GDAL 的安装介绍及使用

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,转载注明出处 https://blog.csdn.net/bigbigtree911/article/details/21253003

1.GDAL介绍

GDAL是一个转换各种栅格数据格式的库。包括读取、写入、转换、处理各种栅格数据格式(有些

特定的格式对一些操作如写入等不支持)。它使用了一个单一的抽象数据模型就支持了大多数的

栅格数据(GIS对栅格,矢量,3D数据模型的抽象能力实在令人叹服)。当然除了栅格操作,这

个库还同时包括了操作矢量数据的另一个有名的库ogr(转换矢量GIS数据),这样这个库就同时

具备了操作栅格和矢量数据的能力,

目前ogr能够支持的数据格式包括:
Arc/Info Binary Coverage、DWG、ESRI Personal GeoDatabase、ArcSDE、ESRI
Shapefile、GML、GRASS、Mapinfo File、Microstation DGN、ODBC、Oracle Spatial和
PostgreSQL等。应该说,这就基本包括了我们平常用到的所有矢量型GIS文件格式了。
Gdal支持的栅格数据格式参阅http://www.gdal.org/formats_list.html

2.GDAL安装

(1)下载gdal的安装文件,http://download.osgeo.org/gdal/gdal142.zip,解压到某目录下

,如C:\gdalsrc下。
这里我们假定VC6的安装在默认目录C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio8下。
(2)启动cmd,即打开控制台窗口。进入VC6的安装目录下,如cd C:\Program Files\Microsoft

Visual Studio8\VC\bin\,在此目录下有个文件VCVARS32.BAT,执行一下这个文件,然后重新回

到C:\gdalsrc下。运行命令nmake /f makefile.vc。编译完成后,用记事本打开文件

C:\gdalsrc\nmake.opt,根据自己的情况修改GDAL_HOME = 这一行,这个指的是最终GDAL的安装

目录,比如说我们安装在C:\GDAL,那么这一行就是GDAL_HOME = "C:\GDAL",在C:\gdalsrc下执

行nmake /f makefile.vc install,然后是nmake /f makefile.vc devinstall,然后我们需要

的东西就安装到了C:\GDAL下。


3.GDAL使用

初次使用visual studio 对工具不熟悉,有些步骤可以配置的

(1)在VS2005中新建win32控制台程序 testGDALconsole,(向导中附加选项不能选为空项目)将C:\GDAL\bin\gdal14.dll拷贝到testGDALconsole目录下的debug目录中。(否则运行时会提示找不到gdal14.dll)


(2)在工程的Library files中和Include files中分别添加GDAL的LIB文件目录和头文件目录,

这步我不会,就直接将gdal_priv.h拷贝到testGDALconsole.cpp所在目录下

(3)添加一个文件gdal_i.lib。使用 #pragma comment (lib,"..\\lib\\gdal_i.lib")(这步没做)
(4)程序文件

样本程序如下:

#include "stdafx.h"

#include "gdal_priv.h"

#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

int main(int argc, char* argv[])

{

 

       if(argc!=2)

       {

              return 0;

       }

 

       GDALDataset *poDataset;

 

    GDALAllRegister();

 

    poDataset = (GDALDataset *) GDALOpen( argv[1], GA_ReadOnly );

    if( poDataset != NULL )

    {

        cout<<"RasterXSize:"<<poDataset->GetRasterXSize()<<endl;

              cout<<"RasterYSize:"<<poDataset->GetRasterYSize()<<endl;

              cout<<"RasterCount:"<<poDataset->GetRasterCount()<<endl;

    }

 

       return 0;

}

 

假定生成的程序名为test.exe,假定有一个文件名为1.jpg的文件在C:\下,在命令行下test.exe

c:\1.jpg,程序将打印出此图片的横纵坐标和raster count,如:

 

C:\>test 1.JPG

RasterXSize:800

RasterYSize:600

RasterCount:3

练习总结:

1)使用 #pragma comment (lib,"..\\lib\\gdal_i.lib")来引入外部的库文件

或者在Visual studio里面设置

project-> properties-> Linker-> Input里面的Additional Dependencies里面加lib
           -> properties-> General-> Additional Libary Directories加Lib目录

 


下面附上一个一个GDAL的读写数据例子
引自 http://blog.csdn.net/tangnf/archive/2008/10/26/3152538.aspx
//

#include "stdafx.h"
#include "fangshibo.h"

#include <vector>


#include<math.h>
///gdal头文件
#include "..\\include\\gdal.h"
#include "..\\include\\gdal_priv.h"
#include "..\\include\\ogr_srs_api.h"
#include "..\\include\\cpl_string.h"
#include "..\\include\\cpl_conv.h"
#pragma comment (lib,"..\\lib\\gdal_i.lib")
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////


#ifdef _DEBUG
#define new DEBUG_NEW
#undef THIS_FILE
static char THIS_FILE[] = __FILE__;
#endif

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// The one and only application object

CWinApp theApp;
using namespace std;

///////////////////////
void MaxNDVI(vector<CString> files,CString maxNDVfile)
{   
//    GDALAllRegister();
    vector<GDALDataset *> datasets;   
        //打开文件
        for(int i=0;i<files.size();i++)
        {   
            CString filename=files[i];           
            GDALDataset *tmpDataset = (GDALDataset *) GDALOpen( files[i],

GA_ReadOnly);
            if(tmpDataset!=NULL)
            {               
                datasets.push_back(tmpDataset);               
            }
            else
            {
                fprintf( stderr, "GDALOpen failed - %d\n%s\n", CPLGetLastErrorNo(),

CPLGetLastErrorMsg() );
            }   
            tmpDataset=NULL;//以后再释放
        }
        ////读取数据咯,按行来读取
        //GDALDir
        if(datasets.size()==0)return;
        GDALDataset *tmpDataset=datasets[0];
        if(tmpDataset!=NULL)
        {   
            GDALDriver * driver=NULL;
            int index = maxNDVfile.ReverseFind('.');
            if (index < 0)
                return ;
            if (index == maxNDVfile.GetLength()-1)
                return ;
            CString suffix = maxNDVfile.Right(maxNDVfile.GetLength()-1-index);      

    
            suffix.MakeLower();
            if (suffix == "bmp")
                driver = GetGDALDriverManager()->GetDriverByName("BMP");
            else if (suffix == "jpg")
                driver = GetGDALDriverManager()->GetDriverByName("JPEG");
            else if (suffix == "tif")
                driver = GetGDALDriverManager()->GetDriverByName("GTiff");
            else if (suffix == "img")
                driver = GetGDALDriverManager()->GetDriverByName("HFA");
            else if (suffix == "bt")
                driver = GetGDALDriverManager()->GetDriverByName("BT");
            else if (suffix == "ecw")
                driver = GetGDALDriverManager()->GetDriverByName("ECW");
            else if (suffix == "fits")
                driver = GetGDALDriverManager()->GetDriverByName("FITS");
            else if (suffix == "gif")
                driver = GetGDALDriverManager()->GetDriverByName("GIF");
            else if (suffix == "hdf")
                driver = GetGDALDriverManager()->GetDriverByName("HDF4");
            else if (suffix == "hdr")
                driver = GetGDALDriverManager()->GetDriverByName("EHdr");
           
   
            int w=tmpDataset->GetRasterXSize();
            int h=tmpDataset->GetRasterYSize();           
            GDALDataset *maxNDV=driver->Create(maxNDVfile,w,h,1,GDT_Float32,NULL);  

    
            int xOff=0;
            int yOff=0;
            int width=w;
            int height=1;//一行一行地读取
            vector<float*> bufs;
            for(int i=0;i<datasets.size();i++)
            {
                float *buf=new float[width*height];
                bufs.push_back(buf);
                buf=NULL;
            }       
            float *newbuf=new float[width*height];
            GDALRasterBand * newpoband=maxNDV->GetRasterBand(1);       
            for(int j=0;j<h;j++)
            {               
                for(int i=0;i<datasets.size();i++)
                {
                    GDALDataset *tmpDt=datasets[i];
                    GDALRasterBand * poband=tmpDt->GetRasterBand(1);               
                    float *buf=bufs[i];
                    xOff=0;
                    yOff=j;
                    poband->RasterIO

(GF_Read,xOff,yOff,width,height,buf,width,height,GDT_Float32,0,0);
                    buf=NULL;
                    tmpDt=NULL;//在后面再释放,因为很多个指针指向同一一段内存,不能随

便释放内存哦
                }           
                //////////
                //在这可以开始运算咯
                for(int k=0;k<w;k++)//对于每个像元
                {
                    //下面这段代码以后要支持均值,极差,方差
                    for(int kk=0;kk<bufs.size();kk++)
                    {
                        float *buf=bufs[kk];
                        if(kk==0)//初始化
                        {
                            newbuf[k]=buf[k];
                        }
                        if(buf[k]>newbuf[k])//最大的,稍微改下就是最小值,
                        {
                            newbuf[k]=buf[k];
                        }                   
                    }
                }
                //////////写入数据
                newpoband->RasterIO

(GF_Write,xOff,yOff,width,height,newbuf,width,height,GDT_Float32,0,0);
            }
            delete newbuf;
            newbuf=NULL;
            for( i=0;i<bufs.size();i++)
            {
                if(bufs[i]!=NULL)
                    delete bufs[i];           
            }
            bufs.resize(0);
            delete maxNDV;
            maxNDV=NULL;
            delete driver;
            driver=NULL;
        }
        tmpDataset=NULL;
        //释放掉内存
        for( i=0;i<datasets.size();i++)
        {
            if(datasets[i]!=NULL)
            {
                delete datasets[i];
                datasets[i]=NULL;
            }
        }
        datasets.resize(0);
}

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