Here you will get an introduction to artificial intelligence.
First of all let us quickly recall what we have learnt in previous blog posts to get an idea of what we already have covered and shouldn’t invest time on. So far, we’ve learnt about Machine Learning concepts, the algorithms, packages and IDEs etc. Now when we are quite familiar about the term Machine Learning, it is time to explore further in the domain. It is time to understand what Artificial Intelligence is? Many people use Machine Learning and AI interchangeably and think both of them as the same. But the fact is they are not the same as inferred by majority. Come let’s understand how these two terms (ML and AI) are not the same.
首先，让我们快速回顾一下以前在博客文章中学到的内容，以了解我们已经介绍的内容，不应浪费时间。 到目前为止，我们已经了解了机器学习的概念，算法，包和IDE等。现在，当我们对机器学习一词非常熟悉时，就该在该领域进行进一步的探索了。 是时候了解什么是人工智能了？ 许多人互换使用机器学习和AI，并认为两者是相同的。 但事实是，它们与多数人推论的并不相同。 快来让我们了解一下这两个术语(ML和AI)是如何不同的。
As we can see in the image above it is quite clear that we see AI and ML differently instead a single domain. In other words “ML is a subset of AI.”
正如我们在上图中所看到的，很明显，我们看到AI和ML的方式有所不同，而不是单个域。 换句话说，“ ML是AI的子集。”
Artificial Intelligence can be thought of as a broader term in which a machine is expected to behave humanly. Whereas on the other hand as we are already aware that in ML we train our machine providing to do a specific task by providing it some data.
We know you guys might be wondering now what the heck is this Deep Learning. As for now think of it as “a subset of ML (comes under Reinforcement Learning)” and we will discuss on this too on some later posts. Let us now quickly dive into Artificial Intelligence and explore what’s interesting in it.
我们知道你们现在可能想知道深度学习到底有什么用。 现在，将其视为“ ML的子集(来自强化学习)”，我们将在以后的文章中对此进行讨论。 现在让我们快速进入人工智能并探索其中有趣的部分。
什么是人工智能？ (What is Artificial Intelligence?)
It is believed that AI is not a new term, people say that according to Greek myths there were mechanical men in early days that act like humans.
Instead of understanding AI as machines that do complex calculations, it can better be explained as machines that are built to act and behave like human, contains features of human like facial recognition, voice recognition, decision making, vision system etc. The devices (machines or computers) that are AI powered are often classified into two categories namely: Applied AI and General AIs.
Applied AI: Applied AI is considered as the common AI, result of which can be spotted in the field of Stock trading, autonomous vehicles etc.
General AI: The devices that run on principles are not very common to spot in our locality but it is interesting to know that some of the buzzing topics like Machine Learning is an example of this.
Two thoughts on AI:
- How to make machines behave like human. 如何使机器表现得像人一样。
- Have machine behaviour in best possible way. 以最佳方式使机器运转。
What are the ways to carry out AI task?
There are believed to be seven different steps that help in making any AI system behave humanly. We are eager to know what those steps are that can make any machine mimic human behaviour.
- Simulating higher function of human brain. 模拟人脑的更高功能。
- Programming a computer to use general (natural) language. 对计算机进行编程以使用通用(自然)语言。
- Arranging hypothetical neurons in a manner so that they can form concept. 以某种方式排列假设的神经元，以便它们可以形成概念。
- A way to determine and measure problem complexity. 确定和衡量问题复杂性的一种方法。
- Self improvement. 自我提升。
- Abstraction – defined as, the quality of dealing with the idea rather than events. 抽象–定义为处理想法而非事件的质量。
- Randomness and creativity. 随机性和创造力。
图灵测试 (Turing Test)
Turing Test was proposed by an English computer scientist Alan Turing in 1950. The main objective of Turing test was to find out if a computer is intelligent or not? Though this was proved to be not that effective to measure the system’s smartness.
图灵测试是由英国计算机科学家艾伦·图灵 ( Alan Turing)在1950年提出的。图灵测试的主要目的是找出计算机是否智能？ 尽管事实证明这对衡量系统的智能程度不是那么有效。
Turing test consist of three units – an interrogator, a computer system and a human unit both situated in different rooms. The means of communication between them was through keyboard and a screen only. The interrogator asks a question to both the units located in different rooms and tries to distinguish between the responses received from both the units (human and computer), i.e. which answer is given by the computer and which one by human, if interrogator fails to correctly identify the computer’s response because of the very minor difference (or even no difference) then the system is supposed to be intelligent.
图灵测试由三个单元组成–询问器，计算机系统和人工单元，它们都位于不同的房间中。 它们之间的通信方式仅通过键盘和屏幕进行。 询问器向位于不同房间的两个单元都询问一个问题，并试图区分从两个单元(人和计算机)接收到的响应，即，如果询问器无法正确执行，则哪个回答由计算机给出，哪个由人给出如果因为差异很小(甚至没有差异)而确定计算机的响应，则该系统应该是智能的。
Other scientists like Steven Harnad extended this as Total Turing Test in which computer must interact in all areas of human behaviour instead of language (in case of turing test) only and the test duration extended to lifetime instead of five or ten minutes only.
Huhh.. much of the theoretical knowledge. Come on let’s quickly see what computer needs to pass this test.
- NLP (Natural Language Processing) NLP(自然语言处理)
- Knowledge Representation 知识表示
- Automated Reasoning 自动推理
- Machine Learning ability 机器学习能力
- Computer Vision 计算机视觉
- Robotics (touch of Robotism) 机器人技术(机器人精神)
人工智能的能力(人工智能能做什么？) (Capabilities of AI (What AI can do?))
- Computer Vision (eg. Facial Recognition) 计算机视觉(例如面部识别)
- Robotics 机器人技术
- NLP (Natural Language Processing) NLP(自然语言处理)
- Expert System 专业系统
- Speech Understanding 言语理解
- Test Categorization 测试分类
- In games 在游戏中
- Surf the web 浏览网页
哪里缺少AI？ (Where AI lacks yet?)
- Understanding NLP robustly 深入了解NLP
- Interpret arbitrary visual scene 解释任意视觉场景
- Learn a natural language 学习自然语言
- Exhibit true autonomy and intelligence 展现真正的自主权和智慧
什么是自然语言处理(NLP)？ (What is Natural Language Processing (NLP)?)
Refers to AI method of communicating with intelligent system using natural language such as English. Computer should be able to understand the natural language and give response to it.
Input/output can be in the form of Speech or Written Text.
NLP的组成部分 (Components of NLP)
Natural Language Understanding (NLU): Mapping the input provided in natural language into some useful representation is the art of NLU.
Natural Language Generation (NLG): Process of producing meaningful phrases and sentences in form of natural language from some internal representations. This includes: test planning, sentence planning and text realization.
NLP中使用的术语 (Terminologies used in NLP)
Phonology: Study of organising sounds.
Morphology: Study of construction of words from primitive meaningful unit.
Syntax: Refers to arranging words to make sentences and determine the structural role of words in sentences.
Semantics: Deals with how to combine the words to make meaningful sentence.
Pragmatics: Refers to using and understanding sentences in different situations.
Discourse: How effectively preceeding sentence can affect interpretation of next sentence?
Steps of NLP
We are pretty sure that the term Deep Learning must be haunting you guys since you see it in the very first image attached. Do not worry, we are always here for you. In short Deep Learning is a part or subset of Machine Learning as inferred from the very first image from this blog post. Deep Learning came into existence only with the notion to facilitate the machines to move forward to achieve their goal to be able to think and act rationally or humanly i.e. help computers to achieve the motive of AI with the help of Machine Learning itself.
我们非常确定，因为您在所附的第一张图片中看到了“深度学习”这个词，所以一定会困扰你们。 不用担心，我们一直在这里为您服务。 简而言之，深度学习是机器学习的一部分或子集，从本博客文章的第一张图片可以推断出。 深度学习仅以一种概念来存在，即促进机器前进以实现其能够理性或人类思考和行动的目标，即借助机器学习本身来帮助计算机实现AI的动机。
Dear readers, that is all for today. We wish you guys enjoyed learning with us. You can post any queries or doubts related to artificial intelligence in the comment section.
亲爱的读者，今天就这些。 我们希望你们喜欢与我们一起学习。 您可以在评论部分中发布与人工智能有关的任何疑问或疑问。