android Wifi开发相关内容

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今天,简单讲讲android里如何使用WifiManager。

之前,我看代码时,看到了wifi相关的代码,发现自己对于这个内容的使用还很不熟悉,所以在网上查找资料,最终解决了问题。这里记录一下。

移动设备离不开网络,android平台中在包android.net.wifi下提供了一些类专门用于管理设备的Wifi功能。该包下主要存在如下几个类:

ScanResult类


这个类主要是通过Wifi硬件的扫描来获取一些周边的wifi热点(access point)的信息。该类主要有5个域,

返回类型域名解释
public StringBSSID接入点的地址
public StringSSID网络的名字
public Stringcapabilities网络性能,包括接入点支持的认证、密钥管理、加密机制等
public intfrequency以MHz为单位的接入频率
public intlevel以dBm为单位的信号强度。

WifiConfiguration类

通过该类获取一个wifi网络的网络配置,包括安全配置等。它包含6个子类,如下所示:

子类解释
WifiConfiguration.AuthAlgorthm获取IEEE 802.11的加密方法
WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher
获取组密钥
WifiConfiguration.KeyMgmt
获取密码管理体制
WifiConfiguration.PairwiseCipher
获取WPA方式的成对密钥
WifiConfiguration.Protocol
获取加密协议
WifiConfiguration.Status
获取当前网络状态

该类内容较多,不一一例举,需要用到的时候可以查Android SDK。

WifiInfo类


该类可以获得已经建立的或处于活动状态的wifi网络的状态信息。常用方法如下:



代码:

mWifiManager = (WifiManager)getSystemService(Context.WIFI_SERVICE);   
mWifiInfo = mWifiManager.getConnectionInfo();
if(null != mWifiInfo && null != mWifiInfo.getSSID()){
        String info = "getSSID()="+mWifiInfo.getSSID()+"\n"
        		+"getBSSID()="+mWifiInfo.getBSSID()+"\n"
        		+"getHiddenSSID()="+mWifiInfo.getHiddenSSID()+"\n"
        		+"getLinkSpeed()="+mWifiInfo.getLinkSpeed()+"\n"
        		+"getMacAddress()="+mWifiInfo.getMacAddress()+"\n"
        		+"getNetworkId()="+mWifiInfo.getNetworkId()+"\n"
        		+"getRssi()="+mWifiInfo.getRssi()+"\n"
        		+"getSupplicantState()="+mWifiInfo.getSupplicantState()+"\n"
        		+"getDetailedStateOf()="+mWifiInfo.getDetailedStateOf(mWifiInfo.getSupplicantState());
        mTVWifiInfo.setText(info);
}else {
        mTVWifiInfo.setText("没有连接到wifi");
}

WifiManager类

该类用于管理Wifi连接,定义了许多常量和方法,这里就不一一说了。

常用方法。



需要指出的是getWifiState()方法是反悔wifi的状态,有整型常量表示,



这些就是wifi相关的基本知识,接下来举一个例子:

注意,访问Wifi需要用到如下权限:

<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.CHANGE_NETWORK_STATE"></uses-permission>
<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.CHANGE_WIFI_STATE"></uses-permission>
<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.ACCESS_NETWORK_STATE"></uses-permission>
<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.ACCESS_WIFI_STATE"></uses-permission>

wifi相关操作所需要用到的类。


先说一下wifi的基本使用情况。

import java.util.List;
import android.content.Context;
import android.net.wifi.ScanResult;
import android.net.wifi.WifiConfiguration;
import android.net.wifi.WifiInfo;
import android.net.wifi.WifiManager;
import android.net.wifi.WifiManager.WifiLock;
import android.widget.Toast;

public class WifiAdmin {
    // 定义WifiManager对象   
    private WifiManager mWifiManager;  
    // 定义WifiInfo对象   
    private WifiInfo mWifiInfo;  
    // 扫描出的网络连接列表   
    private List<ScanResult> mWifiList;  
    // 网络连接列表   
    private List<WifiConfiguration> mWifiConfiguration;  
    // 定义一个WifiLock   
    WifiLock mWifiLock;
 
    // 构造器   
    public WifiAdmin(Context context) {  
        // 取得WifiManager对象   
        mWifiManager = (WifiManager) context  
                .getSystemService(Context.WIFI_SERVICE);  
        // 取得WifiInfo对象   
        mWifiInfo = mWifiManager.getConnectionInfo();  
    }  
  
    // 打开WIFI   
    public void openWifi(Context context) {  
        if (!mWifiManager.isWifiEnabled()) {  
            mWifiManager.setWifiEnabled(true);
        }else if (mWifiManager.getWifiState() == 2) {
    		Toast.makeText(context,"亲,Wifi正在开启,不用再开了", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
		}else{
        	Toast.makeText(context,"亲,Wifi已经开启,不用再开了", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
        }
    }  
  
    // 关闭WIFI   
    public void closeWifi(Context context) {  
        if (mWifiManager.isWifiEnabled()) {  
            mWifiManager.setWifiEnabled(false);  
        }else if(mWifiManager.getWifiState() == 1){
        	Toast.makeText(context,"亲,Wifi已经关闭,不用再关了", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
        }else if (mWifiManager.getWifiState() == 0) {
    		Toast.makeText(context,"亲,Wifi正在关闭,不用再关了", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
		}else{
			Toast.makeText(context,"请重新关闭", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
		}
    }  
  
    // 检查当前WIFI状态   
    public void checkState(Context context) {  
    	if (mWifiManager.getWifiState() == 0) {
    		Toast.makeText(context,"Wifi正在关闭", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
		} else if (mWifiManager.getWifiState() == 1) {
			Toast.makeText(context,"Wifi已经关闭", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
		} else if (mWifiManager.getWifiState() == 2) {
			Toast.makeText(context,"Wifi正在开启", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
		} else if (mWifiManager.getWifiState() == 3) {
			Toast.makeText(context,"Wifi已经开启", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
		} else {
			Toast.makeText(context,"没有获取到WiFi状态", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
		}  
    }  
  
    // 锁定WifiLock   
    public void acquireWifiLock() {  
        mWifiLock.acquire();  
    }  
  
    // 解锁WifiLock   
    public void releaseWifiLock() {  
        // 判断时候锁定   
        if (mWifiLock.isHeld()) {  
            mWifiLock.acquire();  
        }  
    }  
  
    // 创建一个WifiLock   
    public void creatWifiLock() {  
        mWifiLock = mWifiManager.createWifiLock("Test");  
    }  
  
    // 得到配置好的网络   
    public List<WifiConfiguration> getConfiguration() {  
        return mWifiConfiguration;  
    }  
  
    // 指定配置好的网络进行连接   
    public void connectConfiguration(int index) {  
        // 索引大于配置好的网络索引返回   
        if (index > mWifiConfiguration.size()) {  
            return;  
        }  
        // 连接配置好的指定ID的网络   
        mWifiManager.enableNetwork(mWifiConfiguration.get(index).networkId,  
                true);  
    }  
  
    public void startScan(Context context) {  
        mWifiManager.startScan();  
        // 得到扫描结果   
        mWifiList = mWifiManager.getScanResults();  
        // 得到配置好的网络连接   
        mWifiConfiguration = mWifiManager.getConfiguredNetworks(); 
        if (mWifiList == null) {
			if(mWifiManager.getWifiState()==3){
				Toast.makeText(context,"当前区域没有无线网络", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
			}else if(mWifiManager.getWifiState()==2){
				Toast.makeText(context,"WiFi正在开启,请稍后重新点击扫描", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
			}else{
				Toast.makeText(context,"WiFi没有开启,无法扫描", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
			}
		}
    }  
  
    // 得到网络列表   
    public List<ScanResult> getWifiList() {  
        return mWifiList;  
    }  
  
    // 查看扫描结果   
    public StringBuilder lookUpScan() {  
        StringBuilder stringBuilder = new StringBuilder();  
        for (int i = 0; i < mWifiList.size(); i++) {  
            stringBuilder  
                    .append("Index_" + new Integer(i + 1).toString() + ":");  
            // 将ScanResult信息转换成一个字符串包   
            // 其中把包括:BSSID、SSID、capabilities、frequency、level   
            stringBuilder.append((mWifiList.get(i)).toString());  
            stringBuilder.append("/n");  
        }  
        return stringBuilder;  
    } 
  
    // 得到MAC地址   
    public String getMacAddress() {  
        return (mWifiInfo == null) ? "NULL" : mWifiInfo.getMacAddress();  
    }  
  
    // 得到接入点的BSSID   
    public String getBSSID() {  
        return (mWifiInfo == null) ? "NULL" : mWifiInfo.getBSSID();  
    }  
  
    // 得到IP地址   
    public int getIPAddress() {  
        return (mWifiInfo == null) ? 0 : mWifiInfo.getIpAddress();  
    }  
  
    // 得到连接的ID   
    public int getNetworkId() {  
        return (mWifiInfo == null) ? 0 : mWifiInfo.getNetworkId();  
    }  
  
    // 得到WifiInfo的所有信息包   
    public String getWifiInfo() {  
        return (mWifiInfo == null) ? "NULL" : mWifiInfo.toString();  
    }  
  
    // 添加一个网络并连接   
    public void addNetwork(WifiConfiguration wcg) {  
     int wcgID = mWifiManager.addNetwork(wcg);  
     boolean b =  mWifiManager.enableNetwork(wcgID, true);  
     System.out.println("a--" + wcgID); 
     System.out.println("b--" + b); 
    }  
  
    // 断开指定ID的网络   
    public void disconnectWifi(int netId) {  
        mWifiManager.disableNetwork(netId);  
        mWifiManager.disconnect();  
    }
    public void removeWifi(int netId) {
        disconnectWifi(netId);
        mWifiManager.removeNetwork(netId);
    }
  
//然后是一个实际应用方法,只验证过没有密码的情况: 
  
    public WifiConfiguration CreateWifiInfo(String SSID, String Password, int Type)  
    {  
          WifiConfiguration config = new WifiConfiguration();    
           config.allowedAuthAlgorithms.clear();  
           config.allowedGroupCiphers.clear();  
           config.allowedKeyManagement.clear();  
           config.allowedPairwiseCiphers.clear();  
           config.allowedProtocols.clear();  
           config.SSID = "\"" + SSID + "\"";    
           
          WifiConfiguration tempConfig = this.IsExsits(SSID);            
          if(tempConfig != null) {   
              mWifiManager.removeNetwork(tempConfig.networkId);   
          } 
           
          if(Type == 1) //WIFICIPHER_NOPASS 
          {  
               config.wepKeys[0] = "";  
               config.allowedKeyManagement.set(WifiConfiguration.KeyMgmt.NONE);  
               config.wepTxKeyIndex = 0;  
          }  
          if(Type == 2) //WIFICIPHER_WEP 
          {  
              config.hiddenSSID = true; 
              config.wepKeys[0]= "\""+Password+"\"";  
              config.allowedAuthAlgorithms.set(WifiConfiguration.AuthAlgorithm.SHARED);  
              config.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.CCMP);  
              config.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.TKIP);  
              config.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.WEP40);  
              config.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.WEP104);  
              config.allowedKeyManagement.set(WifiConfiguration.KeyMgmt.NONE);  
              config.wepTxKeyIndex = 0;  
          }  
          if(Type == 3) //WIFICIPHER_WPA 
          {  
          config.preSharedKey = "\""+Password+"\"";  
          config.hiddenSSID = true;    
          config.allowedAuthAlgorithms.set(WifiConfiguration.AuthAlgorithm.OPEN);    
          config.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.TKIP);                          
          config.allowedKeyManagement.set(WifiConfiguration.KeyMgmt.WPA_PSK);                          
          config.allowedPairwiseCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.PairwiseCipher.TKIP);                     
          //config.allowedProtocols.set(WifiConfiguration.Protocol.WPA);   
          config.allowedGroupCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.GroupCipher.CCMP); 
          config.allowedPairwiseCiphers.set(WifiConfiguration.PairwiseCipher.CCMP); 
          config.status = WifiConfiguration.Status.ENABLED;    
          } 
           return config;  
    }  
     
    private WifiConfiguration IsExsits(String SSID)   
    {   
        List<WifiConfiguration> existingConfigs = mWifiManager.getConfiguredNetworks();   
           for (WifiConfiguration existingConfig : existingConfigs)    
           {   
             if (existingConfig.SSID.equals("\""+SSID+"\""))   
             {   
                 return existingConfig;   
             }   
           }   
        return null;    
    } 
}

如图所示:

        

俩bug

这些代码看起来没有什么问题,但是通过不同环境的测试,发现了一些问题。

1  测试到的wifi热点,有的ssid为”“,也就是ssid != null,获取不到said。

2  wifi列表中有许多同名的wifi热点,也就是扫描的结果中有重合部分,并不是有多个同名的wifi热点。

第一个问题ssid为“”,这个看设置中并没有多余wifi,但这个热点点其它信息可以获取到,说明这个热点是存在的,应该是该热点隐藏了,所以获取不到。这也就是手机设置中为什么会有添加网路的按钮了。

第二个问题,当附近wifi热点比较少时不会出现此问题,当附近wifi网络比较多时会出现此问题。这就需要将同名的热点进行删除,但是如果真有两个ssid名相同的wifi,那就可以通过capabilities去区分吧,如果capabilities也相同就没办法了,系统设置里面也不显示同名的。

修改上面的方法 startScan()。

public void startScan(Context context) {  
	mWifiManager.startScan();
       //得到扫描结果 
	List<ScanResult> results = mWifiManager.getScanResults(); 
	// 得到配置好的网络连接 
	mWifiConfiguration = mWifiManager.getConfiguredNetworks(); 
	if (results == null) {
		if(mWifiManager.getWifiState()==3){
			Toast.makeText(context,"当前区域没有无线网络",Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
		}else if(mWifiManager.getWifiState()==2){
			Toast.makeText(context,"wifi正在开启,请稍后扫描", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
		}else{Toast.makeText(context,"WiFi没有开启", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
		}
	} else {
	mWifiList = new ArrayList();
	for(ScanResult result : results){ 
		if (result.SSID == null || result.SSID.length() == 0 || result.capabilities.contains("[IBSS]")) {
			continue;
		}
		boolean found = false;
		for(ScanResult item:mWifiList){	
	                if(item.SSID.equals(result.SSID)&&item.capabilities.equals(result.capabilities)){
				found = true;break; 
			}
		} 
		if(!found){
			mWifiList.add(result);
		} 
	} 
	} 
}

这样就可以避免出现上面的两种情况了。

        

代码 

public class MainActivity extends Activity implements OnClickListener {
	public static final String TAG = "MainActivity";
	private Button check_wifi,open_wifi,close_wifi,scan_wifi;
	private ListView mlistView;
	protected WifiAdmin mWifiAdmin;
	private List<ScanResult> mWifiList;
	public int level;
	protected String ssid;
	
	protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
		super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
		setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);
		mWifiAdmin = new WifiAdmin(MainActivity.this);
		initViews();
		IntentFilter filter = new IntentFilter(
				WifiManager.NETWORK_STATE_CHANGED_ACTION);
		//="android.net.wifi.STATE_CHANGE"  监听wifi状态的变化
		registerReceiver(mReceiver, filter);
		mlistView.setOnItemClickListener(new OnItemClickListener() {
			@Override
			public void onItemClick(AdapterView<?> parent, View view,
					int position, long id) {
				AlertDialog.Builder alert=new AlertDialog.Builder(MainActivity.this);
				ssid=mWifiList.get(position).SSID;
				alert.setTitle(ssid);
				alert.setMessage("输入密码");
				final EditText et_password=new EditText(MainActivity.this);
				final SharedPreferences preferences=getSharedPreferences("wifi_password",Context.MODE_PRIVATE);
				et_password.setText(preferences.getString(ssid, ""));
				alert.setView(et_password);
				//alert.setView(view1);
				alert.setPositiveButton("连接", new DialogInterface.OnClickListener(){
					@Override
					public void onClick(DialogInterface dialog, int which) {
						String pw = et_password.getText().toString();
						if(null == pw  || pw.length() < 8){
					                Toast.makeText(MainActivity.this, "密码至少8位", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
						        return;    
					        }
					        Editor editor=preferences.edit();
					        editor.putString(ssid, pw);   //保存密码
					        editor.commit();		
						mWifiAdmin.addNetwork(mWifiAdmin.CreateWifiInfo(ssid, et_password.getText().toString(), 3));
					}
				});
				alert.setNegativeButton("取消", new DialogInterface.OnClickListener(){
					@Override
					public void onClick(DialogInterface dialog, int which) {
						//
						//mWifiAdmin.removeWifi(mWifiAdmin.getNetworkId());
					}
				});
				alert.create();
				alert.show();
				
			}
		});
	}
	
	/*
	 * 控件初始化
	 * */
	private void initViews() {
		check_wifi=(Button) findViewById(R.id.check_wifi);
		open_wifi=(Button) findViewById(R.id.open_wifi);
		close_wifi=(Button) findViewById(R.id.close_wifi);
		scan_wifi=(Button) findViewById(R.id.scan_wifi);
		mlistView=(ListView) findViewById(R.id.wifi_list);				
		check_wifi.setOnClickListener(MainActivity.this);
		open_wifi.setOnClickListener(MainActivity.this);
		close_wifi.setOnClickListener(MainActivity.this);
		scan_wifi.setOnClickListener(MainActivity.this);
	}

	@Override
	public void onClick(View v) {
		switch (v.getId()) {
		case R.id.check_wifi:
			mWifiAdmin.checkState(MainActivity.this);
			break;
		case R.id.open_wifi:
			mWifiAdmin.openWifi(MainActivity.this);
			break;
		case R.id.close_wifi:
			mWifiAdmin.closeWifi(MainActivity.this);
			break;
		case R.id.scan_wifi:
			mWifiAdmin.startScan(MainActivity.this);
			mWifiList=mWifiAdmin.getWifiList();
			if(mWifiList!=null){
				mlistView.setAdapter(new MyAdapter(this,mWifiList));
				new Utility().setListViewHeightBasedOnChildren(mlistView);
			}
			break;
		default:
			break;
		}
	}
	
	public class MyAdapter extends BaseAdapter{
		LayoutInflater inflater;
		List<ScanResult> list;
		public MyAdapter(Context context, List<ScanResult> list){
			this.inflater=LayoutInflater.from(context);
			this.list=list;
		}
		@Override
		public int getCount() {
			return list.size();
		}
		@Override
		public Object getItem(int position) {
			return position;
		}
		@Override
		public long getItemId(int position) {
			return position;
		}
		@SuppressLint({ "ViewHolder", "InflateParams" })
		@Override
		public View getView(int position, View convertView, ViewGroup parent) {
			View view=null;
			view=inflater.inflate(R.layout.wifi_listitem, null);
			ScanResult scanResult = list.get(position);
			TextView wifi_ssid=(TextView) view.findViewById(R.id.ssid);
			ImageView wifi_level=(ImageView) view.findViewById(R.id.wifi_level);
			wifi_ssid.setText(scanResult.SSID);
			Log.i(TAG, "scanResult.SSID="+scanResult);
			level=WifiManager.calculateSignalLevel(scanResult.level,5);
			if(scanResult.capabilities.contains("WEP")||scanResult.capabilities.contains("PSK")||
					scanResult.capabilities.contains("EAP")){
				wifi_level.setImageResource(R.drawable.wifi_signal_lock);
			}else{
				wifi_level.setImageResource(R.drawable.wifi_signal_open);
			}
			wifi_level.setImageLevel(level);
			//判断信号强度,显示对应的指示图标  
			 return view;
		}
	}

	/*设置listview的高度*/
	public class Utility { 
	    public void setListViewHeightBasedOnChildren(ListView listView) { 
	        ListAdapter listAdapter = listView.getAdapter();  
	        if (listAdapter == null) { 
	            return; 
	        } 
	        int totalHeight = 0; 
	        for (int i = 0; i < listAdapter.getCount(); i++) { 
	            View listItem = listAdapter.getView(i, null, listView); 
	            listItem.measure(0, 0); 
	            totalHeight += listItem.getMeasuredHeight(); 
	        } 
	        ViewGroup.LayoutParams params = listView.getLayoutParams(); 
	        params.height = totalHeight + (listView.getDividerHeight() * (listAdapter.getCount() - 1)); 
	        listView.setLayoutParams(params); 
	    } 
	}
	//监听wifi状态
	private BroadcastReceiver mReceiver = new BroadcastReceiver (){  
	    @Override  
	    public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {   
	        ConnectivityManager manager = (ConnectivityManager) context.getSystemService(Context.CONNECTIVITY_SERVICE);  

	        NetworkInfo wifiInfo = manager.getNetworkInfo(ConnectivityManager.TYPE_WIFI);   
	        if(wifiInfo.isConnected()){
	        	WifiManager wifiManager = (WifiManager) context
	    				.getSystemService(Context.WIFI_SERVICE);
	        	String wifiSSID = wifiManager.getConnectionInfo()
						.getSSID();
	        	Toast.makeText(context, wifiSSID+"连接成功", 1).show();
	        }	        	 
	    }   
	  
	}; 
}

简单讲讲,其实wifi开发的内容很多。这个例子首先通过mWifiManager.startScan()  和ifiManager.getScanResults(); 获取到了wifi搜索到的列表信息,然后显示在界面的list上。点击list的item时,输入密码,调用工具类的CreateWifiInfo(String SSID, String Password, int Type)  创建一个WifiConfiguration,然后调用int wcgID = mWifiManager.addNetwork(wcg);  将wifi添加到wifi列表,调用mWifiManager.enableNetwork(wcgID, true);进行连接。具体的代码里比较清楚,我这边也说不明白。


android Wifi开发相关内容就讲完了。


就这么简单。


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