CMake的使用

CMake是一个跨平台的Makefile生成工具,可以根据特定的规则生成相应的Makefile文件,并对C/C++源代码进行编译和管理。
有两篇博客介绍CMake的使用,比较通俗易懂,链接地址是:

一、CMake中添加对C++11的支持

1、在对应的CMakeLists.txt文件中加入以下语句:

add_definitions(-std=c++11)

或者

 if(CMAKE_COMPILER_IS_GNUCXX)
      set(CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS "-std=c++11 -g ${CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS}")
 endif(CMAKE_COMPILER_IS_GNUCXX)

2、延伸 如何写cmake使其包含c++11特性 (-std=c++11如何写进cmakeList.txt)

使用的g++版本和cmake版本分别是g++ 4.8.2和cmake 2.8
之前写cmkae编译带有c++11特性的代码有这么一句:

set(CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS "${CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS} -std=c++11")

但是总会出现cc1plus: error: unrecognized command line option “-std=c++11” 报错。
所以set(QMAKE_CXXFLAGS “-std=c++11”) 类似的写法肯定不行。
后来发现是std=c++11 这种写法老版本不支持。
ok
直接测试新写法 CMakeLists.txt文件如下所示:

#CMakeLists.txt
project(test)
cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 2.8)
aux_source_directory(. SRC_LIST)
add_executable(${PROJECT_NAME} ${SRC_LIST}${PROJECT_NAME}.cpp)

include(CheckCXXCompilerFlag)
CHECK_CXX_COMPILER_FLAG("-std=c++11" COMPILER_SUPPORTS_CXX11)
CHECK_CXX_COMPILER_FLAG("-std=c++0x" COMPILER_SUPPORTS_CXX0X)
if(COMPILER_SUPPORTS_CXX11)
       set(CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS "${CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS} -std=c++11")
elseif(COMPILER_SUPPORTS_CXX0X)
       set(CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS "${CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS} -std=c++0x")
else()
    message(STATUS "The compiler ${CMAKE_CXX_COMPILER} has no C++11 support. Please use a different C++ compiler.")
endif()

测试c++11代码如下:

//test.cc
#include <iostream>
#include<vector>
using namespace std; 
int main()
{
    const std::vector<int>v(1);
    auto a = v[0];//a为int类型
        cout <<"a : "<< a <<endl;
    decltype(v[0]) b = 0;//b为const int&类型,即std::vector<int>::operator[](size_type)const的返回类型
    auto c = 0;//c为int类型
    auto d = c;//d为int类型
    decltype(c) e;//e为int类型,c实体的类型
    decltype((c)) f = e;//f为int&类型,因为(c)是左值
    decltype(0) g;//g为int类型,因为0是右值
    
    return 0;
}

examples_CMake项目

github上面有一个韩国人jacking75写的简单的cmake使用示例,
examples_CMake项目地址是:https://github.com/jacking75/examples_CMake

CMake例子

范例介绍

示例代码在CMake_example目录中。

01 helloworld 一个简单文件中的-C ++代码
  • main.cpp
#include <iostream>

int main()
{
  auto name = "jacking";
  std::cout << "hello world: " << name << std::endl;
  return 0;
}
  • CMakeLists.txt
cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 2.8)
add_definitions(-std=c++11)
add_executable(Main main.cpp)
02 helloworld-设置编译器选项。 -Wall,C ++ 14
  • main.cpp
#include <iostream>

int main()
{
  auto name = "jacking";
  std::cout << "hello world: " << name << std::endl;
  return 0;
}
  • CMakeLists.txt
cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 2.8)
add_definitions("-Wall -std=c++14")
add_executable(Main main.cpp)
03 helloworld-如果您有除主代码文件以外的其他代码文件
  • main.cpp
#include "test.h"

int main()
{
    TEST test;
    test.Print();
    return 0;
}
  • test.h
class TEST
{
public:
    void Print();
};
  • test.cpp
#include "test.h"

#include <iostream>

void TEST::Print()
{
    std::cout << "Test::Print" << std::endl;
}
  • CMakeLists.txt
cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 2.8)
add_executable(Main
  main.cpp
  test.cpp
)
04 helloworld-如果mai.cpp以外的文件位于其他目录中

源代码04_helloworld目录结构如下:

[root@ltcos01 04_helloworld]$ tree -L 2
.
├── CMakeLists.txt
├── main.cpp
├── test01
│   ├── test01.cpp
│   └── test01.h
└── test02
    ├── test02.cpp
    └── test02.h

2 directories, 6 files
  • main.cpp
#include "test01/test01.h"
#include "test02/test02.h"

int main()
{
  TEST01 test01;
  test01.Print();

  TEST02 test02;
  test02.Print();
  return 0;
}

test01目录下 有test01.h和test01.cpp这两个文件

  • test01/test01.h
class TEST01
{
public:
  void Print();
};
  • test01/test01.cpp
#include "test01.h"
#include <iostream>

void TEST01::Print()
{
    std::cout << "Test01::Print" << std::endl;
}

test02目录下有test02.h和test02.cpp这两个文件

  • test02/test02.h
class TEST02
{
public:
    void Print();
};
  • test02/test02.cpp
#include "test02.h"
#include <iostream>

void TEST02::Print()
{
    std::cout << "Test02::Print" << std::endl;
}
  • CMakeLists.txt
cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 2.8)
add_executable(Main
  main.cpp
  test01/test01.cpp
  test02/test02.cpp
)
05 helloworld-reference 创建静态文件后

05_helloworld源代码目录树结构如下所示:

[root@ltcos01 05_helloworld]$ tree -L 2
.
├── CMakeLists.txt
├── main.cpp
├── test01
│   ├── CMakeLists.txt
│   ├── test01.cpp
│   └── test01.h
└── test02
    ├── CMakeLists.txt
    ├── test02.cpp
    └── test02.h

2 directories, 8 files
  • main.cpp
#include "test01/test01.h"
#include "test02/test02.h"

int main()
{
    TEST01 test01;
    test01.Print();

    TEST02 test02;
    test02.Print();
    return 0;
}
  • CMakeLists.txt
cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 2.8)
add_subdirectory(test01)                
add_subdirectory(test02)                
add_executable(Main main.cpp)
target_link_libraries(Main Test01 Test02)

test01目录下有test01.h和test01.cpp以及相应的CMakeLists.txt文件

  • test01/test01.h
class TEST01
{
public:
    void Print();
};
  • test01/test01.cpp
#include "test01.h"

#include <iostream>

void TEST01::Print()
{
    std::cout << "Test01::Print" << std::endl;
}
  • test01/CMakeLists.txt
cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 2.8)
add_library(Test01 STATIC
  test01.cpp
)

上面的test01目录下的CMakeLists.txt的add_library(Test01 STATIC test01.cpp)指令会生成相应的静态库文件libTest01.a

test02目录下和test01目录结构一样,也有test02.h和test02.cpp以及相应的CMakeLists.txt文件

  • test01/test02.h
class TEST02
{
public:
    void Print();
};
  • test02/test02.cpp
#include "test02.h"

#include <iostream>

void TEST02::Print()
{
    std::cout << "Test02::Print" << std::endl;
}
  • test02/CMakeLists.txt
cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 2.8)
add_library(Test02 STATIC
  test02.cpp
)

同样的,在上面的test02目录下执行cmake命令会生成相应的静态库文件libTest02.a。具体操作过程如下:新建一个build目录,然后进入到build目录下执行cmake …运行上一级目录即test02下的CMakeLists.txt文件,操作如下:

[root@ltcos01 test02]$ ls
build  CMakeLists.txt  test02.cpp  test02.h
[root@ltcos01 test02]$ cd build/
[root@ltcos01 build]$ ls
[root@ltcos01 build]$ cmake ..
-- The C compiler identification is GNU 4.8.5
-- The CXX compiler identification is GNU 4.8.5
-- Check for working C compiler: /usr/bin/cc
-- Check for working C compiler: /usr/bin/cc -- works
-- Detecting C compiler ABI info
-- Detecting C compiler ABI info - done
-- Detecting C compile features
-- Detecting C compile features - done
-- Check for working CXX compiler: /usr/bin/c++
-- Check for working CXX compiler: /usr/bin/c++ -- works
-- Detecting CXX compiler ABI info
-- Detecting CXX compiler ABI info - done
-- Detecting CXX compile features
-- Detecting CXX compile features - done
-- Configuring done
-- Generating done
-- Build files have been written to: /data/public/home/cchufeng/GithubProjects/examples_CMake/CMake_example/05_helloworld/test02/build
[root@ltcos01 build]$ make
Scanning dependencies of target Test02
[ 50%] Building CXX object CMakeFiles/Test02.dir/test02.cpp.o
[100%] Linking CXX static library libTest02.a
[100%] Built target Test02
[root@ltcos01 build]$ ls
CMakeCache.txt  CMakeFiles  cmake_install.cmake  libTest02.a  Makefile
[root@ltcos01 build]$ 
06 helloworld-指定编译器
  • main.cpp
#include <iostream>

int main()
{
    auto name = "jacking";
  std::cout << "hello world: " << name << std::endl;
  return 0;
}
  • CMakeLists.txt
PROJECT(hello)

set(CMAKE_CXX_COMPILER g++)
add_definitions("-Wall -std=c++14")

ADD_EXECUTABLE(main main.cpp)
07 helloworld-使用外部库(此处为Boost库)
  • main.cpp
#include <boost/thread.hpp>
#include <iostream>

int main()
{
    std::cout << "Boost.Thread !!!" << std::endl;
    boost::thread Thread1( [] ()
    {
        for( int i = 0; i < 5; ++i )
        {
            std::cout << "Thread Num : " << i << std::endl;
        }
    } );

    Thread1.join();
    return 0;
}
  • CMakeLists.txt
PROJECT(hello)

set(CMAKE_CXX_COMPILER g++)
set(CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS "-m64")
add_definitions("-Wall -std=c++14")

INCLUDE_DIRECTORIES(/$ENV{HOME}/Dev/C++/ThirdParty/boost_1_60_0)
LINK_DIRECTORIES(/$ENV{HOME}/Dev/C++/ThirdParty/boost_1_60_0/stage/gcc/lib)

ADD_EXECUTABLE(hello-boost hello-boost.cpp)

TARGET_LINK_LIBRARIES(hello-boost pthread boost_thread boost_system boost_chrono)
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