Tiles3+SpringMVC4 学习心得

1. Tiles是什么?能做什么?

Apache Tiles is a template based, composite view framework: it allows to reuse page pieces across the application, keeping consistent look and feel. Page layouts in general contains several page-fragments like header,footer, menu & content. In a consistent layout, only content changes between page navigation while other page fragments like header,footer & menu remains fixed most of the time.

Apache Tiles 是一种基于模板的复合视图框架:它允许在应用程序过程中重复使用页面片段,保持一致的外观和感受。一般页面布局包含多个页面片段,比如页眉、页脚、菜单和主体内容部分。在一个一致的布局中,只有主体内容部分会在页面导航之间改变, 而其他页面元素,如:页眉、页脚和菜单栏,大多数时间保持不变。

Tiles原理实例

2. 为什么使用Tiles?

很多时候我们网站的风格布局是一致的,如修真院的页面,页眉页脚在绝大多数页面是不变的。而如果没有Tiles这种页面代码复用,这些页面片段的代码会在每个页面中重复这样显然是没有必要的,这时候使用Tiles框架可以将一致性的代码片段和需要改变的片段分开,提高代码复用。

3. Tiles如何使用?

此处引用http://websystique.com/springmvc/spring-4-mvc-apache-tiles-3-annotation-based-example/的例子
首先是版本:
- Spring 5.0.4.RELEASE
- Apache Tiles 3.0.5
- Maven 3
- JDK 9
- Tomcat 9
- IDEA

1.项目结构

src
这里写图片描述

2.pom.xml
<project xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd"
         xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">

    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <groupId>com.ev</groupId>
    <artifactId>test_tiles</artifactId>
    <packaging>war</packaging>
    <version>1.0.0</version>
    <name>test_tiles</name>

    <properties>
        <springframework.version>5.0.4.RELEASE</springframework.version>
        <apachetiles.version>3.0.7</apachetiles.version>
    </properties>

    <dependencies>
        <!-- Spring -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-core</artifactId>
            <version>${springframework.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-web</artifactId>
            <version>${springframework.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-webmvc</artifactId>
            <version>${springframework.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <!-- Apache Tiles -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.apache.tiles</groupId>
            <artifactId>tiles-core</artifactId>
            <version>${apachetiles.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.apache.tiles</groupId>
            <artifactId>tiles-api</artifactId>
            <version>${apachetiles.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.apache.tiles</groupId>
            <artifactId>tiles-servlet</artifactId>
            <version>${apachetiles.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.apache.tiles</groupId>
            <artifactId>tiles-jsp</artifactId>
            <version>${apachetiles.version}</version>
        </dependency>

        <!-- Servlet+JSP+JSTL -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
            <artifactId>javax.servlet-api</artifactId>
            <version>3.1.0</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>javax.servlet.jsp</groupId>
            <artifactId>javax.servlet.jsp-api</artifactId>
            <version>2.3.1</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
            <artifactId>jstl</artifactId>
            <version>1.2</version>
        </dependency>

    </dependencies>

    <build>
        <pluginManagement>
            <plugins>
                <plugin>
                    <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                    <artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
                    <version>3.2</version>
                    <configuration>
                        <source>1.7</source>
                        <target>1.7</target>
                    </configuration>
                </plugin>
                <plugin>
                    <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                    <artifactId>maven-war-plugin</artifactId>
                    <version>2.4</version>
                    <configuration>
                        <warSourceDirectory>src/main/webapp</warSourceDirectory>
                        <warName>Spring4MVCApacheTiles3Example</warName>
                        <failOnMissingWebXml>false</failOnMissingWebXml>
                    </configuration>
                </plugin>
            </plugins>
        </pluginManagement>
        <finalName>test_tiles</finalName>
    </build>
</project>
3.配置Tiles
package com.ev.springmvc.configuration;

import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.ComponentScan;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.config.annotation.EnableWebMvc;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.config.annotation.ResourceHandlerRegistry;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.config.annotation.ViewResolverRegistry;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.config.annotation.WebMvcConfigurerAdapter;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.view.tiles3.TilesConfigurer;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.view.tiles3.TilesViewResolver;

@Configuration
@EnableWebMvc
@ComponentScan(basePackages = "com.ev.springmvc")
public class AppConfig extends WebMvcConfigurerAdapter {
    /**
     * Configure TilesConfigurer.
     */
    @Bean
    public TilesConfigurer tilesConfigurer(){
        TilesConfigurer tilesConfigurer = new TilesConfigurer();
        tilesConfigurer.setDefinitions("/WEB-INF/views/**/tiles.xml");
        tilesConfigurer.setCheckRefresh(true);
        return tilesConfigurer;
    }

    /**
     * Configure ViewResolvers to deliver preferred views.
     */
    @Override
    public void configureViewResolvers(ViewResolverRegistry registry) {
        TilesViewResolver viewResolver = new TilesViewResolver();
        registry.viewResolver(viewResolver);
    }

    /**
     * Configure ResourceHandlers to serve static resources like CSS/ Javascript etc...
     */

    @Override
    public void addResourceHandlers(ResourceHandlerRegistry registry) {
        registry.addResourceHandler("/static/**").addResourceLocations("/static/");
    }

}

Highlights of above configurations are TilesConfigurer & TilesViewResolver. TilesConfigurer simply configures a TilesContainer using a set of files containing definitions, to be accessed by TilesView instances. Definition files are basically XML files containing layout definitions.
In our Spring MVC application, we also need a ViewResolver. Spring comes with a Tiles specific ViewResolver named TilesViewResolver. Once configured, the view names returned from your controller methods will be treated as tiles view and Spring will look for a definition having the same name in definitions XML files.

以上配置的亮点是TilesConfigurer和TilesViewResolver。 TilesConfigurer只需使用一组包含定义的文件来配置TilesContainer,即可由TilesView实例访问。 定义文件基本上是包含布局定义的XML文件。 在我们的Spring MVC应用程序中,我们还需要一个ViewResolver。 Spring带有一个名为TilesViewResolver的Tiles特定ViewResolver。 配置完成后,从控制器方法返回的视图名称将被视为tile视图,并且Spring将在定义XML文件中查找具有相同名称的定义。

4. 创建Tiles定义(Tiles.xml)
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<!DOCTYPE tiles-definitions PUBLIC  "-//Apache Software Foundation//DTD Tiles Configuration 3.0//EN"  "http://tiles.apache.org/dtds/tiles-config_3_0.dtd">  

<tiles-definitions>  

   <!-- Base Definition -->
   <definition name="base-definition"
       template="/WEB-INF/views/tiles/layouts/defaultLayout.jsp">  
       <put-attribute name="title" value="" />  
       <put-attribute name="header" value="/WEB-INF/views/tiles/template/defaultHeader.jsp" />  
       <put-attribute name="menu" value="/WEB-INF/views/tiles/template/defaultMenu.jsp" />  
       <put-attribute name="body" value="" />  
       <put-attribute name="footer" value="/WEB-INF/views/tiles/template/defaultFooter.jsp" />  
   </definition>  

   <!-- Home Page -->
   <definition name="home" extends="base-definition">  
       <put-attribute name="title" value="Welcome" />  
       <put-attribute name="body" value="/WEB-INF/views/pages/home.jsp" />  
   </definition>  

   <!-- Product Page -->
   <definition name="products" extends="base-definition">  
       <put-attribute name="title" value="Products" />  
       <put-attribute name="body" value="/WEB-INF/views/pages/products.jsp" />  
   </definition>  

   <!-- Contact-us Page -->
   <definition name="contactus" extends="base-definition">  
       <put-attribute name="title" value="Contact Us" />  
       <put-attribute name="body" value="/WEB-INF/views/pages/contactus.jsp" />  
   </definition>  

</tiles-definitions>

In above definition file, we have defined a base-definition and several other definitions extending base-definition. Other defintions are just overwriting the part they are specialized for. template attribute in definition-block is used to specify the actual layout file. Each of the definition (by name) can be treated as a tiles-view.

在上面的定义文件中,我们定义了一个基本定义和其他几个扩展基本定义的定义。 其他定义只是覆盖它们专用的部分。 定义块中的模板属性用于指定实际的布局文件。 每个定义(按名称)都可以视为Tiles视图。

5. 设计布局(layouts)

In our case we have defined a basic layout [/WEB-INF/views/tiles/layouts/defaultLayout.jsp] pinned with definition using template attribte.

在我们的例子中,我们定义了一个使用模板属性定义的基本布局[/WEB-INF/views/tiles/layouts/defaultLayout.jsp]。

defaultLayout.jsp

<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" pageEncoding="ISO-8859-1"%>
<%@ page isELIgnored="false" %>
<%@ taglib prefix="c" uri="http://java.sun.com/jsp/jstl/core"%>
<%@ taglib uri="http://tiles.apache.org/tags-tiles" prefix="tiles"%>

<html>

<head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">
    <title><tiles:getAsString name="title" /></title>
    <link href="<c:url value='/static/css/bootstrap.css' />"  rel="stylesheet"></link>
    <link href="<c:url value='/static/css/app.css' />" rel="stylesheet"></link>
</head>

<body>
        <header id="header">
            <tiles:insertAttribute name="header" />
        </header>

        <section id="sidemenu">
            <tiles:insertAttribute name="menu" />
        </section>

        <section id="site-content">
            <tiles:insertAttribute name="body" />
        </section>

        <footer id="footer">
            <tiles:insertAttribute name="footer" />
        </footer>
</body>
</html>

This layout file provides the consistent look-n-feel across your application. If you want to change layout, define a corresponding layout file and attach to the definition using template attribute.

As you can see, we have a header,footer,menu & body. We are using tags-tiles tag library to provide the placeholder within layout file. Attributes specified using insertAttribute will be provided by corresponding definition(or the one extending it).

此布局文件在应用程序中提供一致的外观。 如果要更改布局,请定义相应的布局文件并使用模板属性附加到定义。 正如你所看到的,我们有一个页眉,页脚,菜单和正文。 我们使用tags-tiles标签库来提供布局文件中的占位符。 使用insertAttribute指定的属性将由相应的定义(或扩展它的定义)提供。

6.创建视图

We have created some default views[used when the extending definition does not overwrite them] and some specific ones.

我们创建了一些默认视图[在扩展定义不覆盖它们时使用]和一些特定的视图。

defaultHeader.jsp

<div>
        <h1>Tiles Demo</h1>
</div>

defaultFooter.jsp

<div>
  Made in this world.
</div>

defaultMenu.jsp

<nav>
    <a href="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/"><img class="logo" src="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/static/img/Linux-icon.png"></a>
    <ul id="menu">
        <li><a href="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/">Home</a></li>
       <li><a href="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/products">Products</a></li>
       <li><a href="${pageContext.request.contextPath}/contactus">Contact Us</a></li>
    </ul>
</nav>

home.jsp

<h2>Welcome to Home page</h2>

products.jsp

<h2>Products page</h2>

contactus.jsp

<h2>Contact Us Page</h2>
7. 创建Controller
package com.ev.springmvc.controller;

import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;
import org.springframework.ui.ModelMap;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMethod;


@Controller
@RequestMapping("/")
public class AppController {

    @RequestMapping(value = {"/"}, method = RequestMethod.GET)
    public String homePage(ModelMap model) {
        return "home";
    }

    @RequestMapping(value = {"/products"}, method = RequestMethod.GET)
    public String productsPage(ModelMap model) {
        return "products";
    }

    @RequestMapping(value = {"/contactus"}, method = RequestMethod.GET)
    public String contactUsPage(ModelMap model) {
        return "contactus";
    }
}

Look at each of these controller methods. The returned value from them is treated as tiles-view [Thanks to TilesViewResolver] and corresponding tiles-definition gets consulted.

看这些控制器的每一个方法。 从他们返回的值被视为Tiles视图[归功于TilesViewResolver]和相应的Tiles定义获得咨询。

8.创建初始化类
package com.ev.springmvc.configuration;


import org.springframework.web.servlet.support.AbstractAnnotationConfigDispatcherServletInitializer;

public class AppInitializer extends AbstractAnnotationConfigDispatcherServletInitializer {

    @Override
    protected Class<?>[] getRootConfigClasses() {
        return new Class[] { AppConfig.class };
    }

    @Override
    protected Class<?>[] getServletConfigClasses() {
        return null;
    }

    @Override
    protected String[] getServletMappings() {
        return new String[] { "/" };
    }

}
9. 运行之

home
product
contactus

可以看到除了中间的主体部分,其他部分都没有改变。
这就是一个简单的TilesDemo啦。

以上就是修真院Java任务四关于Tiles需要了解的内容。

以上所有代码,复制粘贴就能跑!对于自己的个性化需求请自行研究该Demo。

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