!!!Chapter 1 Introduction



Computer network: a collection of autonomous computers interconnected by a single technology.

Interconnect: two computers are said to be interconnected if they are able to exchange information.

Distributed system: a software system in which components located on networked computers communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages. It appears to its users as a single coherent system.

Internet: It's a network of networks.

World Wide Web: It's a distributed system.

1.1 Uses of Computer Networks

Some forms of e-commerce

Tag Full name Example
B2C Business-to-consumer Ordering books on-line
B2B Business-to-business Car manufacturer ordering tires from supplier
G2C Government-to-consumer Government distributing tax forms electronically
C2C Consumer-to-consumer Auctioning second-hand products on-line
P2P Peer-to-peer File sharing

1.2 Network Hardware

There are two types of transmission technology that are in widespread use:

  • broadcast
    • The communication channel is shared by all the machines on the network; packets sent by any machine are received by all the others
  • point-to-point
    • packets may have to first visit one or more intermediate machines

1.2.1 Personal Area Networks

PANs mainly use Bluetooth, which use the master-slave paradigm.

1.2.2 Local Area Networks

  • Wireless

There is a standard for wireless LANs called IEEE 802.11 popular known asWiFi.

  • Wired

The most popular wired LANs is IEEE 802.3 called Ethernet.

(Access point is also called wireless router,base station)

1.2.3 Metropolitan Area Networks

A MAN covers a city

1.2.4 Wide Area Networks

  • Host
  • subnet
    • Transmission lines
    • switches => router


  • The host and subnet are owned and operated by different people
  • The routers will usually connect different kinds of networking technology
  • Both PC and LAN can connect to subnet

WAN varieties:

  • VPN(virtual private network)
  • ISP(Internet Service Provider)

WAN problems: routing algorithm, forwarding algorithm

1.2.5 Internetworks

A collection of interconnected networks is called an internetwork orinternet.

The general name for a machine that makes a connection between two or more networks and provides the necessary translation, both in terms of hardware and software, is agateway.

1.3 Network Software

1.3.1 Protocol Hierarchies

To reduce their design complexity, most networks are organized as a stack of layers or levels.

A protocol is an agreement between the communicating parties on how communication is to proceed.

The entities comprising the corresponding layers on different machines are calledpeers.

In reality, no data are directly transferred from layer n on one machine to layer n on another machine. Instead, each layer passes data and control information to the layer immediately below it, until the lowest layer.

Between each pair of adjacent layers is an interface. The interface defines which primitive operations and services the lower layer makes available to the upper one.

A set of layers and protocols is called a network architecture.

A list of the protocols used by a certain system, one protocol per layer, is called aprotocol stack.

1.3.3 Connection-Oriented vs. Connectionless Services

  • Connection-oriented: establishes a connection, uses the connection, and then release the connection.
  • Connectionless: Each message carries the full destination address, and each one is routed through the intermediate nodes independent of all the subsequent messages.

1.3.4 Service Primitives

A service is formally specified by a set of primitives available to user processes to access the service.

1.3.5 The Relationship of Services to Protocols

Service is a set of primitives that a layer provides to the layer above it

Protocol is a set of rules governing the format and meaning of the packets, or messages that are exchanged by the peer entities within a layer.

1.4 Reference Models

1.4.1 The OSI Reference Model

Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model:

Layer 1 through 3 are chained, the protocol is between a machine and its immediate neighbors.

Layer 4 through 7 are end-to-end.

  • The Physical Layer: concerned with transmitting raw bits over a communication channel               物理层
  • The Data Link Layer: transform a raw transmission facility into a line that appears free of undetected transmission errors.     数据链路层
  • The Network Layer: controls the operation of subnet.        网络层
  • The Transport Layer: accept data from above it, split it up into smaller units if need be, pass these to the network layer, and ensure that the pieces all arrive correctly at the other end.          传输层
  • The Session Layer: allows users on different machines to establish sessions between them.           会话层
  • The Presentation Layer: concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information transmitted.          表示层
  • The Application Layer: contains a variety of protocols that are commonly needed by users.             应用层

One widely used application protocol is HTTP(HyperText Transfer Protocol 超文本传输协议)

1.4.2 The TCP/IP Reference Model

下一篇!!!Chapter 2 The Physical Layer
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