Dubbo基础---RPC是如何实现的

        RPC(Remote Procedure Call Protocol)是一种远程调用协议, 允许像调用本地服务那样调用远程其它服务,即实现跨进程交互。 

如上图所示:

1、 客户端是指调用者, 服务端是指被调用者; 在现在流行的微服务框架内, 客户端也可以是Web服务, 既提供接口也调用其它服务的接口;

2、服务注册中心的作用负载均衡,记录活着的服务并导流到真正的服务进程;

3、客户端(也可以成为服务消费者)通过服务注册中心找到真正的服务端(服务提供者);


在讲RPC前先看个Java特性, 即Java对象和字节流互相转换, 这是RPC的基础!!!

  Map<String, String> map = new HashMap<>();
        map.put("name", "Tom");
        map.put("age", "20");

        ByteArrayOutputStream byteArrayOutputStream = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
        ObjectOutputStream objectOutputStream = new ObjectOutputStream(byteArrayOutputStream);
        objectOutputStream.writeObject(map);  //将Java对象转换成流

        byte[] bytes = byteArrayOutputStream.toByteArray();  //将map对象转换成字节流
        System.out.println("我就是map对象的字节流:");
        System.out.println(new String(bytes, "utf-8"));

        ByteArrayInputStream byteArrayInputStream = new ByteArrayInputStream(bytes);
        ObjectInputStream objectInputStream = new ObjectInputStream(byteArrayInputStream);
        Map<String, String> objMap = (Map<String, String>)objectInputStream.readObject();
        System.out.println("字节流转换成map对象,大小:" + objMap.size());
执行后输出:

我就是map对象的字节流:
��srjava.util.HashMap���`�F
loadFactorI	thresholdxp?@tnametTomtaget20x
字节流转换成map对象,大小:2

      记住ObjectInputStream和ObjectOutputStream类, 它可以将map对象转换成字节流, 也可以将字节流转换为map对象。 Java各个进程之间可以通过socket交互字节流, 从而实现调用API的目的。  


使用一个进程模拟找到函数体:

        ObjectOutputStream outputStream = null;
        ByteArrayOutputStream byteArrayOutputStream = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
        outputStream = new ObjectOutputStream(byteArrayOutputStream);

        Method method = ImitateRpc.class.getMethod("callRemote", String.class);  //模拟RPC调用的API

        //模拟客户端发送数据
        outputStream.writeUTF(ImitateRpc.class.getName());   //接口类名
        outputStream.writeUTF(method.getName()); //方法名称
        outputStream.writeObject(method.getParameterTypes()); //方法参数类型
        Object[] args = new Object[1];
        args[0] = "Tom";
        outputStream.writeObject(args);   //方法参数

        /**
         * 此处省略了客户端发送字节流到服务端和服务端接收字节流的过程
         */

        //模拟服务端接收到数据
        ByteArrayInputStream inputStream = new ByteArrayInputStream(byteArrayOutputStream.toByteArray());
        ObjectInputStream serverInputStreamp = new ObjectInputStream(inputStream);
        String serviceName = serverInputStreamp.readUTF();  //接口类
        String methodName = serverInputStreamp.readUTF();
        Class<?>[] paramTypes = (Class<?>[]) serverInputStreamp.readObject();
        Object[] arguments = (Object[]) serverInputStreamp.readObject();

        Class svrClass = ImitateRpcImpl.class;  //实现类
        Method svrMethod = svrClass.getMethod(methodName, paramTypes);
        Object result = svrMethod.invoke(svrClass.newInstance(), arguments);
       从上面代码可以看出客户端在执行API时,将接口类、方法名、参数类型、参数转换成字节流outputStream, 服务端使用inputStream解析字节流并执行函数体(PS:这里省略了客户端/服务器通讯的代码)。


在上面代码基础上添加socket通讯就是完整的RPC例子了:

       服务端代码要监听端口, 拿到数据后解析出接口名、方法名、参数类型、参数后执行函数体,并将返回值回写socket里。

public class RegistryCenter implements RegistryService {

    private final ExecutorService executorService = new ThreadPoolExecutor(5,
                                  200, 0L, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS,
                                   new LinkedBlockingDeque<Runnable>(1024));

    //参数SpringCloud做法,使用服务名称作为主键
    private final HashMap<String, ServiceInfo> services = new HashMap<>();  //注册服务的信息

    private int port;

    class ServiceInfo {
        Class service;  //接口
        Class impl;
        String ip;
        int port;
    }

    public RegistryCenter(int port) {
        this.port = port;
    }

    @Override
    public void registerService(Class service, Class impl,  String ip, int port) {
        ServiceInfo info = new ServiceInfo();
        info.service = service;
        info.impl = impl;
        info.ip = ip;
        info.port = port;

        services.put(service.getName(), info);
    }

    @Override
    public boolean start() throws IOException{
        if (services.isEmpty()) {
            return false;
        }

        ServerSocket server = null;
        try {
            server = new ServerSocket();
            server.bind(new InetSocketAddress(port));
            System.out.println("start server");

            while (true) {
                executorService.execute(new ProviderTask(server.accept()));
            }
        } catch (Exception ex) {
            ex.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            if (server != null) {
                server.close();
            }
        }

        return true;
    }


    //生产者(接口实现者)的逻辑, 基于短连接
    class ProviderTask implements Runnable {
        Socket server = null;

        public ProviderTask(Socket socket) {
            server = socket;
        }

        @Override
        public void run() {
            ObjectInputStream input = null;
            ObjectOutputStream output = null;
            try {
                //从socket字节流转换成要调用的API
                input = new ObjectInputStream(server.getInputStream());

                String serviceName = input.readUTF();
                String methodName = input.readUTF();

                Class<?>[] paramTypes = (Class<?>[])input.readObject();
                Object[] arguments = (Object[]) input.readObject();

                ServiceInfo info = services.get(serviceName);
                if (info == null) {
                    throw new Exception("没有该服务" + serviceName);
                }
                Class clz = info.impl;
                Method method = clz.getMethod(methodName, paramTypes);  //找到方法
                Object result = method.invoke(clz.newInstance(), arguments);   //执行函数

                output = new ObjectOutputStream(server.getOutputStream());
                output.writeObject(result);
            } catch (Exception ex) {
                ex.printStackTrace();
            } finally {
                //释放资源
                if (output != null) {
                    try {
                        output.close();
                    } catch (Exception ex) {
                        ex.printStackTrace();
                    }
                }

                if (input != null) {
                    try {
                        input.close();
                    } catch (Exception ex) {
                        ex.printStackTrace();
                    }
                }

                if (server != null) {
                    try {
                        server.close();
                    } catch (Exception ex) {
                        ex.printStackTrace();
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

客户端代码转换API信息为字节流并发送到服务端, 然后监听返回值并转换为Java对象。

public class RpcHelloClient {
    /**
     * 获取远程服务的代理对象
     * @param service, 接口
     * @param addr,远程服务运行端口
     * @return 对象
     */
    public static <T> T getRpcProxyObj(Class<?> service, InetSocketAddress addr) {
        return (T) Proxy.newProxyInstance(service.getClassLoader(), new Class<?>[]{service},
                new InvocationHandler() {
                    @Override
                    public Object invoke(Object proxy, Method method, Object[] args) throws Throwable {
                        Socket socket = null;
                        ObjectOutputStream outputStream = null;
                        ObjectInputStream inputStream = null;

                        try {
                            socket = new Socket();
                            socket.connect(addr);

                            //发送字节流到远程服务
                            outputStream = new ObjectOutputStream(socket.getOutputStream());
                            outputStream.writeUTF(service.getName());
                            outputStream.writeUTF(method.getName());
                            outputStream.writeObject(method.getParameterTypes());
                            outputStream.writeObject(args);

                            //阻塞等待返回
                            inputStream = new ObjectInputStream(socket.getInputStream());

                            Object obj = inputStream.readObject();
                            return obj;   //类对象
                        } catch (Exception ex) {
                            ex.printStackTrace();
                        } finally {
                            if (socket != null) {
                                socket.close();
                            }
                            if (inputStream != null) {
                                inputStream.close();
                            }
                            if (outputStream != null) {
                                outputStream.close();
                            }
                        }
                        return null;
                    }
                });
    }
}

本机运行一下:



再看看Dubbo源码是怎么转换Java对象的, 在dubbo.io地址里下载源码,搜索ObjectInputStream或者ObjectOutputStream, 在dubbo-common里找到了这几个类(功能是Java对象/字节流之间互转)。



     本示例是基于短连接的, 每执行一次RPC调用都要重连服务端;而Dubbo是基于长连接的。

完整代码: http://download.csdn.net/download/brycegao321/10246971











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