C标准库stdio源码分析

//
// stdio.h
//
// Standard I/O routines
//
// Copyright (C) 2002 Michael Ringgaard. All rights reserved.
//
// Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
// modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
// are met:
//
// 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
//    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
// 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
//    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
//    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
// 3. Neither the name of the project nor the names of its contributors
//    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
//    without specific prior written permission.
//
// THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
// ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
// IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
// ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
// FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
// DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
// OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
// HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
// LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
// OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
// SUCH DAMAGE.
//

#if _MSC_VER > 1000
#pragma once
#endif

#ifndef STDIO_H
#define STDIO_H

#include <sys/types.h>

#ifndef _FPOS_T_DEFINED
#define _FPOS_T_DEFINED
typedef long fpos_t;
#endif

#ifndef SEEK_SET
#define SEEK_SET   0
#define SEEK_CUR   1
#define SEEK_END   2
#endif

#define L_tmpnam       256
#define FILENAME_MAX   256
#define EOF            (-1)
#define BUFSIZ         512

struct _iobuf {
  char *ptr;        //缓冲区指针
  int cnt;          //流缓冲区大小
  char *base;       //缓冲区指针
  int flag;			//文件当前状态 _IORD  _IOWR _IORW 等等...
  handle_t file;	//Unix中的文件描述符 
  int charbuf;
  int bufsiz;
  int phndl;
};

typedef struct _iobuf FILE;

#define stdin   __getstdfile(0)
#define stdout  __getstdfile(1)
#define stderr  __getstdfile(2)

#define _IORD           0x0001	//	0000 0000 0000 0001  read
#define _IOWR           0x0002	//  0000 0000 0000 0010  write

#define _IOFBF          0x0000  //  全缓冲
#define _IOLBF          0x0040  //  行缓冲
#define _IONBF          0x0004  //  无缓冲

#define _IOOWNBUF       0x0008
#define _IOEXTBUF       0x0100
#define _IOTMPBUF       0x1000

#define _IOEOF          0x0010
#define _IOERR          0x0020
#define _IOSTR          0x0040
#define _IORW           0x0080	//  0000 0000 0000 0100

#define _IOCRLF         0x8000

#ifdef  __cplusplus
extern "C" {
#endif

int filbuf(FILE *stream);
int flsbuf(int, FILE *stream);

FILE *fdopen(int fd, const char *mode);
FILE *freopen(const char *filename, const char *mode, FILE *stream);
FILE *fopen(const char *filename, const char *mode);

FILE *popen(const char *command, const char *mode);
int pclose(FILE *stream);

void clearerr(FILE *stream);
int fclose(FILE *stream);
int fflush(FILE *stream);

int fgetc(FILE *stream);
int fputc(int c, FILE *stream);

char *fgets(char *string, int n, FILE *stream);
int fputs(const char *string, FILE *stream);

char *gets(char *buf);
int puts(const char *string);

size_t fread(void *buffer, size_t size, size_t num, FILE *stream);
size_t fwrite(const void *buffer, size_t size, size_t num, FILE *stream);

int fseek(FILE *stream, long offset, int whence);
long ftell(FILE *stream);
void rewind(FILE *stream);
int fsetpos(FILE *stream, const fpos_t *pos);
int fgetpos(FILE *stream, fpos_t *pos);

void perror(const char *message);

void setbuf(FILE *stream, char *buffer);
int setvbuf(FILE *stream, char *buffer, int type, size_t size);

int ungetc(int c, FILE *stream);

int fready(FILE *stream);

int remove(const char *filename);
osapi int rename(const char *oldname, const char *newname);

FILE *tmpfile();
char *tmpnam(char *string);
char *tempnam(const char *dir, const char *prefix);

int vfprintf(FILE *stream, const char *fmt, va_list args);
int fprintf(FILE *stream, const char *fmt, ...);

int vprintf(const char *fmt, va_list args);
int printf(const char *fmt, ...);

int vsprintf(char *buf, const char *fmt, va_list args);
int sprintf(char *buf, const char *fmt, ...);

int vsnprintf(char *buf, size_t count, const char *fmt, va_list args);
int snprintf(char *buf, size_t count, const char *fmt, ...);

int fscanf(FILE *stream, const char *fmt, ...);
int scanf(const char *fmt, ...);
int sscanf(const char *buffer, const char *fmt, ...);

int vfscanf(FILE *stream, const char *fmt, va_list args);
int vscanf(const char *fmt, va_list args);
int vsscanf(const char *buffer, const char *fmt, va_list args);

FILE *__getstdfile(int n);

#ifdef  __cplusplus
}
#endif

#define feof(stream)     ((stream)->flag & _IOEOF)
#define ferror(stream)   ((stream)->flag & _IOERR)
#define fileno(stream)   ((stream)->file)  //not a ISO C but POSIX.1 support

#define getc(stream)     (--(stream)->cnt >= 0 ? 0xff & *(stream)->ptr++ : filbuf(stream))
#define putc(c, stream)  (--(stream)->cnt >= 0 ? 0xff & (*(stream)->ptr++ = (char) (c)) :  flsbuf((c), (stream)))
#define getchar()        getc(stdin)
#define putchar(c)       putc((c), stdout)

#endif

//
// stdio.c
//
// Standard I/O routines
//
// Copyright (C) 2002 Michael Ringgaard. All rights reserved.
//
// Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
// modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
// are met:
// 
// 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright 
//    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.  
// 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
//    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
//    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.  
// 3. Neither the name of the project nor the names of its contributors
//    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
//    without specific prior written permission. 
// 
// THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
// ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
// IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
// ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
// FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
// DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
// OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
// HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
// LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
// OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF 
// SUCH DAMAGE.
// 

#include <os.h>

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <crtbase.h>
#include <atomic.h>

#define bigbuf(s) ((s)->flag & (_IOOWNBUF | _IOEXTBUF | _IOTMPBUF))
#define anybuf(s) ((s)->flag & (_IOOWNBUF | _IOEXTBUF | _IOTMPBUF | _IONBF))

/*如果文件是 _IORD |_IOWR |_IORW 三种状态任意一个  被freopen()调用*/
#define inuse(s)  ((s)->flag & (_IORD |_IOWR |_IORW))	 

static void exit_stdio(void) {
  // Flush stdout and stderr
  fflush(stdout);
  fflush(stderr);
}

static void init_stdio() {
  struct process *proc = gettib()->proc;
  struct crtbase *crtbase = (struct crtbase *) proc->crtbase;

  // Only initialize on first call.
  if (crtbase->stdio_initialized) return;
  if (atomic_increment(&crtbase->stdio_init) == 1) {
    // Set up stdin, stdout, and stderr.
    crtbase->iob[0].file = proc->iob[0];
    crtbase->iob[0].base = crtbase->iob[0].ptr = crtbase->stdinbuf;
    crtbase->iob[0].flag = _IORD | _IOEXTBUF;
    crtbase->iob[0].bufsiz = BUFSIZ;

    crtbase->iob[1].file = proc->iob[1];
    crtbase->iob[1].flag = _IOWR | _IONBF | _IOCRLF;

    crtbase->iob[2].file = proc->iob[2];
    crtbase->iob[2].flag = _IOWR | _IONBF | _IOCRLF;

    atexit(exit_stdio);
    crtbase->stdio_initialized = 1;
  } else {
    // Wait until initialization done.
    while (!crtbase->stdio_initialized) msleep(0);
  }
}

FILE *__getstdfile(int n) {
  struct process *proc = gettib()->proc;
  struct crtbase *crtbase = (struct crtbase *) proc->crtbase;

  if (!crtbase->stdio_initialized) init_stdio();
  return &crtbase->iob[n];
}

static void getbuf(FILE *stream) {
  // Try to get a buffer
  if (stream->base = malloc(BUFSIZ)) {
    // Got a buffer
    stream->flag |= _IOOWNBUF;
    stream->bufsiz = BUFSIZ;
  } else {
    // Did NOT get a buffer - use single char buffering.
    stream->flag |= _IONBF;
    stream->base = (char *) &stream->charbuf;
    stream->bufsiz = 1;
  }

  stream->ptr = stream->base;
  stream->cnt = 0;
}

static void freebuf(FILE *stream) {
  if (stream->flag & _IOOWNBUF) {
    free(stream->base);
    stream->flag &= ~_IOOWNBUF;
    stream->base = stream->ptr = NULL;
    stream->cnt = 0;
  }
}

int _stbuf(FILE *stream, char *buf, int bufsiz) {
  // Setup temp buffering
  stream->base = stream->ptr = buf;
  stream->cnt = bufsiz;
  stream->flag |= (_IOWR | _IOTMPBUF | _IOEXTBUF);

  return 0;
}

void _ftbuf(FILE *stream) {
  if (stream->flag & _IOTMPBUF) {
    // Flush the stream and tear down temp buffering
    fflush(stream);
    stream->flag &= ~(_IOEXTBUF | _IOTMPBUF);
    stream->bufsiz = 0;
    stream->base = stream->ptr = NULL;
  }
}


static int write_translated(int fh, char *buf, int len) {
  char *ptr = buf;
  char *end = buf + len;
  int written = 0;
  int rc;

  while (ptr < end) {
    if (*ptr == '\n') {
      if (buf < ptr) {
        rc = write(fh, buf, ptr - buf);
        if (rc < 0) return rc;
        written += rc;
      }

      rc = write(fh, "\r", 1);
      if (rc < 0) return -1;

      buf = ptr;
    }
    ptr++;
  }

  if (buf < end) {
    rc = write(fh, buf, end - buf);
    if (rc < 0) return rc;
    written += rc;
  }

  return written;
}

int filbuf(FILE *stream) {
  if (stream->flag & _IOSTR) return EOF;

  if (stream->flag & _IOWR) {
    stream->flag |= _IOERR;
    return EOF;
  }

  stream->flag |= _IORD;

  // Get a buffer, if necessary.
  if (!anybuf(stream)) {
    getbuf(stream);
  } else {
    stream->ptr = stream->base;
  }
  stream->cnt = read(fileno(stream), stream->base, stream->bufsiz);

  if (stream->cnt <= 0) {
    stream->flag |= stream->cnt ? _IOERR : _IOEOF;
    stream->cnt = 0;
    return EOF;
  }

  stream->cnt--;

  return *stream->ptr++ & 0xff;
}

int flsbuf(int ch, FILE *stream) {
  int count;
  int written;
  int fh;
  char chbuf;

  fh = fileno(stream);

  if (!(stream->flag & (_IOWR | _IORW)) || (stream->flag & _IOSTR)) {
    stream->flag |= _IOERR;
    return -1;
  }

  if (stream->flag & _IORD) {
    stream->cnt = 0;
    if (stream->flag & _IOEOF) {
      stream->ptr = stream->base;
      stream->flag &= ~_IORD;
    } else {
      stream->flag |= _IOERR;
      return -1;
    }
  }

  stream->flag |= _IOWR;
  stream->flag &= ~_IOEOF;
  written = count = stream->cnt = 0;

  // Get a buffer for this stream, if necessary
  if (!anybuf(stream)) getbuf(stream);

  // If big buffer is assigned to stream
  if (bigbuf(stream)) {
    count = stream->ptr - stream->base;
    stream->ptr = stream->base + 1;
    stream->cnt = stream->bufsiz - 1;

    if (count > 0) {
      if (stream->flag & _IOCRLF) {
        written = write_translated(fh, stream->base, count);
      } else {
        written = write(fh, stream->base, count);
      }
    }

    *stream->base = (char) ch;
  } else {
    // Perform single character output (either _IONBF or no buffering)
    count = 1;
    chbuf = (char) ch;
    if (stream->flag & _IOCRLF) {
      written = write_translated(fh, &chbuf, count);
    } else {
      written = write(fh, &chbuf, count);
    }
  }

  // See if the write was successful.
  if (written != count) {
    stream->flag |= _IOERR;
    return -1;
  }

  return ch & 0xff;
}

/* 内部函数 open_file 
 * 作用:把流与文件关联

*/ 
static int open_file(FILE *stream, const char *filename, const char *mode) {
  int oflag;
  int streamflag; 
  handle_t handle;

  switch (*mode) {
    case 'r':
      oflag = O_RDONLY;
      streamflag = _IORD;
      break;

    case 'w':
      oflag = O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_TRUNC;
      streamflag = _IOWR;
      break;

    case 'a':
      oflag = O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_APPEND;
      streamflag = _IOWR;
      break;
  
    default:
      errno = EINVAL;
      return -1;
  }

  while (*++mode) {
    switch (*mode) {
      case '+':
        oflag |= O_RDWR;
        oflag &= ~(O_RDONLY | O_WRONLY);
        streamflag |= _IORW;
        streamflag &= ~(_IORD | _IOWR);
        break;

      case 't':
        oflag &= ~(O_TEXT | O_BINARY);
        oflag |= O_TEXT;
        break;

      case 'b':
        oflag &= ~(O_TEXT | O_BINARY);
        oflag |= O_BINARY;
        break;

      case 'c':
      case 'n':
        break;

      case 'S':
        oflag |= O_SEQUENTIAL;
        break;

      case 'R':
        oflag |= O_RANDOM;
        break;

      case 'T':
        oflag |= O_SHORT_LIVED;
        break;

      case 'D':
        oflag |= O_TEMPORARY;
        break;

      case ' ':
        // Ignore
        break;

      default:
        errno = EINVAL;
        return -1;
    }
  }

  /* 打开或新建  一个文件 unix 系统调用 */
  handle = open(filename, oflag, S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR | S_IRGRP | S_IWGRP | S_IROTH | S_IWOTH);
  if (handle < 0) return -1;

  stream->flag = streamflag;
  stream->cnt = 0;
  stream->base = stream->ptr = NULL;
  stream->file = handle;	//将open()的文件描述符传递给stream的文件描述符 
  stream->phndl = NOHANDLE;

  return 0;
}

/* close_file 关闭流与文件的关联
 *
 *
 */
static int close_file(FILE *stream) {
  int rc = EOF;

  if (stream->flag & _IOSTR) {
    stream->flag = 0;
    return EOF;
  }

  rc = fflush(stream);
  freebuf(stream);

  if (close(fileno(stream)) < 0) rc = EOF;

  return rc;
}

FILE *fdopen(int fd, const char *mode) {
  FILE *stream; 
  int streamflag;

  switch (*mode) {
    case 'r':
      streamflag = _IORD;
      break;

    case 'w':
      streamflag = _IOWR;
      break;

    case 'a':
      streamflag = _IOWR;
      break;
  
    default:
      errno = EINVAL;
      return NULL;
  }

  while (*++mode) {
    switch (*mode) {
      case '+':
        streamflag |= _IORW;
        streamflag &= ~(_IORD | _IOWR);
        break;
    }
  }

  stream = malloc(sizeof(FILE));
  if (!stream) {
    errno = ENFILE;
    return NULL;
  }

  stream->flag = streamflag;
  stream->cnt = 0;
  stream->base = stream->ptr = NULL;
  stream->file = fd;
  stream->phndl = NOHANDLE;

  return stream;
}


FILE *freopen(const char *filename, const char *mode, FILE *stream) { 
  if (inuse(stream)) close_file(stream);	//参考46行 
  if (open_file(stream, filename, mode) < 0) { //参考261行  open_file()
    free(stream);
    return NULL;
  }

  return stream;
}

FILE *fopen(const char *filename, const char *mode) {
  FILE *stream;

  stream = malloc(sizeof(FILE));    //在堆中malloc一个流
  if (!stream) {
    errno = ENFILE;
    return NULL;
  }
  /* 把流与文件关联 */
  if (open_file(stream, filename, mode) < 0) {
    free(stream);
    return NULL;
  }

  return stream;
}

/* clearerr函数的作用是清除由stream
 * 指向的文件流的文件尾标识和错误标识。
 * 它没有返回值,也未定义任何错误。
 */
void clearerr(FILE *stream) {
  // Clear flags
  stream->flag &= ~(_IOERR | _IOEOF);
}

/* 关闭文件函数 */
int fclose(FILE *stream) {
  int rc;

  rc = close_file(stream);
  free(stream);
  return rc;
}

/* 清空流文件缓冲区*/
int fflush(FILE *stream) {
  int rc = 0;
  int count;
  int written;

  if (!stream) stream = stdout;
  if ((stream->flag & (_IORD | _IOWR)) == _IOWR && 
      bigbuf(stream) && 
      (count = stream->ptr - stream->base) > 0) {
    if (stream->flag & _IOCRLF) {
      written = write_translated(fileno(stream), stream->base, count);
    } else {
      written = write(fileno(stream), stream->base, count);
    }

    if (written == count)  {
      // If this is a read/write file, clear _IOWR so that next operation can be a read
      if (stream->flag & _IORW) stream->flag &= ~_IOWR;
    } else {
      stream->flag |= _IOERR;
      rc = EOF;
    }
  }

  stream->ptr = stream->base;
  stream->cnt = 0;

  return rc;
}

int fgetc(FILE *stream) {
  return getc(stream);
}

int fputc(int c, FILE *stream) {
  return putc(c, stream);
}

/* fgets 读进'\n' */
char *fgets(char *string, int n, FILE *stream) {
  char *ptr = string;
  int ch;

  if (n <= 0) return NULL;

  while (--n) {
    if ((ch = getc(stream)) == EOF) {
      if (ptr == string) return NULL;
      break;
    }

    if ((*ptr++ = ch) == '\n') break;
  }

  *ptr = '\0';
  return string;
}

int fputs(const char *string, FILE *stream) {
  int len;
  int written;

  len = strlen(string);

  if (stream->flag & _IONBF) {
    char buf[BUFSIZ];

    _stbuf(stream, buf, BUFSIZ);
    written = fwrite(string, 1, len, stream);
    _ftbuf(stream);
  } else {
    written = fwrite(string, 1, len, stream);
  }

  return written == len ? 0 : EOF;
}

/*从stdin流中读取字符串,
 *直至接受到换行符或EOF时停止,
 *并将读取的结果存放在buf指针
 *所指向的字符数组中。换行符不作为
 *读取串的内容,读取的换行符被转换为null值
 *并由此来结束字符串。
 */

char *gets(char *buf)
{
  char *p = buf;
  int ch;

  while (1) {
    ch = getchar();
    if (ch == EOF) {
      if (errno == ETIMEDOUT) continue;
      return NULL;
    }

    if (ch == 8) {   // 8 ascii means backspace
      if (p > buf) {
        putchar('\b');
        putchar(' ');
        putchar('\b');
        p--;
      }
    } else if (ch == '\r' || ch =='\n' || ch >= ' ') {
      putchar(ch);
      if (ch == '\r') putchar('\n');
      if (ch == '\n' || ch == '\r') break;
      *p++ = ch;
    }
  }

  *p = 0;
  return buf;
}

/*puts()函数用来向标准输出设备(屏幕)
 *写字符串并换行
 */
int puts(const char *string) {
  FILE *stream = stdout;

  if (stream->flag & _IONBF) {
    char buf[BUFSIZ];

    _stbuf(stream, buf, BUFSIZ);

    while (*string) {
      if (putchar(*string) == EOF) {
        _ftbuf(stream);
        return EOF;
      }
      string++;
    }
  
    if (putchar('\n') == EOF) {
      _ftbuf(stream);
      return EOF;
    }

    _ftbuf(stream);
  } else {
    while (*string) {
      if (putchar(*string) == EOF) return EOF;
      string++;
    }
  
    if (putchar('\n') == EOF) return EOF;
  }

  return 0;
}

size_t fread(void *buffer, size_t size, size_t num, FILE *stream) {
  char *data;                     // Point to where should be read next
  unsigned total;                 // Total bytes to read
  unsigned count;                 // Num bytes left to read
  unsigned bufsize;               // Size of stream buffer
  unsigned nbytes;                // How much to read now
  unsigned nread;                 // How much we did read
  int c;                          // A temp char

  // Initialize local vars
  data = buffer;

  if ((count = total = size * num) == 0) return 0;

  if (anybuf(stream)) {
    // Already has buffer, use its size
    bufsize = stream->bufsiz;
  } else {
    // Assume will get BUFSIZ buffer
    bufsize = BUFSIZ;
  }

  // Here is the main loop -- we go through here until we're done
  while (count != 0) {
    // if the buffer exists and has characters, copy them to user buffer
    if (anybuf(stream) && stream->cnt != 0) {
      // How much do we want?
      nbytes = (count < (unsigned) stream->cnt) ? count : stream->cnt;
      memcpy(data, stream->ptr, nbytes);

      // Update stream and amount of data read
      count -= nbytes;
      stream->cnt -= nbytes;
      stream->ptr += nbytes;
      data += nbytes;
    } else if (count >= bufsize) {
      // If we have more than bufsize chars to read, get data
      // by calling read with an integral number of bufsiz
      // blocks.

      // Calc chars to read -- (count / bufsize) * bufsize
      nbytes = bufsize ? count - count % bufsize : count;

      nread = read(fileno(stream), data, nbytes);
      if (nread == 0) {
        // End of file -- out of here
        stream->flag |= _IOEOF;
        return (total - count) / size;
      } else if ((int) nread < 0) {
        // Error -- out of here
        stream->flag |= _IOERR;
        return (total - count) / size;
      }

      // Update count and data to reflect read
      count -= nread;
      data += nread;
    } else {
      // Less than bufsize chars to read, so call filbuf to fill buffer
      if ((c = filbuf(stream)) == EOF) {
        // Error or eof, stream flags set by filbuf
        return (total - count) / size;
      }

      // filbuf returned a char -- store it
      *data++ = (char) c;
      count--;

      // Update buffer size
      bufsize = stream->bufsiz;
    }
  }

  // We finished successfully, so just return num
  return num;
}

size_t fwrite(const void *buffer, size_t size, size_t num, FILE *stream) {
  const char *data;               // Point to where data comes from next
  unsigned total;                 // Total bytes to write
  unsigned count;                 // Num bytes left to write
  unsigned bufsize;               // Size of stream buffer
  unsigned nbytes;                // Number of bytes to write now
  unsigned nwritten;              // Number of bytes written
  int c;                          // A temp char

  // Initialize local vars
  data = buffer;
  count = total = size * num;
  if (count == 0) return 0;

  if (anybuf(stream)) {
    // Already has buffer, use its size
    bufsize = stream->bufsiz;
  } else {
    // Assume will get BUFSIZ buffer
    bufsize = BUFSIZ;
  }

  // Here is the main loop -- we go through here until we're done
  while (count != 0) {
    // If the buffer is big and has room, copy data to buffer
    if (bigbuf(stream) && stream->cnt != 0) {
      // How much do we want?
      nbytes = (count < (unsigned) stream->cnt) ? count : stream->cnt;
      memcpy(stream->ptr, data, nbytes);

      // Update stream and amount of data written
      count -= nbytes;
      stream->cnt -= nbytes;
      stream->ptr += nbytes;
      data += nbytes;
    } else if (count >= bufsize) {
      // If we have more than bufsize chars to write, write
      // data by calling write with an integral number of
      // bufsiz blocks.  If we reach here and we have a big
      // buffer, it must be full so flush it.

      if (bigbuf(stream)) {
        if (fflush(stream)) {
          // Error, stream flags set -- we're out of here
          return (total - count) / size;
        }
      }

      // Calc chars to write -- (count / bufsize) * bufsize
      nbytes = bufsize ? (count - count % bufsize) : count;

      if (stream->flag & _IOCRLF) {
        nwritten = write_translated(fileno(stream), (char *) data, nbytes);
      } else {
        nwritten = write(fileno(stream), data, nbytes);
      }

      if ((int) nwritten < 0) {
        // Error -- out of here
        stream->flag |= _IOERR;
        return (total - count) / size;
      }

      // Update count and data to reflect write
      count -= nwritten;
      data += nwritten;

      if (nwritten < nbytes) {
        // Error -- out of here
        stream->flag |= _IOERR;
        return (total - count) / size;
      }
    } else {
      // Buffer full and not enough chars to do direct write, so do a flsbuf.
      c = *data;  
      if (flsbuf(c, stream) == EOF) {
        // Error or eof, stream flags set by _flsbuf
        return (total - count) / size;
      }

      // flsbuf wrote a char -- update count
      ++data;
      --count;

      // Update buffer size
      bufsize = stream->bufsiz > 0 ? stream->bufsiz : 1;
    }
  }

  // We finished successfully, so just return num
  return num;
}

int fseek(FILE *stream, long offset, int whence) {
  if (whence != SEEK_SET && whence != SEEK_CUR && whence != SEEK_END) {
    errno = EINVAL;
    return -1;
  }

  // Clear EOF flag
  stream->flag &= ~_IOEOF;
  
  // Adjust for prefetched data on relative seek.
  if (whence == SEEK_CUR && (stream->flag & _IORD)) offset -= stream->cnt;
  
  // Flush buffer as necessary
  fflush(stream);

  // If file opened for read/write, clear flags since we don't know
  // what the user is going to do next.
  if (stream->flag & _IORW) stream->flag &= ~(_IOWR | _IORD);

  // Seek to the desired location and return
  return lseek(fileno(stream), offset, whence) < 0 ? -1 : 0;
}

long ftell(FILE *stream) {
  long filepos;

  if (stream->cnt < 0) stream->cnt = 0;    
  if ((filepos = tell(fileno(stream))) < 0L) return -1;
  if (!bigbuf(stream)) return filepos - stream->cnt;

  if (stream->flag & _IORD) {
    filepos -= stream->cnt;
  } else if (stream->flag & _IOWR) {
    filepos += (stream->ptr - stream->base);
  }

  return filepos;
}

void rewind(FILE *stream) {
  fseek(stream, 0, SEEK_SET);
  clearerr(stream);
}

int fsetpos(FILE *stream, const fpos_t *pos) {
  return fseek(stream, *pos, SEEK_SET);
}

int fgetpos(FILE *stream, fpos_t *pos) {
  long n;

  n = ftell(stream);
  if (n < 0) return n;
  *pos = n;
  return 0;
}

void perror(const char *message) {
  fputs(message, stderr);
  fputs(": ", stderr);
  fputs(strerror(errno), stderr);
  fputs("\n", stderr);
}

void setbuf(FILE *stream, char *buffer) {
  if (buffer == NULL) {
    setvbuf(stream, NULL, _IONBF, 0);
  } else {
    setvbuf(stream, buffer, _IOFBF, BUFSIZ);
  }
}

int setvbuf(FILE *stream, char *buffer, int type, size_t size) {
  fflush(stream);
  freebuf(stream);

  stream->flag &= ~(_IOOWNBUF | _IOEXTBUF | _IONBF);

  if (type & _IONBF) {
    stream->flag |= _IONBF;
    buffer = (char *) &stream->charbuf;
    size = 1;
  } else if (buffer == NULL) {
    if ((buffer = malloc(size)) == NULL ) return -1;
    stream->flag |= _IOOWNBUF;
  } else {
    stream->flag |= _IOEXTBUF;
  }

  stream->bufsiz = size;
  stream->ptr = stream->base = buffer;
  stream->cnt = 0;

  return 0;
}

int ungetc(int c, FILE *stream) {
  // Stream must be open for read and can NOT be currently in write mode.
  // Also, ungetc() character cannot be EOF.
  if (c == EOF) return EOF;
  if (!((stream->flag & _IORD) || ((stream->flag & _IORW) && !(stream->flag & _IOWR)))) return EOF;

  // If stream is unbuffered, get one.
  if (stream->base == NULL) getbuf(stream);

  // Now we know base != NULL; since file must be buffered

  if (stream->ptr == stream->base) {
    if (stream->cnt) return EOF;
    stream->ptr++;
  }

  if (stream->flag & _IOSTR) {
    // If stream opened by sscanf do not modify buffer
    if (*--stream->ptr != (char) c) {
      ++stream->ptr;
      return EOF;
    }
  } else {
    *--stream->ptr = (char) c;
  }

  stream->cnt++;
  stream->flag &= ~_IOEOF;
  stream->flag |= _IORD;

  return c & 0xff;
}

/* 删除文件  直接使用unlink系统调用*/
int remove(const char *filename) {
  return unlink(filename);
}

int fready(FILE *stream) {
  struct pollfd pfd;

  // Ready for read if there is anything in the buffer
  if (stream->cnt > 0) return 1;

  // String streams have all data in the buffer
  if (stream->flag & _IOSTR) return 0;

  // Must be in read mode
  if (stream->flag & _IOWR) return 0;

  // Poll input file for available data
  pfd.fd = fileno(stream);
  pfd.events = POLLIN;
  pfd.revents = 0;
  return poll(&pfd, 1, 0) > 0 && (pfd.revents & POLLIN);
}


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