接口定义
    public interface LoaderCallbacks<D> {
        public Loader<D> onCreateLoader(int id, Bundle args);
        public void onLoadFinished(Loader<D> loader, D data);
        public void onLoaderReset(Loader<D> loader);
    }
    //下面这些方法没必要再细说了,上面介绍过的
    public abstract <D> Loader<D> initLoader(int id, Bundle args,
            LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks<D> callback);

    public abstract <D> Loader<D> restartLoader(int id, Bundle args,
            LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks<D> callback);
    //会触发回调的onLoaderReset方法
    public abstract void destroyLoader(int id);

    public abstract <D> Loader<D> getLoader(int id);

    public abstract void dump(String prefix, FileDescriptor fd, PrintWriter writer, String[] args);

    public static void enableDebugLogging(boolean enabled) {
        LoaderManagerImpl.DEBUG = enabled;
    }
}

可以看见LoaderManager抽象类只是定义了一些规范接口而已,那么接着我们看下抽象类LoaderManager的实现类LoaderManagerImpl,如下:

class LoaderManagerImpl extends LoaderManager {
    static final String TAG = "LoaderManager";
    static boolean DEBUG = false;

    //保存当前存活的Loader
    final SparseArray<LoaderInfo> mLoaders = new SparseArray<LoaderInfo>(0);
    //保存已经运行完的Loader
    final SparseArray<LoaderInfo> mInactiveLoaders = new SparseArray<LoaderInfo>(0);

    final String mWho;

    Activity mActivity;
    boolean mStarted;
    boolean mRetaining;
    boolean mRetainingStarted;
    //是否正在创建Loader,多线程中同时调运创建会导致异常
    boolean mCreatingLoader;
    //Loader的封装类
    final class LoaderInfo implements Loader.OnLoadCompleteListener<Object>,
            Loader.OnLoadCanceledListener<Object> {
        final int mId;
        final Bundle mArgs;
        LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks<Object> mCallbacks;
        Loader<Object> mLoader;
        boolean mHaveData;
        boolean mDeliveredData;
        Object mData;
        boolean mStarted;
        //mRetaining标记Activity配置变化时保持当前Loader,不用销毁;和上面分析Activity的LoaderManager的retainNonConfigurationInstances方法关联!!!!!!
        boolean mRetaining;
        boolean mRetainingStarted;
        boolean mReportNextStart;
        boolean mDestroyed;
        boolean mListenerRegistered;

        LoaderInfo mPendingLoader;
        //LoaderInfo构造方法
        public LoaderInfo(int id, Bundle args, LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks<Object> callbacks) {
            mId = id;
            mArgs = args;
            mCallbacks = callbacks;
        }
        //启动一个Loader
        void start() {
            //配置改变恢复则不用启动,用原来的
            if (mRetaining && mRetainingStarted) {
                mStarted = true;
                return;
            }
            //如果已经启动,则不用再restart了
            if (mStarted) {
                return;
            }

            mStarted = true;

            //如果当前封装中mLoader为空并且通过构造方法的mCallbacks不为空则回调onCreateLoader方法创建Loader
            if (mLoader == null && mCallbacks != null) {
               mLoader = mCallbacks.onCreateLoader(mId, mArgs);
            }
            if (mLoader != null) {
                if (mLoader.getClass().isMemberClass()
                        && !Modifier.isStatic(mLoader.getClass().getModifiers())) {
                        //如果当前创建的Loader对象是一个非静态内部类则抛异常!!!!!!
                    throw new IllegalArgumentException(
                            "Object returned from onCreateLoader must not be a non-static inner member class: "
                            + mLoader);
                }
                if (!mListenerRegistered) {
                    //注册Loader的监听方法
                    mLoader.registerListener(mId, this);
                    mLoader.registerOnLoadCanceledListener(this);
                    mListenerRegistered = true;
                }
                //调运Loader的startLoading方法
                mLoader.startLoading();
            }
        }
        //Activity的配置改变时进行标志位的设置,以便可以保存,配合上面Activity的分析!!!!!!
        void retain() {
            mRetaining = true;
            ......
        }
        //Activity配置变化后重启后如果有数据则通知回调方法,配合上面Activity的分析!!!!!!
        void finishRetain() {
            ......
            if (mStarted && mHaveData && !mReportNextStart) {
                callOnLoadFinished(mLoader, mData);
            }
        }
        //配合上面Activity的分析!!!!!!
        void reportStart() {
            ......
        }
        //停止Loader
        void stop() {
            mStarted = false;
            if (!mRetaining) {
                //如果不是Activity配置变化,即不用保存则注销掉这些回调
                if (mLoader != null && mListenerRegistered) {
                    ......
                }
            }
        }
        //取消掉Loader
        void cancel() {
            ......
        }
        //销毁掉Loader
        void destroy() {
            ......
            if (mCallbacks != null && mLoader != null && mHaveData && needReset) {
                ......
                try {
                    //在destroy时如果有数据存在则调用callback的onLoaderReset方法!!!!!!
                    mCallbacks.onLoaderReset(mLoader);
                } finally {
                    ......
                }
            }
            ......
            if (mLoader != null) {
                //注销监听方法
                if (mListenerRegistered) {
                    ......
                }
                //close Cursor等重置操作
                mLoader.reset();
            }
            if (mPendingLoader != null) {
                mPendingLoader.destroy();
            }
        }
    //Loader被取消时回调该方法
        @Override
        public void onLoadCanceled(Loader<Object> loader) {
            ......
            LoaderInfo pending = mPendingLoader;
            //执行最新的Loader
            if (pending != null) {
                mPendingLoader = null;
                mLoaders.put(mId, null);
                destroy();
                installLoader(pending);
            }
        }
        //加载完成时回调
        @Override
        public void onLoadComplete(Loader<Object> loader, Object data) {
            ......
            //执行最新的Loader
            if (pending != null) {
                mPendingLoader = null;
                mLoaders.put(mId, null);
                destroy();
                installLoader(pending);
                return;
            }

            if (mData != data || !mHaveData) {
                mData = data;
                mHaveData = true;
                if (mStarted) {
                    callOnLoadFinished(loader, data);
                }
            }
            ......
        }
        //调用onLoadFinished
        void callOnLoadFinished(Loader<Object> loader, Object data) {
            if (mCallbacks != null) {
                ......
                try {
                    //回调onLoadFinished方法
                    mCallbacks.onLoadFinished(loader, data);
                } finally {
                    ......
                }
                mDeliveredData = true;
            }
        }
    }

    //!!!!!!真正LoaderManagerImpl的构造方法
    LoaderManagerImpl(String who, Activity activity, boolean started) {
        mWho = who;
        mActivity = activity;
        mStarted = started;
    }

    //更新当前Activity引用
    void updateActivity(Activity activity) {
        mActivity = activity;
    }

    //私有的创建Loader方法
    private LoaderInfo createLoader(int id, Bundle args,
            LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks<Object> callback) {
        LoaderInfo info = new LoaderInfo(id, args,  (LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks<Object>)callback);
        //回调callback的onCreateLoader方法得到Loader对象
        Loader<Object> loader = callback.onCreateLoader(id, args);
        //把得到的Loader对象包装成LoaderInfo对象
        info.mLoader = (Loader<Object>)loader;
        return info;
    }

    //包装了创建Loader与install方法,并将mCreatingLoader标记置位
    private LoaderInfo createAndInstallLoader(int id, Bundle args,
            LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks<Object> callback) {
        try {
            mCreatingLoader = true;
            //调运上面的私有创建方法创建LoaderInfo对象
            LoaderInfo info = createLoader(id, args, callback);
            //把创建的LoaderInfo对象传入installLoader方法
            installLoader(info);
            return info;
        } finally {
            mCreatingLoader = false;
        }
    }

    void installLoader(LoaderInfo info) {
        //将创建的LoaderInfo对象存入mLoaders的Map中
        mLoaders.put(info.mId, info);
        if (mStarted) {
            //如果Activity已经started,则启动LoaderInfo的start方法
            info.start();
        }
    }

    //public的方法,创建一个Loader,前面介绍过的
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    public <D> Loader<D> initLoader(int id, Bundle args, LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks<D> callback) {
        //如果多线程中正在有创建的则抛出异常(写代码要注意这种情况,尤其是跑Monkey容易抛出,解决办法就是保证都在统一线程中执行!!!!!!)
        if (mCreatingLoader) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("Called while creating a loader");
        }
        //从现有的Map中尝试获取指定ID的LoaderInfo对象
        LoaderInfo info = mLoaders.get(id);
        if (info == null) {
            //发现不存在就调运上面的createAndInstallLoader创建一个
            info = createAndInstallLoader(id, args,  (LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks<Object>)callback);
        } else {
            //否则还用当前的Loader,只是重新赋值了callBack而已
            info.mCallbacks = (LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks<Object>)callback;
        }

        if (info.mHaveData && mStarted) {
            //已经有数据,直接调运LoaderInfo的callOnLoadFinished
            info.callOnLoadFinished(info.mLoader, info.mData);
        }
        //返回Loader对象
        return (Loader<D>)info.mLoader;
    }

    //重新创造Loader,前面介绍过的
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    public <D> Loader<D> restartLoader(int id, Bundle args, LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks<D> callback) {
        if (mCreatingLoader) {
            //如果多线程中正在有创建的则抛出异常(写代码要注意这种情况,尤其是跑Monkey容易抛出,解决办法就是保证都在统一线程中执行!!!!!!)
            throw new IllegalStateException("Called while creating a loader");
        }

        LoaderInfo info = mLoaders.get(id);
        if (info != null) {
            LoaderInfo inactive = mInactiveLoaders.get(id);
            if (inactive != null) {
                if (info.mHaveData) {
                    //发现是已经运行完的Loader且已经存在的Loader有数据则destroy掉运行完的Loader
                    inactive.mDeliveredData = false;
                    inactive.destroy();
                    info.mLoader.abandon();
                    mInactiveLoaders.put(id, info);
                } else {
                    if (!info.mStarted) {
                        //有相同id的Loader还没start则destory掉
                        mLoaders.put(id, null);
                        info.destroy();
                    } else {
                        //有一个相同id的Loader正在加载数据,但是还没加载完,调用它的cancel()方法通知取消加载
                        info.cancel();
                        if (info.mPendingLoader != null) {
                            info.mPendingLoader.destroy();
                            info.mPendingLoader = null;
                        }
                        //创建一个指定id的Loader同时赋给mPendingLoader,因为这个时候已经有一个Loader正在加载数据,而且我们已经调用了其cancel()方法来通知取消加载
                        info.mPendingLoader = createLoader(id, args, 
                                (LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks<Object>)callback);
                        //返回创建的Loader
                        return (Loader<D>)info.mPendingLoader.mLoader;
                    }
                }
            } else {
                //终止已存在的Loader
                info.mLoader.abandon();
                mInactiveLoaders.put(id, info);
            }
        }
        //重新创建Loader返回
        info = createAndInstallLoader(id, args,  (LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks<Object>)callback);
        return (Loader<D>)info.mLoader;
    }

    //销毁指定id的Loader
    public void destroyLoader(int id) {
        if (mCreatingLoader) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("Called while creating a loader");
        }
        //不解释,单纯的destory
        int idx = mLoaders.indexOfKey(id);
        if (idx >= 0) {
            LoaderInfo info = mLoaders.valueAt(idx);
            mLoaders.removeAt(idx);
            info.destroy();
        }
        idx = mInactiveLoaders.indexOfKey(id);
        if (idx >= 0) {
            LoaderInfo info = mInactiveLoaders.valueAt(idx);
            mInactiveLoaders.removeAt(idx);
            info.destroy();
        }
        ......
    }

    //获取指定id的Loader对象
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    public <D> Loader<D> getLoader(int id) {
        if (mCreatingLoader) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("Called while creating a loader");
        }
        //优先获取LoaderInfo中的mPendingLoader
        LoaderInfo loaderInfo = mLoaders.get(id);
        if (loaderInfo != null) {
            if (loaderInfo.mPendingLoader != null) {
                return (Loader<D>)loaderInfo.mPendingLoader.mLoader;
            }
            return (Loader<D>)loaderInfo.mLoader;
        }
        return null;
    }
    ......
}

我勒个去!好长,好累!通过上面粗略的分析你会发现和我们上面基础实例介绍LoaderManager的方法时描述的一样,每个方法都有自己的特点,发挥着各自的作用,LoaderManager的实质是将Loader对象转换为LoaderInfo来进行管理,也就是管理了所有的Loader对象。

Loader及其实现类的浅析

上面分析了Activity及Fragment管理了LoaderManager的相关方法,LoaderManager管理了Loader的相关方法,那么接下来我们就来看看这个被管理的终极目标Loader是咋回事,还有他的子类咋回事。

先来看看我画的一张关系图,如下:

我去,这图现在看可能有些吓人,我们还是先来慢慢分析一下再说吧。

Loader基类源码浅析

我们先来看看这个Loader基类吧,该类核心方法及内部类结构图如下:

这里写图片描述

代码分析如下:

public class Loader<D> {
    int mId;
    OnLoadCompleteListener<D> mListener;
    OnLoadCanceledListener<D> mOnLoadCanceledListener;
    Context mContext;
    boolean mStarted = false;
    boolean mAbandoned = false;
    boolean mReset = true;
    boolean mContentChanged = false;
    boolean mProcessingChange = false;
    //数据源变化监听器(观察者模式),实现了ContentObserver类
    public final class ForceLoadContentObserver extends ContentObserver {
        public ForceLoadContentObserver() {
            super(new Handler());
        }

        @Override
        public boolean deliverSelfNotifications() {
            return true;
        }

        @Override
        public void onChange(boolean selfChange) {
            //实质是调运Loader的forceLoad方法
            onContentChanged();
        }
    }

    //Loader加载完成接口,当加载完成时Loader通知loaderManager,loaderManager再回调我们initLoader方法的callback
    public interface OnLoadCompleteListener<D> {
        public void onLoadComplete(Loader<D> loader, D data);
    }
    //LoaderManager中监听cancel,同上类似
    public interface OnLoadCanceledListener<D> {
        public void onLoadCanceled(Loader<D> loader);
    }

    //构造方法
    public Loader(Context context) {
        //mContext持有Application的Context,防止泄露内存等
        mContext = context.getApplicationContext();
    }

    //加载完成时回调传递加载数据结果,实质是对OnLoadCompleteListener接口方法的封装
    public void deliverResult(D data) {
        if (mListener != null) {
            mListener.onLoadComplete(this, data);
        }
    }
    //类似同上,对OnLoadCanceledListener的方法的封装
    public void deliverCancellation() {
        if (mOnLoadCanceledListener != null) {
            mOnLoadCanceledListener.onLoadCanceled(this);
        }
    }

    public Context getContext() {
        return mContext;
    }
    public int getId() {
        return mId;
    }
    public void registerListener(int id, OnLoadCompleteListener<D> listener) {
        mListener = listener;
        mId = id;
    }
    public void unregisterListener(OnLoadCompleteListener<D> listener) {
        mListener = null;
    }
    public void registerOnLoadCanceledListener(OnLoadCanceledListener<D> listener) {
        mOnLoadCanceledListener = listener;
    }
    public void unregisterOnLoadCanceledListener(OnLoadCanceledListener<D> listener) {
        mOnLoadCanceledListener = null;
    }
    public boolean isStarted() {
        return mStarted;
    }
    public boolean isAbandoned() {
        return mAbandoned;
    }
    public boolean isReset() {
        return mReset;
    }

    //开始加载数据时LoaderManager会调用该方法
    public final void startLoading() {
        //设置标记
        mStarted = true;
        mReset = false;
        mAbandoned = false;
        onStartLoading();
    }

    //真正开始加载数据的地方******空方法,子类实现!!!!!!
    protected void onStartLoading() {
    }

    //取消Loader的方法
    public boolean cancelLoad() {
        return onCancelLoad();
    }

    //真正取消的地方******,子类实现!!!!!!return false表示取消失败(因为已完成或未开始)
    protected boolean onCancelLoad() {
        return false;
    }

    //强制重新Loader,放弃旧数据
    public void forceLoad() {
        onForceLoad();
    }

    //真正重新Loader的地方******空方法,子类实现!!!!!!
    protected void onForceLoad() {
    }

    //同上
    public void stopLoading() {
        mStarted = false;
        onStopLoading();
    }
    protected void onStopLoading() {
    }

    //同上
    public void abandon() {
        mAbandoned = true;
        onAbandon();
    }
    protected void onAbandon() {
    }

    //同上
    public void reset() {
        onReset();
        mReset = true;
        mStarted = false;
        mAbandoned = false;
        mContentChanged = false;
        mProcessingChange = false;
    }
    protected void onReset() {
    }

    //Loader数据变化的一些标记处理
    public boolean takeContentChanged() {
        boolean res = mContentChanged;
        mContentChanged = false;
        mProcessingChange |= res;
        return res;
    }
    public void commitContentChanged() {
        mProcessingChange = false;
    }
    public void rollbackContentChanged() {
        if (mProcessingChange) {
            mContentChanged = true;
        }
    }

    //上面ForceLoadContentObserver内部类的onChange方法调运
    public void onContentChanged() {
        if (mStarted) {
            forceLoad();
        } else {
            mContentChanged = true;
        }
    }

    //一些方便调试的方法
    public String dataToString(D data)
    public String toString()
    public void dump(String prefix, FileDescriptor fd, PrintWriter writer, String[] args)
}

通过上面粗略的分析可以发现,Loader基类无非也就是一个方法接口的定义类,组织预留了一些方法供LoaderManager去调运处理,同时需要子类实现其提供的一些onXXX方法,以便LoaderManager调运Loader的方法时可以触发Loader子类的实现逻辑。

AsyncTaskLoader抽象子类源码浅析

上面既然说了Loader类的作用主要是规定接口,同时供LoaderManager管理,那LoaderManager管理的Loader自然需要做一些事情,也就是说我们需要继承Loader实现一些逻辑操作。然而好在系统API已经帮我们实现了一些简单的封装实现,我们这里就先来看下Loader的直接子类AsyncTaskLoader吧,先来看下该抽象子类的方法及内部类粗略图,如下:
这里写图片描述

代码分析如下:

public abstract class AsyncTaskLoader<D> extends Loader<D> {
    static final String TAG = "AsyncTaskLoader";
    static final boolean DEBUG = false;
    //LoadTask内部类是对AsyncTask的封装,实现了Runnable接口
    final class LoadTask extends AsyncTask<Void, Void, D> implements Runnable {
        ......
        @Override
        protected D doInBackground(Void... params) {
            try {
                //AsyncTask的子线程中执行AsyncTaskLoader的onLoadInBackground方法!!!!重点
                D data = AsyncTaskLoader.this.onLoadInBackground();
                //把执行结果数据D返回到UI线程
                return data;
            } catch (OperationCanceledException ex) {
                if (!isCancelled()) {
                    throw ex;
                }
                return null;
            }
        }

        /* Runs on the UI thread */
        @Override
        protected void onPostExecute(D data) {
            //AsyncTask子线程执行完毕后回调AsyncTaskLoader的dispatchOnLoadComplete方法
            AsyncTaskLoader.this.dispatchOnLoadComplete(this, data);
        }

        /* Runs on the UI thread */
        @Override
        protected void onCancelled(D data) {
            //取消AsyncTask时调运
            AsyncTaskLoader.this.dispatchOnCancelled(this, data);
        }

        //Runnable的实现方法
        @Override
        public void run() {
            waiting = false;
            AsyncTaskLoader.this.executePendingTask();
        }
    ......
    }

    private final Executor mExecutor;

    volatile LoadTask mTask;
    volatile LoadTask mCancellingTask;

    long mUpdateThrottle;
    long mLastLoadCompleteTime = -10000;
    Handler mHandler;
    //public构造方法
    public AsyncTaskLoader(Context context) {
        this(context, AsyncTask.THREAD_POOL_EXECUTOR);
    }

    /** {@hide} 无法被外部调运的构造方法 */
    public AsyncTaskLoader(Context context, Executor executor) {
        super(context);
        mExecutor = executor;
    }

    public void setUpdateThrottle(long delayMS) {
        mUpdateThrottle = delayMS;
        if (delayMS != 0) {
            mHandler = new Handler();
        }
    }

    @Override
    protected void onForceLoad() {
        super.onForceLoad();
        //取消当前的Loader
        cancelLoad();
        //新建task并执行
        mTask = new LoadTask();
        executePendingTask();
    }

    @Override
    protected boolean onCancelLoad() {
        ......
    }

    public void onCanceled(D data) {
    }

    //LoadTask的Runnable方法run中执行
    void executePendingTask() {
        if (mCancellingTask == null && mTask != null) {
            if (mTask.waiting) {
                mTask.waiting = false;
                mHandler.removeCallbacks(mTask);
            }
            if (mUpdateThrottle > 0) {
                long now = SystemClock.uptimeMillis();
                if (now < (mLastLoadCompleteTime+mUpdateThrottle)) {
                    // Not yet time to do another load.
                    mTask.waiting = true;
                    mHandler.postAtTime(mTask, mLastLoadCompleteTime+mUpdateThrottle);
                    return;
                }
            }
            //真正的触发执行AsyncTask方法
            mTask.executeOnExecutor(mExecutor, (Void[]) null);
        }
    }

    void dispatchOnCancelled(LoadTask task, D data) {
        onCanceled(data);
        if (mCancellingTask == task) {
            rollbackContentChanged();
            mLastLoadCompleteTime = SystemClock.uptimeMillis();
            mCancellingTask = null;
            //触发Loader的接口方法onLoadCanceled,在LoaderManager中实现
            deliverCancellation();
            executePendingTask();
        }
    }

    void dispatchOnLoadComplete(LoadTask task, D data) {
        if (mTask != task) {
            dispatchOnCancelled(task, data);
        } else {
            if (isAbandoned()) {
                // This cursor has been abandoned; just cancel the new data.
                onCanceled(data);
            } else {
                commitContentChanged();
                mLastLoadCompleteTime = SystemClock.uptimeMillis();
                mTask = null;
                //触发Loader的接口方法onLoadComplete,在LoaderManager中实现
                deliverResult(data);
            }
        }
    }
    //需要子类实现!!!!!在子线程中执行
    public abstract D loadInBackground();

    //LoadTask(AsyncTask的子线程中回调)中调运
    protected D onLoadInBackground() {
        return loadInBackground();
    }

    //LoadTask(AsyncTask的onCancelLoad中回调)调运
    public void cancelLoadInBackground() {
    }

    public boolean isLoadInBackgroundCanceled() {
        return mCancellingTask != null;
    }
    //锁标记处理
    public void waitForLoader() {
        LoadTask task = mTask;
        if (task != null) {
            task.waitForLoader();
        }
    }
}

可以看见上面继承Loader的AsyncTaskLoader其实质是提供了一个基于AsyncTask工作机制的Loader(子类LoadTask继承AsyncTask< Void, Void, D >,并且实现了Runable接口,功能十分强大。),但是不可直接用,因为其为abstract抽象类,所以我们需要继承实现它才可以使用,然而好在系统API已经帮我们提供了他现成的子类CursorLoader,但CursorLoader同时也限制了Loader的泛型数据为Cursor类型。当然了,我们如果想要Loader自己的类型数据那也很简单—继承实现AsyncTaskLoader即可,后面会给出例子的。

CursorLoader子类源码浅析

有了上面继承自Loader的抽象AsyncTaskLoader,接下来我们就来看看SDK为我们提供的抽象AsyncTaskLoader实现类CursorLoader,我们先来粗略看看该类的方法图,如下:

这里写图片描述

具体代码分析如下:

//继承自AsyncTaskLoader,数据类型为Cursor的Loader异步加载实现类
public class CursorLoader extends AsyncTaskLoader<Cursor> {
    //ContentObserver的子类ForceLoadContentObserver
    final ForceLoadContentObserver mObserver;

    Uri mUri;
    String[] mProjection;
    String mSelection;
    String[] mSelectionArgs;
    String mSortOrder;

    Cursor mCursor;
    CancellationSignal mCancellationSignal;

    /* Runs on a worker thread 
    最核心的实现方法,在这里查询获取数据 */
    @Override
    public Cursor loadInBackground() {
        synchronized (this) {
            if (isLoadInBackgroundCanceled()) {
                throw new OperationCanceledException();
            }
            mCancellationSignal = new CancellationSignal();
        }
        try {
            //不过多解释,耗时的查询操作
            Cursor cursor = getContext().getContentResolver().query(mUri, mProjection, mSelection,
                    mSelectionArgs, mSortOrder, mCancellationSignal);
            if (cursor != null) {
                try {
                    // Ensure the cursor window is filled.
                    cursor.getCount();
                    //给Cursor设置观察者;ContentProvider通知Cursor的观察者数据发生了改变,Cursor通知CursorLoader的观察者数据发生了改变,CursorLoader通过ContentProvider重新加载新的数据
                    cursor.registerContentObserver(mObserver);
                } catch (RuntimeException ex) {
                    cursor.close();
                    throw ex;
                }
            }
            return cursor;
        } finally {
            synchronized (this) {
                mCancellationSignal = null;
            }
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void cancelLoadInBackground() {
        super.cancelLoadInBackground();

        synchronized (this) {
            if (mCancellationSignal != null) {
                mCancellationSignal.cancel();
            }
        }
    }

    /* Runs on the UI thread */
    @Override
    public void deliverResult(Cursor cursor) {
        if (isReset()) {
            // An async query came in while the loader is stopped
            if (cursor != null) {
                cursor.close();
            }
            return;
        }
        Cursor oldCursor = mCursor;
        mCursor = cursor;

        if (isStarted()) {
            super.deliverResult(cursor);
        }

        if (oldCursor != null && oldCursor != cursor && !oldCursor.isClosed()) {
            oldCursor.close();
        }
    }

    public CursorLoader(Context context) {
        super(context);
        mObserver = new ForceLoadContentObserver();
    }

    public CursorLoader(Context context, Uri uri, String[] projection, String selection,
            String[] selectionArgs, String sortOrder) {
        super(context);
        //新建一个当前类(Loader)的内部类对象,数据库变化时调运ForceLoadContentObserver的onChange方法,onChange调运Loader的onContentChanged方法,onContentChanged调运Loader的forceLoad方法
        mObserver = new ForceLoadContentObserver();
        mUri = uri;
        mProjection = projection;
        mSelection = selection;
        mSelectionArgs = selectionArgs;
        mSortOrder = sortOrder;
    }

    @Override
    protected void onStartLoading() {
        if (mCursor != null) {
            deliverResult(mCursor);
        }
        if (takeContentChanged() || mCursor == null) {
            forceLoad();
        }
    }

    @Override
    protected void onStopLoading() {
        // Attempt to cancel the current load task if possible.
        cancelLoad();
    }

    @Override
    public void onCanceled(Cursor cursor) {
        if (cursor != null && !cursor.isClosed()) {
            cursor.close();
        }
    }

    @Override
    protected void onReset() {
        super.onReset();

        // Ensure the loader is stopped
        onStopLoading();

        if (mCursor != null && !mCursor.isClosed()) {
            mCursor.close();
        }
        mCursor = null;
    }

    public Uri getUri() {
        return mUri;
    }

    public void setUri(Uri uri) {
        mUri = uri;
    }

    public String[] getProjection() {
        return mProjection;
    }

    public void setProjection(String[] projection) {
        mProjection = projection;
    }

    public String getSelection() {
        return mSelection;
    }

    public void setSelection(String selection) {
        mSelection = selection;
    }

    public String[] getSelectionArgs() {
        return mSelectionArgs;
    }

    public void setSelectionArgs(String[] selectionArgs) {
        mSelectionArgs = selectionArgs;
    }

    public String getSortOrder() {
        return mSortOrder;
    }

    public void setSortOrder(String sortOrder) {
        mSortOrder = sortOrder;
    }
}

可以发现,CursorLoader的封装大大简化了应用开发者代码的复杂度;它完全就是一个异步的数据库查询瑞士军刀,没有啥特别需要分析的地方,所以不再过多说明。

Loaders相关源码浅析总结

通过上面我们的源码分析和分析前那副图可以总结如下结论:

一次完整的数据加载流程为Activity调用LoaderManager的doStart()方法,然后LoaderManager调用Loader的startLoading()方法,然后Loader调运AsyncTaskLoader的doingBackground()方法进行耗时数据加载,然后AsyncTaskLoader回调LoaderManager的complete数据加载完成方法,接着LoaderManager回调我们在Activity中实现的callback中的onLoadFinish()方法。

Acivity和Fragment的生命周期主动管理了LoaderManager,每个Activity用一个ArrayMap的mAllLoaderManager来保存当前Activity及其附属Frament的唯一LoaderManager;在Activity配置发生变化时,Activity在destory前会保存mAllLoaderManager,当Activity再重新创建时,会在Activity的onAttcach()、onCreate()、performStart()方法中恢复mAllLoaderManager。

LoaderManager给Activity提供了管理自己的一些方法;同时主动管理了对应的Loader,它把每一个Loader封装为LoadInfo对象,同时它负责主动调运管理Loader的startLoading()、stopLoading()、,forceLoad()等方法。

由于整个Activity和Fragment主动管理了Loader,所以关于Loader的释放(譬如CursorLoader的Cursor关闭等)不需要我们人为处理,Loader框架会帮我们很好的处理的;同时特别注意,对于CursorLoader,当我们数据源发生变化时Loader框架会通过ContentObserver调用onContentChanged的forceLoad方法重新请求数据进行回调刷新。

好了,至此你会发现Loader真的很牛叉,No!应该是Google的工程师真的很牛叉,架构真的很赞,值得推荐。

四、应用层开发之Loader进阶实战

上面对于Loader的基础使用及源码框架都进行了简单分析,有了上面的铺垫我们再回过头来看看我们开发中的一些高级技巧,通过这些高级技巧不仅是对前面源码分析的实例验证,也是对自己知识的积累。

ContentPorvider情况下的CurSorLoader自动刷新

在我们使用CurSorLoader时大家都会考虑一种情况的处理—–当数据库发生变化时如何自动刷新当前UI。呵呵,我们先来说说这个原理,数据库在数据改变时通过ContentPorvider和ContentResolver发出通知,接着ContentProvider通知Cursor的观察者数据发生了变化,然后Cursor通知CursorLoader的观察者数据发生了变化,接着CursorLoader通过ContentProvider加载新数据,完事调用CursorAdapter的changeCursor()用新数据替换旧数据显示。

这个过程具体的实现步骤如下:

  • 对获取的Cursor数据设置需要监听的URI(即,在ContentProvider的query()方法或者Loader的loadingBackground()方法中调用Cursor的setNotificationUri()方法);

  • 在ContentProvider的insert()、update()、delete()等方法中调用ContentResolver的notifyChange()方法;

通过上面两步我们就能享受CurSorLoader的自动数据刷新功能了;可以发现,所谓的CurSorLoader自动刷新无非就是观察者模式的框架而已,所以不再过多说明。

特别注意:

有些人觉得为了方便可能会将上面第一步对于Cursor设置监听直接写在了ContentProvider的query()方法中,如下:

@Override
public Cursor query(Uri uri, String[] projection, String selection, String[] 
selectionArgs,String sortOrder) {
    SQLiteDatabase database = sqLiteOpenHelper.getReadableDatabase();
    Cursor cursor = database.query(EmailContent.CONTACT_TABLE, projection,
    selection,selectionArgs, null, null, sortOrder);
    //设置NotificationUri监听
    cursor.setNotificationUri(contentResolver, EmailContent.MESSAGE);
    return cursor;
}

这里要提醒的是,这种写法在某些场合下是不值得推荐的(譬如大规模上千次并发平凡的调运query操作场合),因为效率极低,他会频繁的通过Binder进行通信,导致system_server不停的调运GC操作,以至于会使系统卡顿。

PS:因为我以前跳过一次这个坑,平时使用应用没啥问题,但是当进行压力测试时却发现LogCat一直在不停的打印GC,同时导致当前系统卡顿,杀掉应用后系统就不卡了,所以基本怀疑问题就出在了应用中,于是通过很多办法去查找(譬如dempsys content去查看个数),最终发现罪魁祸首是这个监听频繁调运导致的,随将其挪到loadingBackground中不再卡顿。

不使用ContentPorvider且自定义Loader的情况下自动刷新

我们目前的项目其实都使用了ContentPorvider实现,所以就是上面讲的那些情况。但是你一定会问,如果我们应用的数据不用于应用间共享,使用ContentProvider那得多麻烦啊?我先告诉你,是很麻烦,但是Android提供的CursorLoader的API必须使用ContentProvider才能实现数据加载和自动刷新。

这时候你指定会说,那还说个屁!哎,别急,你看看下面这段代码是否会有所感触呢,如下:

public NoProviderLoader extends AsyncTaskLoader {
    ......
    ForceLoadContentObserver mObserver = new ForceLoadContentObserver();
    ......
    @Override
    public Cursor loadInBackground() {
        SQLiteDatabase database = sqLiteOpenHelper.getReadableDatabase();
        Cursor cursor = database.query(table, columns, selection, selectionArgs, groupBy, having, orderBy);
        if (cursor != null) {
            //最重要的两行代码!!!!!!
            cursor.registerContentObserver(mObserver);//给Cursor设置观察者
            cursor.setNotificationUri(getContext().getContentResolver(), otificationUri);//给Cursor设置要观察的URI
        }

        return cursor;
    }
    ......
}

咦?是不是上面代码很奇怪,异步操作的方法中没有使用ContentProvider,而是直接读取了数据库。握草!这不就是我们刚刚想要的需求么,它没有使用ContentProvider提供Cursor数据,同时实现了数据变化自动更新功能。

简单解释下上面代码的原理吧,我们自定义的NoProviderLoader中定义的ForceLoadContentObserver是Loader的一个内部类,上面源码分析已经解释过了,当数据变化时会调运该类的onChange()方法,实质是调运了Loader的forceLoad()方法,所以能够自动刷新,不多解释了。

Loader自定义之AsyncTaskLoader衍生

可能看到这里你更加会举一反三的反驳一句了,上面搞了半天都是和数据库Cursor相关的东东,难道Loader就不能异步处理别的数据结构么?答案是能,因为你可能已经注意到了Loader和AsyncTaskLoader都是泛型类;既然这样,那我们找猫画虎一把呗,仿照CursorLoader自定义一个自己的异步加载试试,具体实现如下(哈哈,想了又想,这里还是直接给出官方的自定义AsyncTaskLoader好点,毕竟权威些,详细点我查看官方自定义实现Demo):

官方对于查询已安装App列表的Loader实现,支持新App安装后自动刷新的功能,实现如下:

/**
 * This class holds the per-item data in our Loader.
 */
public static class AppEntry {
    public AppEntry(AppListLoader loader, ApplicationInfo info) {
        mLoader = loader;
        mInfo = info;
        mApkFile = new File(info.sourceDir);
    }

    public ApplicationInfo getApplicationInfo() {
        return mInfo;
    }

    public String getLabel() {
        return mLabel;
    }

    public Drawable getIcon() {
        if (mIcon == null) {
            if (mApkFile.exists()) {
                mIcon = mInfo.loadIcon(mLoader.mPm);
                return mIcon;
            } else {
                mMounted = false;
            }
        } else if (!mMounted) {
            // If the app wasn't mounted but is now mounted, reload
            // its icon.
            if (mApkFile.exists()) {
                mMounted = true;
                mIcon = mInfo.loadIcon(mLoader.mPm);
                return mIcon;
            }
        } else {
            return mIcon;
        }

        return mLoader.getContext().getResources().getDrawable(
                android.R.drawable.sym_def_app_icon);
    }

    @Override public String toString() {
        return mLabel;
    }

    void loadLabel(Context context) {
        if (mLabel == null || !mMounted) {
            if (!mApkFile.exists()) {
                mMounted = false;
                mLabel = mInfo.packageName;
            } else {
                mMounted = true;
                CharSequence label = mInfo.loadLabel(context.getPackageManager());
                mLabel = label != null ? label.toString() : mInfo.packageName;
            }
        }
    }

    private final AppListLoader mLoader;
    private final ApplicationInfo mInfo;
    private final File mApkFile;
    private String mLabel;
    private Drawable mIcon;
    private boolean mMounted;
}

/**
 * Perform alphabetical comparison of application entry objects.
 */
public static final Comparator<AppEntry> ALPHA_COMPARATOR = new Comparator<AppEntry>() {
    private final Collator sCollator = Collator.getInstance();
    @Override
    public int compare(AppEntry object1, AppEntry object2) {
        return sCollator.compare(object1.getLabel(), object2.getLabel());
    }
};

/**
 * Helper for determining if the configuration has changed in an interesting
 * way so we need to rebuild the app list.
 */
public static class InterestingConfigChanges {
    final Configuration mLastConfiguration = new Configuration();
    int mLastDensity;

    boolean applyNewConfig(Resources res) {
        int configChanges = mLastConfiguration.updateFrom(res.getConfiguration());
        boolean densityChanged = mLastDensity != res.getDisplayMetrics().densityDpi;
        if (densityChanged || (configChanges&(ActivityInfo.CONFIG_LOCALE
                |ActivityInfo.CONFIG_UI_MODE|ActivityInfo.CONFIG_SCREEN_LAYOUT)) != 0) {
            mLastDensity = res.getDisplayMetrics().densityDpi;
            return true;
        }
        return false;
    }
}

/**
 * Helper class to look for interesting changes to the installed apps
 * so that the loader can be updated.
 */
public static class PackageIntentReceiver extends BroadcastReceiver {
    final AppListLoader mLoader;

    public PackageIntentReceiver(AppListLoader loader) {
        mLoader = loader;
        IntentFilter filter = new IntentFilter(Intent.ACTION_PACKAGE_ADDED);
        filter.addAction(Intent.ACTION_PACKAGE_REMOVED);
        filter.addAction(Intent.ACTION_PACKAGE_CHANGED);
        filter.addDataScheme("package");
        mLoader.getContext().registerReceiver(this, filter);
        // Register for events related to sdcard installation.
        IntentFilter sdFilter = new IntentFilter();
        sdFilter.addAction(Intent.ACTION_EXTERNAL_APPLICATIONS_AVAILABLE);
        sdFilter.addAction(Intent.ACTION_EXTERNAL_APPLICATIONS_UNAVAILABLE);
        mLoader.getContext().registerReceiver(this, sdFilter);
    }

    @Override public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {
        // Tell the loader about the change.
        mLoader.onContentChanged();
    }
}

/**
 * A custom Loader that loads all of the installed applications.
 */
public static class AppListLoader extends AsyncTaskLoader<List<AppEntry>> {
    final InterestingConfigChanges mLastConfig = new InterestingConfigChanges();
    final PackageManager mPm;

    List<AppEntry> mApps;
    PackageIntentReceiver mPackageObserver;

    public AppListLoader(Context context) {
        super(context);

        // Retrieve the package manager for later use; note we don't
        // use 'context' directly but instead the save global application
        // context returned by getContext().
        mPm = getContext().getPackageManager();
    }

    /**
     * This is where the bulk of our work is done.  This function is
     * called in a background thread and should generate a new set of
     * data to be published by the loader.
     */
    @Override public List<AppEntry> loadInBackground() {
        // Retrieve all known applications.
        List<ApplicationInfo> apps = mPm.getInstalledApplications(
                PackageManager.GET_UNINSTALLED_PACKAGES |
                PackageManager.GET_DISABLED_COMPONENTS);
        if (apps == null) {
            apps = new ArrayList<ApplicationInfo>();
        }

        final Context context = getContext();

        // Create corresponding array of entries and load their labels.
        List<AppEntry> entries = new ArrayList<AppEntry>(apps.size());
        for (int i=0; i<apps.size(); i++) {
            AppEntry entry = new AppEntry(this, apps.get(i));
            entry.loadLabel(context);
            entries.add(entry);
        }

        // Sort the list.
        Collections.sort(entries, ALPHA_COMPARATOR);

        // Done!
        return entries;
    }

    /**
     * Called when there is new data to deliver to the client.  The
     * super class will take care of delivering it; the implementation
     * here just adds a little more logic.
     */
    @Override public void deliverResult(List<AppEntry> apps) {
        if (isReset()) {
            // An async query came in while the loader is stopped.  We
            // don't need the result.
            if (apps != null) {
                onReleaseResources(apps);
            }
        }
        List<AppEntry> oldApps = mApps;
        mApps = apps;

        if (isStarted()) {
            // If the Loader is currently started, we can immediately
            // deliver its results.
            super.deliverResult(apps);
        }

        // At this point we can release the resources associated with
        // 'oldApps' if needed; now that the new result is delivered we
        // know that it is no longer in use.
        if (oldApps != null) {
            onReleaseResources(oldApps);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Handles a request to start the Loader.
     */
    @Override protected void onStartLoading() {
        if (mApps != null) {
            // If we currently have a result available, deliver it
            // immediately.
            deliverResult(mApps);
        }

        // Start watching for changes in the app data.
        if (mPackageObserver == null) {
            mPackageObserver = new PackageIntentReceiver(this);
        }

        // Has something interesting in the configuration changed since we
        // last built the app list?
        boolean configChange = mLastConfig.applyNewConfig(getContext().getResources());

        if (takeContentChanged() || mApps == null || configChange) {
            // If the data has changed since the last time it was loaded
            // or is not currently available, start a load.
            forceLoad();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Handles a request to stop the Loader.
     */
    @Override protected void onStopLoading() {
        // Attempt to cancel the current load task if possible.
        cancelLoad();
    }

    /**
     * Handles a request to cancel a load.
     */
    @Override public void onCanceled(List<AppEntry> apps) {
        super.onCanceled(apps);

        // At this point we can release the resources associated with 'apps'
        // if needed.
        onReleaseResources(apps);
    }

    /**
     * Handles a request to completely reset the Loader.
     */
    @Override protected void onReset() {
        super.onReset();

        // Ensure the loader is stopped
        onStopLoading();

        // At this point we can release the resources associated with 'apps'
        // if needed.
        if (mApps != null) {
            onReleaseResources(mApps);
            mApps = null;
        }

        // Stop monitoring for changes.
        if (mPackageObserver != null) {
            getContext().unregisterReceiver(mPackageObserver);
            mPackageObserver = null;
        }
    }

    /**
     * Helper function to take care of releasing resources associated
     * with an actively loaded data set.
     */
    protected void onReleaseResources(List<AppEntry> apps) {
        // For a simple List<> there is nothing to do.  For something
        // like a Cursor, we would close it here.
    }
}

不用多说,上面Loader为Google出品,强大的不得了,我们完全可以仿写这个例子实现自己的请求。

如下为官方对该自定义Loader调运的Demo代码:

public static class AppListAdapter extends ArrayAdapter<AppEntry> {
    private final LayoutInflater mInflater;

    public AppListAdapter(Context context) {
        super(context, android.R.layout.simple_list_item_2);
        mInflater = (LayoutInflater)context.getSystemService(Context.LAYOUT_INFLATER_SERVICE);
    }

    public void setData(List<AppEntry> data) {
        clear();
        if (data != null) {
            addAll(data);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Populate new items in the list.
     */
    @Override public View getView(int position, View convertView, ViewGroup parent) {
        View view;

        if (convertView == null) {
            view = mInflater.inflate(R.layout.list_item_icon_text, parent, false);
        } else {
            view = convertView;
        }

        AppEntry item = getItem(position);
        ((ImageView)view.findViewById(R.id.icon)).setImageDrawable(item.getIcon());
        ((TextView)view.findViewById(R.id.text)).setText(item.getLabel());

        return view;
    }
}

public static class AppListFragment extends ListFragment
        implements OnQueryTextListener, OnCloseListener,
        LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks<List<AppEntry>> {

    // This is the Adapter being used to display the list's data.
    AppListAdapter mAdapter;

    // The SearchView for doing filtering.
    SearchView mSearchView;

    // If non-null, this is the current filter the user has provided.
    String mCurFilter;

    @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState);

        // Give some text to display if there is no data.  In a real
        // application this would come from a resource.
        setEmptyText("No applications");

        // We have a menu item to show in action bar.
        setHasOptionsMenu(true);

        // Create an empty adapter we will use to display the loaded data.
        mAdapter = new AppListAdapter(getActivity());
        setListAdapter(mAdapter);

        // Start out with a progress indicator.
        setListShown(false);

        // Prepare the loader.  Either re-connect with an existing one,
        // or start a new one.
        getLoaderManager().initLoader(0, null, this);
    }

    public static class MySearchView extends SearchView {
        public MySearchView(Context context) {
            super(context);
        }

        // The normal SearchView doesn't clear its search text when
        // collapsed, so we will do this for it.
        @Override
        public void onActionViewCollapsed() {
            setQuery("", false);
            super.onActionViewCollapsed();
        }
    }

    @Override public void onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu, MenuInflater inflater) {
        // Place an action bar item for searching.
        MenuItem item = menu.add("Search");
        item.setIcon(android.R.drawable.ic_menu_search);
        item.setShowAsAction(MenuItem.SHOW_AS_ACTION_IF_ROOM
                | MenuItem.SHOW_AS_ACTION_COLLAPSE_ACTION_VIEW);
        mSearchView = new MySearchView(getActivity());
        mSearchView.setOnQueryTextListener(this);
        mSearchView.setOnCloseListener(this);
        mSearchView.setIconifiedByDefault(true);
        item.setActionView(mSearchView);
    }

    @Override public boolean onQueryTextChange(String newText) {
        // Called when the action bar search text has changed.  Since this
        // is a simple array adapter, we can just have it do the filtering.
        mCurFilter = !TextUtils.isEmpty(newText) ? newText : null;
        mAdapter.getFilter().filter(mCurFilter);
        return true;
    }

    @Override public boolean onQueryTextSubmit(String query) {
        // Don't care about this.
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onClose() {
        if (!TextUtils.isEmpty(mSearchView.getQuery())) {
            mSearchView.setQuery(null, true);
        }
        return true;
    }

    @Override public void onListItemClick(ListView l, View v, int position, long id) {
        // Insert desired behavior here.
        Log.i("LoaderCustom", "Item clicked: " + id);
    }

    @Override public Loader<List<AppEntry>> onCreateLoader(int id, Bundle args) {
        // This is called when a new Loader needs to be created.  This
        // sample only has one Loader with no arguments, so it is simple.
        return new AppListLoader(getActivity());
    }

    @Override public void onLoadFinished(Loader<List<AppEntry>> loader, List<AppEntry> data) {
        // Set the new data in the adapter.
        mAdapter.setData(data);

        // The list should now be shown.
        if (isResumed()) {
            setListShown(true);
        } else {
            setListShownNoAnimation(true);
        }
    }

    @Override public void onLoaderReset(Loader<List<AppEntry>> loader) {
        // Clear the data in the adapter.
        mAdapter.setData(null);
    }
}

强大的一逼!这下满技能,不解释,自己看。

进阶总结

通过前面基础实例、源码分析、进阶演示你会发现Loader的真的非常好用,非常牛逼,牛逼的我不想再解释啥了,自己体会吧。

PS:之前看见微博上有人讨论AsyncTaskLoader与AsyncTask的区别,这下彻底明朗了,看完源码我们再回过头来总结性的说说他们二者区别,如下:

class 优势 劣势
AsyncTaskLoader 会自动刷新数据变化;会自动处理Activiy配置变化造成的影响;适合处理纯数据加载 不能实时通知UI刷新;不能在onLoadFinished时主动切换生命周期(譬如replace Fragment)
AsyncTask 可以与UI实时交互及replace操作 不会自动处理Activiy配置变化造成的影响

 
好了,该撕逼的也撕了,该装逼的也装了,该分析的也分析了,该学习的也学到了,接下来就是看自己如何带着Loader去叱诧风云了。

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