Rendering Paths

Unity supports different Rendering Paths. You shouldchoose which one you use depending on your game content and targetplatform / hardware. Different rendering paths have differentfeatures and performance characteristics that mostly affect Lightsand Shadows.

The rendering Path used by your project is chosenin Player Settings.Additionally, you can override it foreach Camera.

If the graphics card can’t handle a selected rendering path, Unitywill automatically use a lower fidelity one. So on a GPU that can’thandle Deferred Lighting, Forward Rendering will be used. IfForward Rendering is not supported, Vertex Lit will be used.

Deferred Lighting

DeferredLighting is the rendering path with themost lighting and shadow fidelity. It is best used if you have manyrealtime lights. It requires a certain level of hardware support,is for UnityPro only.

For more details see the Deferred Lightingpage.

Forward Rendering

Forward is ashader-based rendering path. It supports per-pixel lighting(including normal maps & light Cookies) and realtime shadowsfrom one directional light. In the default settings, a small numberof the brightest lights are rendered in per-pixel lighting mode.The rest of the lights are calculated at object vertices.

For more details see the Forward Renderingpage.

Vertex Lit

VertexLit is the rendering path with the lowestlighting fidelity and no support for realtime shadows. It is bestused on old machines or limited mobile platforms.

For more details see the Vertex Lit page.

Rendering Paths Comparison

  Deferred Lighting Forward Rendering Vertex Lit
Per-pixel lighting (normal maps, light cookies) Yes Yes -
Realtime shadows Yes 1 Directional Light -
Dual Lightmaps Yes - -
Depth&Normals Buffers Yes Additional render passes -
Soft Particles Yes - -
Semitransparent objects - Yes Yes
Anti-Aliasing - Yes Yes
Light Culling Masks Limited Yes Yes
Lighting Fidelity All per-pixel Some per-pixel All per-vertex
Cost of a per-pixel Light Number of pixels it illuminates Number of pixels * Number of objects it illuminates -
Platform Support
PC (Windows/Mac) Shader Model 3.0+ Shader Model 2.0+ Anything
Mobile (iOS/Android) OpenGL ES 2.0 OpenGL ES 2.0 OpenGL ES 2.0 & 1.1
Consoles 360, PS3 360, PS3 -
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Physically Based Rendering from Theory to Implementation 一共3部分~~~~~~~~~, 源码下载to h t t p ://www.p b r t . o r g /downloads.php /////////////////////////////////// CHAPTER 01. INTRODUCTION Literate Programming Indexing and Cross-Referencing Photorealistic Rendering and the Ray-Tracing Algorithm Cameras Ray-Object Intersections Light Distribution Visibility Surface Scattering Recursive Ray Tracing Ray Propagation pbrt: System Overview Phases of Execution Scene Representation Main Rendering Loop Scene Methods An Integrator for Whitted-Style Ray Tracing How to Proceed through This Book The Exercises Using and Understanding the Code Pointer or Reference? Code Optimization The Book Web site Bugs Further Reading Exercise CHAPTER 02. GEOMETRY AND TRANSFORMATIONS Coordinate Systems Coordinate System Handedness Vectors Arithmetic Scaling Dot and Cross Product Normalization Coordinate System from a Vector Points Normals Rays Ray Differentials Three-Dimensional Bounding Boxes Transformations Homogeneous Coordinates Basic Operations Translations Scaling x, y, and z Axis Rotations Rotation around an Arbitrary Axis The Look-At Transformation Applying Transformations Points Vectors Normals Rays Bounding Boxes Composition of Transformations Transformations and Coordinate System Handedness Differential Geometry Further Reading Exercises CHAPTER 03. SHAPES Basic Shape Interface Bounding Refinement Intersection Avoiding Incorrect Self-Intersections Shading Geometry Surface Area Sidedness Spheres Construction Bounding Intersection Partial Spheres Partial Derivatives of Normal Vectors DifferentialGeometry Initialization Surface Area Cylinders Construction Bounding Intersection Partial Cylinders Surface Area Disks Construction Bounding Intersection Surface Area Other Quadrics Cones Paraboloids Hyperboloids Triangles and Meshes Triangle Triangle Intersection Surface Area Shading Geometry Subdivision Surfaces † Mesh Representation Bounds Subdivison Further Reading Exercises CHAPTER 04. PRIMITIVES AND INTERSECTION ACCELERATION Primitive Interface and Geometric Primitives Geometric Primitives Object Instancing Aggregates Ray-Box Intersections Grid Accelerator Creation Traversal Kd-Tree Accelerator Tree Representation Tree Construction Traversal Further Reading Exercises CHAPTER 05. COLOR AND RADIOMETRY Spectral Representation Spectrum Class XYZ Color Basic Radiometry Basic Quantities Incident and Exitant Radiance Functions Working with Radiometric Integrals Integrals over Projected Solid Angle Integrals over Spherical Coordinates Integrals over Area Surface Reflection and the BRDF Further Reading Exercises CHAPTER 06. CAMERA MODELS Camera Model Camera Coordinate Spaces Projective Camera Models Orthographic Camera Perspective Camera Depth of Field Environment Camera Further Reading Exercises CHAPTER 07. SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION Sampling Theory The Frequency Domain and the Fourier Transform Ideal Sampling and Reconstruction Aliasing Antialiasing Techniques Application to Image Synthesis Sources of Aliasing in Rendering Understanding Pixels Image Sampling Interface Sample Representation and Allocation Stratified Sampling Low-Discrepancy Sampling † Definition of Discrepancy Constructing Low-Discrepancy Sequences (0,2)-Sequences The Low-Discrepancy Sampler Best-Candidate Sampling Patterns † Generating the Best-Candidate Pattern Using the Best-Candidate Pattern Image Reconstruction Filter Functions Further Reading Exercises CHAPTER 08. FILM AND THE IMAGING PIPELINE Film Interface Image Film Image Output Image Pipeline Perceptual Issues and Tone Mapping † Luminance and Photometry Bloom Tone Mapping Interface Maximum to White Contrast-Based Scale Factor Varying Adaptation Luminance Spatially Varying Nonlinear Scale Final Imaging Pipeline Stages Further Reading Exercises CHAPTER 09. REFLECTION MODELS Basic Interface Reflectance BRDF>BTDF Adapter Specular Reflection and Transmission Fresnel Reflectance Specular Reflection Specular Transmission Lambertian Reflection Microfacet Models Oren-Nayar Diffuse Reflection Torrance-Sparrow Model Blinn Microfacet Distribution Anisotropic Microfacet Model Lafortune Model Fresnel Incidence Effects Further Reading Exercises CHAPTER 10. MATERIALS BSDFs BSDF Memory Management Material Interface and Implementations Matte Plastic Additional Materials Bump Mapping Further Reading Exercises CHAPTER 11. TEXTURE Sampling and Antialiasing Finding the Texture Sampling Rate Filtering Texture Functions Ray Differentials for Specular Reflection and Transmission † Texture Coordinate Generation 2D (u, v) Mapping Spherical Mapping Cylindrical Mapping Planar Mapping 3DMapping Texture Interface and Basic Textures Constant Texture Scale Texture Mix Textures Bilinear Interpolation Image Texture Texture Caching MIPMaps Isotropic Triangle Filter Elliptically Weighted Average Solid and Procedural Texturing UV Texture Checkerboard Solid Checkerboard Noise Perlin Noise Random Polka Dots Noise Idioms and Spectral Synthesis Bumpy and Wrinkled Textures Windy Waves Marble Further Reading Exercises CHAPTER 12. VOLUME SCATTERING † Volume Scattering Processes Absorption Emission Out-Scattering and Extinction In-scattering Phase Functions Volume Interface and Homogeneous Media Homogeneous Volumes Varying-Density Volumes 3D Grids Exponential Density Volume Aggregates Further Reading Exercises CHAPTER 13. LIGHT SOURCES Light Interface Visibility Testing Point Lights Spotlights Texture Projection Lights Goniophotometric Diagram Lights Distant Lights Area Lights Infinite Area Lights Further Reading Exercises CHAPTER 14. MONTE CARLO INTEGRATION I: BASIC CONCEPTS Background and Probability Review Continuous Random Variables Expected Values and Variance The Monte Carlo Estimator Sampling Random Variables The Inversion Method Example: Power Distribution Example: Exponential Distribution Example: Piecewise-Constant 1D Functions The Rejection Method Example: Rejection Sampling a Unit Circle Transforming between Distributions Transformation in Multiple Dimensions Example: Polar Coordinates Example: Spherical Coordinates 2D Sampling with Multidimensional Transformations Example: Uniformly Sampling a Hemisphere Example: Sampling a Unit Disk Example: Cosine-Weighted Hemisphere Sampling Example: Sampling a Triangle Further Reading Exercises CHAPTER 15. MONTE CARLO INTEGRATION II: IMPROVING EFFICIENCY Russian Roulette and Splitting Splitting Careful Sample Placement Stratified Sampling Quasi Monte Carlo Warping Samples and Distortion Bias Importance Sampling Multiple Importance Sampling Sampling Reflection Functions Sampling the Blinn Microfacet Distribution Sampling the Anisotropic Microfacet Model Sampling FresnelBlend Specular Reflection and Transmission Application: Estimating Reflectance Sampling BSDFs Sampling Light Sources Basic Interface Lights with Singularities Area Lights ShapeSet Sampling Infinite Area Lights Volume Scattering † Sampling Phase Functions Computing Optical Thickness Further Reading Exercises CHAPTER 16. LIGHT TRANSPORT I: SURFACE REFLECTION Direct Lighting Estimating the Direct Lighting Integral The Light Transport Equation Basic Derivation Analytic Solutions to the LTE The Surface Form of the LTE Integral over Paths Delta Distributions in the Integrand Partitioning the Integrand The Measurement Equation and Importance Path Tracing Overview Path Sampling Incremental Path Construction Implementation Bidirectional Path Tracing † Irradiance Caching Particle Tracing and Photon Mapping Theoretical Basis for Particle Tracing † Photon Integrator Building the Photon Maps Using the Photon Map Photon Interpolation and Density Estimation Further Reading Exercises CHAPTER 17. LIGHT TRANSPORT II: VOLUME RENDERING † The Equation of Transfer Volume Integrator Interface Emission-Only Integrator Single Scattering Integrator Further Reading Exercises CHAPTER 18. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Design Retrospective Abstraction versus Efficiency Design Alternatives: Triangles Only Design Alternatives: Streaming Computation Major Projects Parallel Rendering Increased Scene Complexity Subsurface Scattering Precomputation for Interactive Rendering Conclusion APPENDIXES Utilities Scene Description Interface Input File Format Index of Fragments Index of Classes and their Members Index of Identifiers REFERENCES INDEX ABOUT THE CD-ROM
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