自己动手实现OpenGL-OpenGL原来如此简单(二)

上篇对glViewPort的实现可见一斑。但是并没有提及其中的思路所在。本篇主要是简短地介绍一下WGL的实现思路。

由于OpenGL是一个状态机,既然是状态机,那么肯定有一系列的状态需要保存。OpenGL的状态对应的是功能的实现。我们这个简单的OpenGL不需要大而全的功能,那么需要哪些功能呢?

1.绘制一个立方体或者长方体。

2.长方体或者立方体可以旋转

3.用上面的长方体代表太阳,地球,月亮。模拟其运行周期。

好吧,就上面三个功能。那么说我们上面的三个功能需要保存哪些状态呢?其实就以下三个状态就够了:

1. 矩阵管理

2. 颜色管理

3. 绘制线框

这么简单!

好吧,那么就定义几个变量吧!

1.矩阵管理

   矩阵管理,那么就必须有矩阵,那么我的矩阵是这样的:

  

/*
 * Copyright (C) 2008 The Android Open Source Project
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */

package com.example.simulateopengl;

import java.nio.FloatBuffer;

import android.util.Log;

/** 
 * 
 * A 4x4 float matrix
 *
 */
public class M4 {
	public float[][] m = new float[4][4];
	
	public M4() {
		this.setIdentity();
	}
	@Override
	protected Object clone() throws CloneNotSupportedException {
		// TODO Auto-generated method stub
		M4 other = new M4();
		for(int i = 0; i < 4; ++ i){
			for(int j = 0; j < 4; ++ j){
				other.m[i][j] = m[i][j];
			}
		}
		return other;
	}
	public M4(M4 other) {
		for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
			for (int j = 0; j < 4; j++) {
				m[i][j] = other.m[i][j];
			}
		}		
	}
	
	public void project(GLVertex src, GLVertex dest) {
		GLVertex srcCopy = new GLVertex(src.x, src.y, src.z, src.w);
		dest.x = (float)(srcCopy.x * m[0][0] + srcCopy.y * m[0][1] + srcCopy.z * m[0][2] + m[0][3]*srcCopy.w);
		dest.y = (float)(srcCopy.x * m[1][0] + srcCopy.y * m[1][1] + srcCopy.z * m[1][2] + m[1][3]*srcCopy.w);
		dest.z = (float)(srcCopy.x * m[2][0] + srcCopy.y * m[2][1] + srcCopy.z * m[2][2] + m[2][3]*srcCopy.w);
		dest.w = (float)(srcCopy.x * m[3][0] + srcCopy.y * m[3][1] + srcCopy.z * m[3][2] + m[3][3]*srcCopy.w);
	}
	
	public static void normalize(GLVertex verVertex){
		verVertex.x = verVertex.x/verVertex.w;
		verVertex.y = verVertex.y/verVertex.w;
		verVertex.z = verVertex.z/verVertex.w;
		verVertex.w = verVertex.w/verVertex.w;
	}
	
	public static M4 frustum(float left, float right, float bottom, float top,
            float near, float far){
			float[][]  matrix = new float[4][4];
	       if (left == right) {
	            throw new IllegalArgumentException("left == right");
	        }
	        if (top == bottom) {
	            throw new IllegalArgumentException("top == bottom");
	        }
	        if (near == far) {
	            throw new IllegalArgumentException("near == far");
	        }
	        if (near <= 0.0f) {
	            throw new IllegalArgumentException("near <= 0.0f");
	        }
	        if (far <= 0.0f) {
	            throw new IllegalArgumentException("far <= 0.0f");
	        }
	        final float r_width  = 1.0f / (right - left);
	        final float r_height = 1.0f / (top - bottom);
	        final float r_depth  = 1.0f / (near - far);
	        final float x = mul2f(near/(right - left));//00
	        final float y = mul2f(near * r_height);//11
	        final float A = (right + left) * r_width;//02
	        final float B = (top + bottom) * r_height;//12
	        final float C = (far + near) * r_depth;//22
	        final float D =  mul2f(far * near * r_depth);//23
	        matrix[0][0] = x;		matrix[0][1] = 0.0f;	matrix[0][2] = A;		matrix[0][3] = 0.0f; 
	        matrix[1][0] = 0.0f;	matrix[1][1] = y; 		matrix[1][2] = B;	  	matrix[1][3] = 0.0f;
	        matrix[2][0] = 0.0f; 	matrix[2][1] = 0.0f;  	matrix[2][2] = C; 		matrix[2][3] = D; 
	        matrix[3][0] = 0.0f;	matrix[3][2] = -1.0f; 	matrix[3][1] = 0.0f; 	matrix[3][3] = 0.0f;
	        M4 m4 = new M4();
	        m4.m = matrix;
	        return m4;
	       
	}
	public static int toFixed(float x) {
		return Float.floatToIntBits(x);
	}
	public static float toFloatBytes(int fx){
		return Float.intBitsToFloat(fx);
	}
	
	static Float addExpf(Float v, int e) {
	    int i = toFixed(v);
	    if (i<<1 != 0) { 
	    	 i += (e)<<23;
	    }
	    return toFloatBytes(i);
	}
	
	static Float minusExpf(Float v, int e) {
	    int i = toFixed(v);
	    if (i<<1 != 0) { 
	    	 i -= (e)<<23;
	    }
	    return toFloatBytes(i);
	}
	
	
	static float mul2f(float v) {
	    return addExpf(v, 1);
	}
	
	static float mul2fn(float v, int n) {
	    return addExpf(v, n);
	}
	
	static float divide2fn(float v, int n) {
	    return minusExpf(v, n);
	}
	
	public M4 multiply(M4 other) {
		M4 result = new M4();
		float[][] m1 = m;
		float[][] m2 = other.m;
		for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
			for (int j = 0; j < 4; j++) {
				result.m[i][j] = m1[i][0]*m2[0][j] + m1[i][1]*m2[1][j] + m1[i][2]*m2[2][j] + m1[i][3]*m2[3][j];
			}
		}
		return result;
	}
	
	public void setIdentity() {
		for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
			for (int j = 0; j < 4; j++) {
				m[i][j] = (i == j ? 1f : 0f);
			}
		}
	}
	
	public void setIntArray(int[] src){
		float[][] dst = new float[4][4];
		int i = 0, m, n;
		for(n = 0; n < dst[0].length; ++ n){
			for(m = 0; m < dst.length ; ++ m){
				dst[m][n] = Int2Float(src[i ++]);
			}
		}
		this.m = dst;
	}

	public float Int2Float(int fx){
		return divide2fn((float)fx, 16);
	}
	
	@Override
	public String toString() {
		StringBuilder builder = new StringBuilder("[ ");
		for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
			for (int j = 0; j < 4; j++) {
				builder.append(m[i][j]);
				builder.append(" ");
			}
			
				builder.append("\n  ");
		}
		builder.append(" ]");
		return builder.toString();
	}
	@Override
	public boolean equals(Object o) {
		//float[][] otherM = ((M4)o).m;
		Log.e("---", "wsgl: " + this.toString());
		Log.e("---", "systm gl: " + o.toString());
		return o.toString().equals(this.toString());
	}
	
    public static void translateM(
    		float[][] m, float x, float y, float z) {
        for (int i=0 ; i<4 ; i++) {
            int mi = i;
            m[mi][3] += m[mi][0] * x + m[mi][1] * y + m[mi][2] * z;
        }
    }
}

 然后,定义几个变量用来保存:

    

    public static Stack<M4> mModelViewMatrixStack = new Stack<M4>();
    public static Stack<M4> mProjectionMatrixStack = new Stack<M4>();
    public static M4 mCurrentModelViewMatrix = new M4();
    public static M4 mCurrentProjectionMatrix = new M4();
    public static M4 mCurrentViewPortMatrix = new M4();
    public static int  mMatrixMode = GL10.GL_MODELVIEW;

2. 颜色管理

  

/*
 * Copyright (C) 2008 The Android Open Source Project
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */

package com.example.simulateopengl;

public class GLColor {

    public  int red;
    public  int green;
    public  int blue;
    public  int alpha;

    public GLColor(int red, int green, int blue, int alpha) {
        this.red = red;
        this.green = green;
        this.blue = blue;
        this.alpha = alpha;
    }

    public GLColor(int red, int green, int blue) {
        this.red = red;
        this.green = green;
        this.blue = blue;
        this.alpha = 0x10000;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean equals(Object other) {
        if (other instanceof GLColor) {
            GLColor color = (GLColor)other;
            return (red == color.red &&
                    green == color.green &&
                    blue == color.blue &&
                    alpha == color.alpha);
        }
        return false;
    }
}
   public static  GLColor mVertexColor = new GLColor(0, 0, 0);

 3.  绘制管理。我们这里只按照三角形绘制:

  

/*
 * Copyright (C) 2008 The Android Open Source Project
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */

package com.example.simulateopengl;

import java.nio.IntBuffer;

public class GLVertex {

    public double x;
    public double y;
    public double z;
    public double w = 1.0f;
    public short index; // index in vertex table
    GLColor color;

    GLVertex() {
        this.x = 0;
        this.y = 0;
        this.z = 0;
        this.w = 1.0f;
        
        this.index = -1;
    }

    GLVertex(double x, double y, double z, double w) {
        this.x = x;
        this.y = y;
        this.z = z;
        this.w = w;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean equals(Object other) {
        if (other instanceof GLVertex) {
            GLVertex v = (GLVertex)other;
            return (x == v.x && y == v.y && z == v.z);
        }
        return false;
    }

//    static public int toFixed(float x) {
//        return (int)(x * 65536.0f);
//    }

//    public void put(IntBuffer vertexBuffer, IntBuffer colorBuffer) {
//        vertexBuffer.put(toFixed(x));
//        vertexBuffer.put(toFixed(y));
//        vertexBuffer.put(toFixed(z));
//        if (color == null) {
//            colorBuffer.put(0);
//            colorBuffer.put(0);
//            colorBuffer.put(0);
//            colorBuffer.put(0);
//        } else {
//            colorBuffer.put(color.red);
//            colorBuffer.put(color.green);
//            colorBuffer.put(color.blue);
//            colorBuffer.put(color.alpha);
//        }
//    }
//
//    public void update(IntBuffer vertexBuffer, M4 transform) {
//        // skip to location of vertex in mVertex buffer
//        vertexBuffer.position(index * 3);
//
//        if (transform == null) {
//            vertexBuffer.put(toFixed(x));
//            vertexBuffer.put(toFixed(y));
//            vertexBuffer.put(toFixed(z));
//        } else {
//            GLVertex temp = new GLVertex();
//            transform.project(this, temp);
//            vertexBuffer.put(toFixed(temp.x));
//            vertexBuffer.put(toFixed(temp.y));
//            vertexBuffer.put(toFixed(temp.z));
//        }
//    }
}

 定义个变量来保存顶点:

public static ArrayList<GLVertex> mVertexList = new ArrayList<GLVertex>();
	

 好了,打工告成。

这就是实现一个地球,月亮,太阳模型的所有的东西都在这里。

总之,非常简单。后续博客将拿这8个变量来实现地球,月亮,太阳模型。

 

密码管理请下载:

http://a.app.qq.com/o/simple.jsp?pkgname=com.wa505.kf.epassword

 

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