"Theorem" 本身是一个大 result
"Lemma" 是 prove “Theorem“ 之前用的一个 result
"Corollary" 是可以从 "Theorem" 里直接 deduce/prove 出来的 result
" Proposition" 是一个还无法大到变成 "Theorem" 的一个 result (当作小 theorem )
(1) Definition（定义）------a precise and unambiguous description of the meaning of a mathematical term. It characterizes the meaning of a word by giving all the properties and only those properties that must be true.
(2) Theorem（定理）----a mathematical statement that is proved using rigorous mathemat-ical reasoning. In a mathematical paper, the term theorem is often reserved for the most important results.
(3) Lemma（引理）----a minor result whose sole purpose is to help in proving a theorem. It is a stepping stone on the path to proving a theorem. Very occasionally lemmas can take on a life of their own (Zorn's lemma, Urysohn's lemma, Burnside's lemma,Sperner's
(4) Corollary（推论）-----a result in which the (usually short) proof relies heavily on a given theorem (we often say that \this is a corollary of Theorem A").
(5) Proposition（命题）-----a proved and often interesting result, but generally less important than a theorem.
(6) Conjecture（推测，猜想）----a statement that is unproved, but is believed to be true (Collatz conjecture, Goldbach conjecture, twin prime conjecture).
(7) Claim（断言）-----an assertion that is then proved. It is often used like an informal lemma.
(8) Axiom/Postulate------（公理/假定）a statement that is assumed to be true without proof. These are the basic building blocks from which all theorems are proved (Eu-clid's ve postulates, Zermelo-Frankel axioms, Peano axioms).
(9) Identity（恒等式）-----a mathematical expression giving the equality of two (often variable) quantities (trigonometric identities, Euler's identity).
(10) Paradox（悖论）----a statement that can be shown, using a given set of axioms and de nitions, to be both true and false. Paradoxes are often used to show the inconsistencies in a awed theory (Russell's paradox). The term paradox is often used informally
to describe a surprising or counterintuitive result that follows from a given set of rules (Banach-Tarski paradox, Alabama paradox, Gabriel's horn).