java spring中抽象类无法注入

 场景

springboot通过单例模式获取抽象类下的实现类。

问题

通过spring @Autowired注入service,获取不到对象。

问题引入

首先明确一个问题:抽象类不能生成实例对象,spring无法注入。

原因:spring的原理是启动服务器时读取配置文件,取得类名后利用反射机制在spring上下文中生成一个单例的对象,由spring注入属性并维护此对象的状态,抽象类在反射生成对象时就已经失败了,后面的不会进行

如何解决

方案1

限于springboot方式启动,
我们编写一个SpringBeanLoader的类,在应用启动时加载org.springframework.context.ApplicationContext,对外通过ApplicationContext提供获取bean的方法,代码如下:

应用启动时设置applicationContext

public class Application {

    public static void main(String[] args) {

        ApplicationContext applicationContext = SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args);

        SpringBeanLoader.setApplicationContext(applicationContext);
    }
}

SpringBeanLoader结构

public class SpringBeanLoader {

    private static ApplicationContext applicationContext;

    /**
     * 获取SpringApplicationContext
     *
     * @return ApplicationContext
     */

    private static ApplicationContext getApplicationContext() {
        return applicationContext;
    }

    /**
     * 设置SpringApplicationContext
     *
     * @param applicationContext
     */
    public static void setApplicationContext(ApplicationContext applicationContext) {
        SpringBeanLoader.applicationContext = applicationContext;
    }

    /**
     * 获取Spring中注册的Bean
     *
     * @param beanClass
     * @param beanId
     * @return
     */
    public static <T> T getSpringBean(String beanId, Class<T> beanClass) {
        return getApplicationContext().getBean(beanId, beanClass);
    }

    /**
     * 获取Spring中注册的Bean
     *
     * @param beanClass
     * @return
     */
    public static <T> T getSpringBean(Class<T> beanClass) {
        return getApplicationContext().getBean(beanClass);
    }
}

下面测试一下
定义一个HelloService和HelloServiceImpl

public interface HelloService {
    String echo(String str);
}
@Component
public class HelloServiceImpl implements HelloService {
    @Override
    public String echo(String str) {
        return str;
    }
}

抽象类

public abstract class AbstractService {

    public String testSpringIoc() {

        HelloService helloService = SpringBeanLoader.getSpringBean(HelloService.class);
        return helloService.echo("test");
    }
}

调用类

public class TestService extends AbstractService{

    public String test(){
        return testSpringIoc();
    }

}

编写测试类

@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
public class AbstractServiceTest {

    @Before
    public void init() {
        ApplicationContext applicationContext = new SpringApplicationBuilder(Application.class).web(true).run();
        SpringBeanLoader.setApplicationContext(applicationContext);
    }

    @Test
    public void test_Ioc() {
        TestService testService = new TestService();
        System.out.println(testService.testSpringIoc());
    }
}

输出结果:

test

 

方案2

通过构造函数将org.springframework.context.ApplicationContext注入到抽象类中,编辑一个ApplicationContext的持有类:ApplicationContextHolder

@Component
public class ApplicationContextHolder implements ApplicationContextAware {

    private ApplicationContext applicationContext;

    @Override
    public void setApplicationContext(ApplicationContext applicationContext) throws BeansException {
        this.applicationContext = applicationContext;
    }

    /**
     * 获取Spring中注册的Bean
     *
     * @param beanClass
     * @param beanId
     * @return
     */
    public <T> T getSpringBean(String beanId, Class<T> beanClass) {
        return applicationContext.getBean(beanId, beanClass);
    }

    /**
     * 获取Spring中注册的Bean
     *
     * @param beanClass
     * @return
     */
    public <T> T getSpringBean(Class<T> beanClass) {
        return applicationContext.getBean(beanClass);
    }
}

测试:

抽象类:

public abstract class AbstractService2 {

    private final ApplicationContextHolder applicationContextHolder;

    public AbstractService2(ApplicationContextHolder applicationContextHolder) {
        this.applicationContextHolder = applicationContextHolder;
    }

    public String testSpringIoc() {

        HelloService helloService = applicationContextHolder.getSpringBean(HelloService.class);
        return helloService.echo("test");
    }
}

调用类:

public class TestService2 extends AbstractService2{

    public TestService2(ApplicationContextHolder applicationContextHolder) {
        super(applicationContextHolder);
    }

    public String test(){
        return testSpringIoc();
    }
}

测试类:

@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
@SpringBootTest(classes = Application.class)
public class TestService2Test {

    @Resource
    private ApplicationContextHolder applicationContextHolder;

    @Test
    public void test_ioc(){
        TestService2 testService2 = new TestService2(applicationContextHolder);
        System.out.println(testService2.test());
    }

}

输出:

test

 

总结

  • 方案1仅适用于引入springboot的项目,方式比较简单。
  • 方案2使用与springboot项目或通过其他容器加载的项目,方式相比方案1来说复杂一下,需要提供调用方的构造器。
  • 笔者推荐在springboot项目下选择方案1.

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