Android Studio 3.0及Gradle Plugin 3.0升级注意事项

最近终于有空升级了一下项目中的GradleGradle Plugin的版本,还是踩了蛮多的坑。特别是依赖以及渠道编译这块变动较大,因此把遇到的一些问题点记录下来,分享给后人查阅~

Gradle版本升级

其实当AS升级到3.0之后,Gradle Plugin和Gradle不升级也是可以继续使用的,但很多新的特性如:Java8支持、新的依赖匹配机制、AAPT2等新功能都无法正常使用~ 所以长期看来,最后还是得升的。

  • Gradle Plugin升级到3.0.0及以上,修改project/build.gradle文件:
buildscript {
    repositories {
        ...
        // You need to add the following repository to download the
        // new plugin.
        google()
    }

    dependencies {
        classpath 'com.android.tools.build:gradle:3.0.0'
    }
}
  • Gradle升级到4.1及以上,修改project/gradle/gradle-wrapper.properties文件:
distributionUrl=https\://services.gradle.org/distributions/gradle-4.1-all.zip

生成APK文件名属性outputFile变为只读

改完第一步后会提示如下报错:

Error:(88, 0) Cannot set the value of read-only property ‘outputFile’ for ApkVariantOutputImpl_Decorated{apkData=Main{type=MAIN, fullName=appDebug, filters=[]}} of type com.android.build.gradle.internal.api.ApkVariantOutputImpl.

之前改apk名字的代码类似:

applicationVariants.all { variant ->
    variant.outputs.each { output ->
        def file = output.outputFile
        def apkName = 'xxx-xxx-xxx-signed.apk'
        output.outputFile = new File(file.parent, apkName)
    }
}

由于outputFile属性变为只读,需要进行如下修改,直接对outputFileName属性赋值即可:

applicationVariants.all { variant ->
    variant.outputs.all {
        def apkName = 'xxx-xxx-xxx-signed.apk'
        outputFileName = apkName
    }
}

依赖关键字的改变

  • api: 对应之前的compile关键字,功能一模一样。会传递依赖,导致gradle编译的时候遍历整颗依赖树
  • implementation: 对应之前的compile,与api类似,关键区别是不会有依赖传递
  • compileOnly: 对应之前的provided,依赖仅用于编译期不会打包进最终的apk中
  • runtimeOnly: 对应之前的’apk’,与上面的compileOnly相反

关于implementationapi的区别,主要在依赖是否会传递上。如:A依赖B,B依赖C,若使用api则A可以引用C,而implementation则不能引用。

这里更推荐用implementation,一是不会间接的暴露引用,清晰知道目前项目的依赖情况;二是可以提高编译时依赖树的查找速度,进而提升编译速度。详见SO的这个回答,讲得非常详细了:https://stackoverflow.com/questions/44413952/gradle-implementation-vs-api-configuration

渠道需要声明flavor dimensions

刚开始Sync的时候应该会报错:

Error:All flavors must now belong to a named flavor dimension. Learn more at https://d.android.com/r/tools/flavorDimensions-missing-error-message.html

也就是每个flavor渠道都必须归属一个dimension维度,若只有一个维度,渠道中可以不写dimension属性,默认分配到该维度。直接添加一个默认的维度即可,如:flavorDimensions "dimension"。当然flavorDimensions也可以设置多个维度,详见官方实例:

// Specifies two flavor dimensions.
flavorDimensions "mode", "minApi"

productFlavors {
    free {
        // Assigns this product flavor to the "tier" flavor dimension. Specifying
        // this property is optional if you are using only one dimension.
        dimension "mode"
        ...
    }

    paid {
        dimension "mode"
        ...
    }

    minApi23 {
        dimension "minApi"
        ...
    }

    minApi18 {
        dimension "minApi"
        ...
    }
}

库多variant依赖方式的修改

Gradle plugin 3.0.0+之后引入了新的variant自动匹配机制,也就是说app的flavorDebug变体会自动匹配library的flavorDebug变体。

回顾一下旧的方式,如果app在某个variant下需要依赖library相应的类型,需要按照下面的方式声明依赖:

dependencies {
    // This is the old method and no longer works for local
    // library modules:
    debugCompile project(path: ':library', configuration: 'debug')
    releaseCompile project(path: ':library', configuration: 'release')
}

新的方式,gradle会自动感知并匹配对应的variant(前提是app与library中有对应的variant类型):

dependencies {
    // Instead, simply use the following to take advantage of
    // variant-aware dependency resolution. You can learn more about
    // the 'implementation' configuration in the section about
    // new dependency configurations.
    implementation project(':library')
}

处理app与lib的依赖匹配问题

上面我们了解到新的variant匹配机制,但若app或library中不存在对应的variant类型呢?匹配将如何进行?下面列出了可能出现的几种情形:

情形1:app中有某个build type但library却木有

可以通过matchingFallbacks属性来设置回退策略,提供可能的匹配列表,代码如下:

// In the app's build.gradle file.
android {
    buildTypes {
        debug {}
        release {}
        staging {
            // Specifies a sorted list of fallback build types that the
            // plugin should try to use when a dependency does not include a
            // "staging" build type. You may specify as many fallbacks as you
            // like, and the plugin selects the first build type that's
            // available in the dependency.
            matchingFallbacks = ['debug', 'qa', 'release']
        }
    }
}

若希望可以针对app的每个build type都执行相同的回退策略(例如我们大量的library只有一个release的build type),则可以使用批量指令:

buildTypes.all { type ->
    type.matchingFallbacks = ['release']
}

(注意:在该情景下,若library中有某个build type但app却木有,不会对app有任何影响)

情景2:在同一个dimension维度下,如:tier。若app中有某个flavor但library却木有:

同样可以通过matchingFallbacks属性来设置回退策略,代码如下:

// In the app's build.gradle file.
android {
    defaultConfig{
    // Do not configure matchingFallbacks in the defaultConfig block.
    // Instead, you must specify fallbacks for a given product flavor in the
    // productFlavors block, as shown below.
    }
    flavorDimensions 'tier'
    productFlavors {
        paid {
            dimension 'tier'
            // Because the dependency already includes a "paid" flavor in its
            // "tier" dimension, you don't need to provide a list of fallbacks
            // for the "paid" flavor.
        }
        free {
            dimension 'tier'
            // Specifies a sorted list of fallback flavors that the plugin
            // should try to use when a dependency's matching dimension does
            // not include a "free" flavor. You may specify as many
            // fallbacks as you like, and the plugin selects the first flavor
            // that's available in the dependency's "tier" dimension.
            matchingFallbacks = ['demo', 'trial']
        }
    }
}

(注意:在该情景下,若library中有某个flavor但app却木有,不会对app有任何影响)

情景3:library中有某个dimension维度,但app中却没有:

可以通过missingDimensionStrategy属性来设置选择策略,代码如下:

// In the app's build.gradle file.
android {
    defaultConfig{
    // Specifies a sorted list of flavors that the plugin should try to use from
    // a given dimension. The following tells the plugin that, when encountering
    // a dependency that includes a "minApi" dimension, it should select the
    // "minApi18" flavor. You can include additional flavor names to provide a
    // sorted list of fallbacks for the dimension.
    missingDimensionStrategy 'minApi', 'minApi18', 'minApi23'
    }
    flavorDimensions 'tier'
    productFlavors {
        free {
            dimension 'tier'
            // You can override the default selection at the product flavor
            // level by configuring another missingDimensionStrategy property
            // for the "minApi" dimension.
            missingDimensionStrategy 'minApi', 'minApi23', 'minApi18'
        }
        paid {}
    }
}

说明:其中missingDimensionStrategy属性的第一个值为dimension维度,后面的Strings为该维度下的渠道flavors。我们可以看下它的函数原型:

public void missingDimensionStrategy(String dimension, String requestedValue);

public void missingDimensionStrategy(String dimension, String... requestedValues);

public void missingDimensionStrategy(String dimension, List<String> requestedValues);

(注意:在该情景下,若app中有某个dimension维度,但library中却没有,不会对app有任何影响)

情景4:若library没有任何dimension和flavor,则不需app做任何flavor的回退处理~

说了这么多种场景,是不是快被绕晕了?其实诸如dimension的声明以及提供匹配回退策略都是为了实现精确的variant匹配。但是这么多的场景咋看之下还是比较晕,在遇到具体的业务依赖场景后再回来看这一块的内容,你会更加的有收获~

Java8特性的支持

升级到Gradle Plugin 3.0.0之后,一直被诟病的Jack已经被官方弃用了,取而代之的是最新的desugar方案。

若项目之前用了类似retrolambda或者Jack这种旧方案的话,会出现以下提示告诉你移除相关的代码:

Warning:One of the plugins you are using supports Java 8 language features. To try the support built into the Android plugin, remove the following from your build.gradle: apply plugin: ‘me.tatarka.retrolambda’ To learn more, go to https://d.android.com/r/tools/java-8-support-message.html

启用最新的desugar也非常简单,设置一下sourceCompatibilitytargetCompatibility即可:

android {
  ...
  // Configure only for each module that uses Java 8
  // language features (either in its source code or
  // through dependencies).
  compileOptions {
    sourceCompatibility JavaVersion.VERSION_1_8
    targetCompatibility JavaVersion.VERSION_1_8
  }
}

目前所支持Java8的特性有:

  • Lambda expressions
  • Method References
  • Type Annotations
  • Default and static interface methods
  • Repeating annotations

(注意:stream及function包下的api只能在API level 24+以上才可以使用)

禁用该特性也是分分钟的事情:

android.enableDesugar=false

官方文档:
https://developer.android.com/studio/write/java8-support.html

android-apt相关的异常

最后的最后很多同学会遇到以下关于android-apt的报错:

解决方法:

  • 移除android-apt相关的plugin,如:
classpath 'com.neenbedankt.gradle.plugins:android-apt:1.8'
  • 依赖中的apt改成annotationProcessor,如:
annotationProcessor 'com.android.databinding:compiler:3.0.0'
  • 如果有用到类似Realm这种第三方的plugin,确保升级到最新版试试(旧版的Realm用的还是android-apt),突然发现升级到最新版后api接口被改了,泪奔中…
buildscript {
    repositories {
        jcenter()
    }
    dependencies {
        classpath "io.realm:realm-gradle-plugin:4.2.0"
    }
}

更多

还有更多的迁移变化,由于项目中还没涉及到,就先不写了,大家可以参考官方文档:
https://developer.android.com/studio/build/gradle-plugin-3-0-0-migration.html

点击此处阅读原文:https://codezjx.github.io/2017/11/23/gradle-plugin-3-0-0-migration/

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