奇怪的同床人:指纹现象……或state.gov与facebook.com

by Nathan Reitinger

内森·雷廷格(Nathan Reitinger)

奇怪的同床人:指纹现象……或state.gov与facebook.com (Strange Bedfellows: Fingerprinting Phenomena…or state.gov versus facebook.com)

When browsing the Internet, who do you trust more: facebook.com or state.gov?

浏览Internet时,您更信任谁: facebook.comstate.gov

A knee-jerk reaction might be to pick state.gov — given Zuckerberg’s consistency in drumming up uncannily accurate advertisements and state.gov’s seemingly innocuous purpose. Or you may feel like this is simply a “choice of evils” and, when backed into a corner, you’d be forced pick the website operated by the government. Hey, at least it’s something you, in some unknown, tenuous way, cast a vote on, right?

下意识的React可能是捡state.gov -鉴于扎克伯格在宣达惊人地准确一致的广告和state.gov的看似无害的目的。 或者,您可能会觉得这仅仅是“邪恶的选择”,当您陷入困境时,将被迫选择政府运营的网站。 嘿,至少您以某种未知的,微妙的方式对它投了票,对吗?

Still others might want to know what should the metric for trust be. Is this a test of who better safeguards my secrets (haveibeenpwned) or who is more likely to view me as a dollar figure (and wait, how high is that dollar figure)? And still others may try to dig deeper and define “trust” from a colloquial vantage: what does this website do without telling me?

还有一些人可能想知道信任的度量标准应该是什么。 这是对谁可以更好地保护我的秘密( haveibeenpwned )或谁更可能将我视为美元的一种考验(然后,该美元的价格有多高 )? 还有其他人可能会尝试从口语的角度更深层次地定义“信任”: 这个网站在不告诉我的情况下会做什么?

And here, quite surprisingly, we find a likeness.

令人惊讶的是,在这里我们发现了相似之处。

But first, a bit of background…

但首先,要有一些背景知识...

追踪 (Tracking)

Out of the many ways to “track” visits to websites — why is it that I’m seeing advertisements for TVs after searching for them on Amazon, oh wait that’s actually a really good deal [click click click] — the best are those that you don’t have to get users’ consent for. Because let’s face it, if someone asks you to “accept” a cookie or terms of service, you will. Trust me, I said “no” one time and got kicked back to google.

出了许多方法来对网站的“追踪”探访-那为什么我在亚马逊为他们寻找后看到了电视广告, 哦,等等 ,实际上是一个非常好的协议 [ 单击单击单击 ] -最好是那些您不必征得用户的同意。 因为让我们面对现实,如果有人要求您“接受” cookie或服务条款,您就会这样做。 相信我,我曾经说“不”,然后被踢回了Google。

But the key here, at least in terms of trust, is knowledge. You are now, in some way shape or form, aware of succumbing to whatever you just agreed to. Hopefully you don’t have to give up your eldest child like you did last time, but for the most part you’ve just agreed that no matter what happens on the website you are visiting, none of it was ‘their’ fault.

但是这里的关键,至少在信任方面,是知识。 您现在已经以某种形式或形式意识到了屈从于您刚刚同意的一切。 希望您不必像上次那样放弃长子 ,但是在大多数情况下,您已经同意,无论您访问的网站发生什么,都不是“他们”的错。

…got caught for cheating on your wife because of a website breach — no fault

…因网站违规而被欺骗欺骗您的妻子– 没错

…being harassed over and over again because your stalker keeps using a fake profile of you to send hoards of randos to your place of work — no fault

...被骚扰了一遍又一遍,因为你的死缠烂打保留使用的,你一个假的个人资料发送randos囤积到您的工作地点- 无故障

指纹识别 (Fingerprinting)

To avoid this possibly-sticky knowledge issue, website builders may prefer to use more secretive techniques like fingerprinting to identify users, in a similar way that cookies identify users.

为了避免这种可能粘知识的问题,网站建设者可能更愿意使用更加隐秘技术,如指纹来识别用户,以类似的方式,饼干识别用户。

Okay another backup — what actually is a cookie? A cookie is like a secret password you give out to the members of your secret club. No one gets through the door without the secret password, but instead of using just one password, you give each member their own special password. So you know Bob’s password is “periwinkle” and you also know that “periwinkle” has been used seventy times in the last month; woah, Bob, you should probably take a break from the club.

好吧,另一个备份-cookie到底是什么? Cookie就像您向秘密俱乐部成员提供的秘密密码。 没有密码,没有人会闯入大门,而是给每个成员分配自己的特殊密码,而不是仅使用一个密码。 因此,您知道Bob的密码是“荔枝螺”,并且您还知道“荔枝螺”在上个月已被使用了70次。 哇,鲍勃,您可能应该从俱乐部休息一下。

In a similar way, fingerprinting is like gathering details about Bob without needing to use his special password tally. Try this one:

类似地,指纹识别就像收集有关Bob的详细信息,而无需使用他的特殊密码标记一样。 试试这个:

He’s a tad…heavyset. Not on the skinny side, but on the rather large side. Also he’s kind of Orange, with white-ish circles around his eyes. His hair is a yellowish blonde. His hair doesn’t look that real. Then his face, wrinkly.

他有点笨重。 不是在皮包骨头的一面,而是在相当大的一面。 而且他是橙色的,眼睛周围有白色的圆圈。 他的头发是淡黄色的金发。 他的头发看起来不那么真实。 然后他的脸,皱纹。

You may have guessed this is Trump, but a “guess” wouldn’t be good enough for a website owner. Instead, you need lots and lots of unique details so you can definitively say “I know that’s Trump, it couldn’t be anyone else.”

您可能已经猜到这是特朗普,但对于网站所有者而言,“猜测”还不够好。 相反,您需要大量的独特细节,因此您可以明确地说“我知道那是特朗普, 不可能再有其他人了 。”

证明在布丁 (Proof’s in the Pudding)

So what does this all have to do with state.gov, facebook.com, and professor Narayanan’s tweet? Well, all three websites currently* use fingerprinting techniques to check you out.

那么,这与state.gov,facebook.com和Narayanan教授的推文有什么关系? 好吧,当前所有三个网站*都使用指纹技术来签出您。

Flattered as you may be, it’s a bit strange that a company who values you at $7.37 and a website representing our Department of State, #diplomacyinaction, are using the same sneaky means of identification. But I digress, how did I figure this out?

像您这样受宠若惊的是,一家公司对您的估价为7.37美元,而代表美国国务院的网站#diplomacyinaction,却使用了同样的偷偷摸摸的身份识别,这有点奇怪。 但是我离题了,我是怎么知道的呢?

I built a Google Chrome Extension hunting for a very particular technique used in fingerprinting (i.e., canvas fingerprinting). I ran the extension in a Selenium web-scrape and pulled in data on approximately half a million websites, creating a database of fingerprinting attempts. My Chrome extension is essentially the same type of Chrome extension the researcher Günes Acar used to identify the fingerprinting on ftc.gov, (he used CanvasFingerprintBlock).

我建立了一个Google Chrome浏览器扩展程序,以寻找一种用于指纹识别(即画布指纹识别)的非常特殊的技术。 我在Selenium网站上运行了扩展程序,并在大约50万个网站上提取了数据,创建了指纹尝试数据库。 我的Chrome扩展程序本质上与研究员GünesAcar用于在ftc.gov上识别指纹的Chrome扩展程序类型相同(他使用了CanvasFingerprintBlock )。

Here’s a relative SQL query displaying facebook’s use of canvas fingerprinting:

这是一个相对SQL查询,显示了Facebook对画布指纹的使用:

The string in the left-hand column is base64 encoded, but I turned it back into an image to see what it looks like, shown with the arrow.

左列中的字符串是base64编码的,但是我将其转回为图像以查看其外观,如箭头所示。

Here’s another for state.gov:

这是state.gov的另一个:

As it turns out, Facebook’s use of an emoji reveal lots of unique details about the user — like having someone pahk the cah in Hahvahd Yahd. So too do the words printed by ForeSee, an analytics company, though Mr. Jock, TV quiz Ph-D, bags few lynx! would have been better because it is a not-quite-but-pretty-close perfect pangram.

事实证明,Facebook对表情符号的使用揭示了许多有关用户的独特信息,例如有人在Hahvahd Yahd中派出了cah 。 分析测试公司ForeSee印刷的文字也是如此,尽管电视测验博士Jock先生几乎没有bags! 效果会更好,因为它不是一个非常接近但非常完美的pangram

Either way, both the emoji and oddly-shadowed ForeSee text were requested to be drawn by your computer — without telling you about it — and both provide a lot of unique detail about who you are. A sneaky form of fingerprinting.

无论哪种方式,都要求表情符号文字和阴影阴影的ForeSee文本由您的计算机绘制(而无需告诉您),并且两者都提供了许多有关您的身份的独特信息。 偷偷摸摸的指纹形式。

而且state.gov并不孤单! (And state.gov is not Alone!)

There are actually 304 websites in my database that use the same ‘ForSee’ image to extract uniqueness from users. Moreover, many of them use the .gov top level domain — so it looks like foresee has a good ‘in’ with government-based websites.

我的数据库中实际上有304个网站使用相同的“ ForSee”图像从用户中提取唯一性。 此外,他们中的许多人都使用.gov顶级域名-因此,似乎预见到可以很好地“访问”基于政府的网站。

所以你的意思是…… (So what you’re saying is…)

Maybe we shouldn’t trust either website when talking about our privacy.

在谈论我们的隐私时,也许我们不应该信任任何一个网站。

In conclusion, here’s the full list of websites using this one particular canvas image — but note, the scape occurred over the summer of 2018, so some of the websites may have updated since that time. If you want to reproduce these results yourself, use Chrome with the CanvasFingerprintBlock** extension and head on over to the listed URLs.

总之,这是使用此特定画布图像的网站的完整列表-但请注意,花旗事件发生于2018年夏天,因此自那时以来,某些网站可能已更新。 如果您想自己重现这些结果,请使用带有CanvasFingerprintBlock **扩展名的Chrome,并转到列出的URL。

https://www.dignityhealth.org/https://www.stagingclub.com/https://www.nemours.org/https://www.thankyou.com/cms/thankyouhttps://www.upmc.com/http://www.proflowers.com/https://www.coach.com/https://ucrdatatool.gov/https://www.aarp.org/aarp-foundation/https://www.bcbsm.com/https://www.barclays.co.uk/https://www.smithsonianmag.com/https://www.menswearhouse.com/https://www.jcpenney.com/https://www.sce.com/wps/portal/home/!ut/p/b1/04_Sj9CPykssy0xPLMnMz0vMAfGjzOIt3Q1cPbz8DTzdQwKNDTyNAw38gh0djQ0MzIAKIoEKDHAARwNC-sP1o8BK8JhQkBthkO6oqAgAStf4Iw!!/dl4/d5/L2dBISEvZ0FBIS9nQSEh/https://www.sodimac.cl/sodimac-cl/blackfridayhttps://www.unicare.com/health-insurance/home/overviewhttps://nij.gov/Pages/welcome.aspxhttps://kidshealth.org/https://www.autonation.com/https://www.fbfs.com/find-an-agenthttps://www.mass.gov/orgs/office-of-jury-commissionerhttps://www.argos.co.uk/https://www.billygoat.com/na/en_us/home.htmlhttps://www.hertz.ca/rentacar/reservation/https://www.josbank.com/https://www.pizzahut.com/https://www.npower.com/https://www.carhartt.com/https://www.briggsandstratton.com/na/en_us/home.htmlhttps://pioneervalley.aaa.com/https://www.basspro.com/shop/enhttps://www.ftc.gov/https://www.stanleyblackanddecker.com/https://www.hickoryfarms.com/http://www.clubmonaco.ca/home/index.jsp?geos=2https://www.avid.com/sibelius-ultimatehttps://www.amd.com/enhttp://www.abbott.com/https://myamerigroup.com/Pages/welcome.aspxhttps://www.spectrumbusiness.net/loginhttps://nortonhealthcare.com/https://valottery.com/https://www.comed.com/Pages/default.aspxhttps://www.rue21.com/store/https://www.bls.gov/https://www.allenedmonds.com/https://www.myprime.com/https://www.mass.gov/orgs/massachusetts-registry-of-motor-vehicleshttps://www.ferrismowers.com/na/en_us/home.htmlhttp://www.three.co.uk/https://glucerna.com/https://www.us.elsevierhealth.com/https://www.tui.co.uk/https://www.labcorp.com/https://nationalzoo.si.edu/?fonzref=index.htmlhttp://www.emdmillipore.com/US/en?RedirectedFrom=http%3A%2F%2Fmerckmillipore.com%2F&bd=1https://thebenefitsguide.com/https://www.childrensmn.org/https://www.verabradley.com/us/Homehttps://www.asu.edu/https://www.irs.gov/https://www.mass.gov/https://www.carecreditpay.com/pmyp/showSearchhttp://www.doingbusiness.org/http://www.kraftcanada.com/https://www.redfcu.org/https://www.marks.com/https://www.snapper.com/na/en_us/home.htmlhttp://www.emdmillipore.com/?RedirectedFrom=http://emdmillipore.com/https://www.humana.com/dental-insurancehttps://www.bge.com/Pages/default.aspxhttps://www.usps.com/https://myaccountrwd.allstate.com/anon/account/login?campaign=145https://www.dfs.co.uk/https://snb.com/https://www.royalcanin.com/https://www.epa.gov/https://www.dremel.com/en_US/https://www.snapfish.co.nz/store/homehttps://www.slu.edu/medicine/clinics-community/hrc/https://www.mazdausa.com/http://www.enviroflash.info/https://www.truevalue.com/https://ftccomplaintassistant.gov/#nbhttps://www.nationalcar.com/en/home.htmlhttps://www.mdanderson.org/https://www.ups.com/us/en/global.pagehttp://www.eatonpowersource.com/https://www.gatorade.com/https://www.uscis.gov/https://www.harlequin.com/shop/index.htmlhttps://myavista.com/https://www.bcbsga.com/https://montgomerycountymd.gov/https://www.spectrum.net/https://www.tricare-west.com/https://www.aarp.org/https://www.progressive.com/agent/https://www.bea.gov/https://www.makinghomeaffordable.gov/pages/default.aspxhttps://hnfs.com/https://www.simplicitymfg.com/na/en_us/home.htmlhttps://www.chop.edu/https://www.stouffers.com/enhttps://bjs.gov/https://www.e-verify.gov/https://www.hottopic.com/https://www.mynavyexchange.com/https://www.mcdonalds.com/us/en-us.htmlhttps://www.magazineluiza.com.br/http://www.cooperindustries.com/content/public/en.htmlhttp://www.slu.edu/https://www.smilemakers.com/https://usitc.gov/https://www.humana.com/http://choa.org/https://www.colehaan.com/https://www.snapfish.co.uk/homehttp://girlshealth.gov/https://www.homecenter.com.co/homecenter-co/https://thunderbird.asu.edu/https://www.northernnewengland.aaa.com/?zip=03766&stateprov=nh&city=lebanon&devicecd=PChttps://www.ugi.com/https://www.verizonwireless.com/tablets/asus-zenpad-z8s/#sku=sku2600003?cmp=cse-Shopping-ASUS-P00J&cmp=CSE-C-HQ-NON-R-AC-NONE-NONE-2C0PX0-PX-EBAY-ASUS-P00J&cvosrc=cse.EBAY.ASUS-P00J&cvo_crid={campaign}http://www.coldwatercreek.com/https://www.usajobs.gov/https://www.lg.com/us/mobile-phones/warrantyhttps://www.usbank.com/index.htmlhttps://www.stanfordchildrens.org/https://www.buffalowildwings.com/https://www.fanatics.com/https://ensure.com/https://www.realtor.ca/mlshttps://ttb.gov/https://www.nationalcar.com/en/home.html?action=emcIndexhttps://www.abercrombie.com/shop/ushttps://lifefitness.co.uk/https://www.lg.com/ushttps://www.thenorthface.com/https://www.constellation.com/https://www.purepoint.com/https://www.sba.gov/https://www.beaumont.edu/http://www.boden.co.uk/https://www.acehardware.com/https://www.uvmhealth.org/Pages/home.aspxhttps://www.falabella.com.co/falabella-co/https://mobiloil.com/e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* as of February 15, 2019, it looks like ftc.gov’s version of ForeSee’s codebase no longer triggers a canvas fingerprint action. However, this does not displace the fact that ForeSee continues to use the technique on other government websites like state.gov and uscourts.gov, and the fact that ftc.gov had used this practice in the past.

*自2019年2月15日起,ftc.gov的ForeSee代码库版本不再触发画布指纹操作。 但是,这并没有取代ForeSee继续在state.gov和uscourts.gov等其他政府网站上使用该技术的事实,也没有取代ftc.gov过去使用这种做法的事实。

** my home-grown version of the Chrome extension varies slightly from CanvasFingerprintBlock so your mileage may vary. If you really want to go fishing, open up the inspector in Chrome and search for toDataUrl(); you’ll face a barrage of javascript, but this is one of the main functions allowing for canvas to be used as a fingerprinting tool.

**我自己开发的Chrome扩展程序版本与CanvasFingerprintBlock略有不同,因此您的里程可能会有所不同。 如果您真的想钓鱼,请在Chrome中打开检查器并搜索toDataUrl() ; 您将面对一堆JavaScript,但这是允许画布用作指纹识别工具的主要功能之一。

翻译自: https://www.freecodecamp.org/news/strange-bedfellows-fingerprinting-phenomena-or-state-gov-versus-facebook-com-8d123866e7df/

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