《文法俱乐部》读书笔记之动词时态--LG二进制


1简单式

所谓简单式,在语境当中对时间的强调是时间段,即时间有开始,也有结尾。(书中说的是可以用括号括起来,时间段可以很短,也可以无限长,总之是强调时间段,强调起点与终点的)
(1)过去
例如:
I finished my homework yesterday (时间段是昨天)
My homework was finished yesterday (同上)
这里was表示过去,finished可看作be动词was的形容词辅语,表示一种被动的状态
Hu was undergoing a major surgery yesterday(时间段是昨天)
这里was依旧是表示过去, undergoing 表示一种持续的状态,昨天一直在手术。undergoing a major surgery 这个现在分词的片语也是作为形容词辅语。
The witness was being questioned when the door slammed
这里依旧是简单式,虽然时间段很短,只是一瞬间。这里的being 没有意义是表示持续, questioned 表被动的意思。 being questioned 仍然是was 的辅语。
(2)现在
现在就是now ,这个时间段可大可小。常说的真理或者事实,也需要用简单式中的现在式来表达。因为真理和事实是从过去到未来都对的,也是一个时间段。只是”括号比较大而已“。
例如:
the fresh air in country braces him
all mothers love their chilidren (真理)
The commodities of YongHui is selling at a discount this mounth (时间段是这个月)
这里的selling at a discount依旧作为辅语。selling用ing只是表示持续。
As we know ,the ozone layer is being depleted。
being depleted也只是表示正在被的意思。
(3)未来
There will be a major election in March (时间段是三月)
do not call me at 6 tomorrow。i will still be sleeping then。

2完成式
与简单式相对应,完成式的语境强调的是截止时间,而忽略开始时间。
(1)现在
指的是截止时间是现在
例如:
I sure i have seen this face somewhere(截止时间是现在,是现在完成时,强调的是截止时间)
we have been working overtime for a week to fill your order(been working强调是持续性)
the hourse has been redecorated twice since they came in (been redecorated 表被动)
(2)过去
截止时间在过去
例如:
he had won before you came in (截止时间是你来的时候,came in 是过去式,所以此时是过去完成时)
i had been smoking three packs of cigarettes a day before i decided to quit ( been smoking 表持续)
(3)未来
截止时间是未来
例如:
in two more minutes,she will have been talking for 3 hours
at 5:00.your car will have been fixed by then
总之:
把be动词当动词,句子时态就只有2种,简单和完成
be 后面的现在分词表持续,过去分词表被动
简单式强调的是时间段,完成式强调的是截止时间。
题外:
在一般现在时中,当主语是第三人称单数时,谓语动词要用第三人称单数形式,即常在动词原形后加-s或-es.但有些同学们对于哪些主语是第三人称单数还不十分清楚,现归纳总结如下:
一、人称代词he,she,it是第三人称单数.如:
He likes watching TV.他喜欢看电视.
She has lunch at twelve.她十二点吃午餐.
It looks like a cat.它看起来像只猫.
二、单个人名、地名或称呼作主语;是第三人称单数.如:
①Han Mei looks like her mother.韩梅看起来像她的母亲.
②Beijing is in China.北京在中国.
③Uncle Wang often makes cakes.王叔叔经常做蛋糕.
三、单数可数名词或"this / that / the+单数可数名词"作主语时,是第三人称单数.如:
①A horse is a useful animal.马是有用的动物.
②This book is yours.这本书是你的.
③That car is red.那辆小汽车是红色的.
④The cat is Lucy's.这只猫是露茜的.
四、不定代词someone,somebody,nobody,everything,something等及指示代词this,that作主语时,是第三人称单数.如:
①Everyone is here.大家到齐了.
②There is something wrong with the watch.这块手表有毛病.
③This is a pen.这是一支钢笔.
④That is an eraser.那是一块橡皮擦.
五、不可数名词作主语时为第三人称单数.如:
①The milk is in the glass.牛奶在玻璃杯里.
②The bread is very small.那面包很小.
六、当数字或字母作主语时,看作第三人称单数.如:
①"6" is a lucky number."6"是个吉利数字.
②"I" is a letter."I"是个字母.

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