Android使用ksoap2-android调用WebService学习

        之前主要做客户端UI交互,很少处理数据和接触服务端,但现在的移动设备根本不可能离得开网络连接,数据的交换。最近学习的是在android端如何去调用远程WebService,都说WebService是一种基于SOAP协议的远程调用标准,对于这个协议理解不深,知道webservice可以将不同操作系统平台、不同语言、不同技术整合到一块,android SDK没有直接调用webservice的库,最常用的是借助ksoap2-android这个第三方SDK,点击打开链接,然后和其他第三方jar包一样导入android项目中即可。

        对于WebService服务器具体的编写,现阶段自己不了解,暂且使用网络免费的WebService进行学习http://www.webxml.com.cn/zh_cn/index.aspx,利用这个来写一个简单的国内天气预报的查询,代码编写参照《疯狂Android讲义》相关部分,自己做部分修改。

 

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       以下是几个主要的方法:

1.创建HttpTransportSE传输对象:HttpTransportSE ht = new HttpTransportSE(SERVICE_URL); SERVICE_URL是webservice提供服务的url

2.使用SOAP1.1协议创建Envelop对象:SoapSerializationEnvelope envelope = new SoapSerializationEnvelope(SoapEnvelope.VER11); 设置SOAP协议的版本号,根据服务端WebService的版本号设置。

3.实例化SoapObject对象:SoapObject soapObject = new SoapObject(SERVICE_NAMESPACE, methodName); 第一个参数表示WebService的命名空间,可以从WSDL文档中找到WebService的命名空间。第二个参数表示要调用的WebService方法名。

4.设置调用方法的参数值,如果没有参数,可以省略:例如soapObject.addProperty("theCityCode", cityName);

5.记得设置bodyout属性 envelope.bodyOut = soapObject;

6.调用webservice:ht.call(SERVICE_NAMESPACE+methodName, envelope);

7.获取服务器响应返回的SOAP消息:

     SoapObject result = (SoapObject) envelope.bodyIn;
     SoapObject detail = (SoapObject) result.getProperty(methodName+"Result");

 

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在这个天气预报的demo中需要多次调用webservice,将方法写在一个工具类中,代码如下:

package com.example.webservicedemo;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;
import org.ksoap2.SoapEnvelope;
import org.ksoap2.SoapFault;
import org.ksoap2.serialization.SoapObject;
import org.ksoap2.serialization.SoapSerializationEnvelope;
import org.ksoap2.transport.HttpTransportSE;
import org.xmlpull.v1.XmlPullParserException;

public class WebServiceUtil {
	// 定义webservice的命名空间
	public static final String SERVICE_NAMESPACE = "http://WebXml.com.cn/";
	// 定义webservice提供服务的url
	public static final String SERVICE_URL = "http://webservice.webxml.com.cn/WebServices/WeatherWS.asmx";

	// 调用远程webservice获取省份列表
	public static List<String> getProvinceList() {
		// 调用 的方法
		String methodName = "getRegionProvince";
		// 创建HttpTransportSE传输对象
		HttpTransportSE ht = new HttpTransportSE(SERVICE_URL);
		try {
			ht.debug = true;
			// 使用SOAP1.1协议创建Envelop对象
			SoapSerializationEnvelope envelope = new SoapSerializationEnvelope(
					SoapEnvelope.VER11);
			// 实例化SoapObject对象
			SoapObject soapObject = new SoapObject(SERVICE_NAMESPACE,
					methodName);
			envelope.bodyOut = soapObject;
			// 设置与.NET提供的webservice保持较好的兼容性
			envelope.dotNet = true;

			// 调用webservice
			ht.call(SERVICE_NAMESPACE + methodName, envelope);
			if (envelope.getResponse() != null) {
				// 获取服务器响应返回的SOAP消息
				SoapObject result = (SoapObject) envelope.bodyIn;
				SoapObject detail = (SoapObject) result.getProperty(methodName
						+ "Result");
				// 解析服务器响应的SOAP消息
				return parseProvinceOrCity(detail);
			}
		} catch (SoapFault e) {
			// TODO Auto-generated catch block
			e.printStackTrace();
		} catch (IOException e) {
			// TODO Auto-generated catch block
			e.printStackTrace();
		} catch (XmlPullParserException e) {
			// TODO Auto-generated catch block
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
		return null;
	}

	// 根据省份获取城市列表
	public static List<String> getCityListsByProvince(String province) {
		// 调用的方法
		String methodName = "getSupportCityString";
		// 创建httptransportSE传输对象
		HttpTransportSE ht = new HttpTransportSE(SERVICE_URL);
		ht.debug = true;
		// 实例化SoapObject对象
		SoapObject soapObject = new SoapObject(SERVICE_NAMESPACE, methodName);
		// 添加一个请求参数
		soapObject.addProperty("theRegionCode", province);
		// 使用soap1.1协议创建envelop对象
		SoapSerializationEnvelope envelope = new SoapSerializationEnvelope(
				SoapEnvelope.VER11);
		envelope.bodyOut = soapObject;
		// 设置与.NET提供的webservice保持较好的兼容性
		envelope.dotNet = true;

		// 调用webservice
		try {
			ht.call(SERVICE_NAMESPACE + methodName, envelope);
			if (envelope.getResponse() != null) {
				// 获取服务器响应返回的SOAP消息
				SoapObject result = (SoapObject) envelope.bodyIn;
				SoapObject detail = (SoapObject) result.getProperty(methodName
						+ "Result");
				// 解析服务器响应的SOAP消息
				return parseProvinceOrCity(detail);
			}
		} catch (SoapFault e) {
			// TODO Auto-generated catch block
			e.printStackTrace();
		} catch (IOException e) {
			// TODO Auto-generated catch block
			e.printStackTrace();
		} catch (XmlPullParserException e) {
			// TODO Auto-generated catch block
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
		return null;
	}

	// 解析省份或城市
	public static List<String> parseProvinceOrCity(SoapObject detail) {
		ArrayList<String> result = new ArrayList<String>();
		for (int i = 0; i < detail.getPropertyCount(); i++) {
			// 解析出每个省份
			result.add(detail.getProperty(i).toString().split(",")[0]);
		}
		return result;
	}

	// 根据城市字符串获取相应天气情况
	public static SoapObject getWeatherByCity(String cityName) {
		String methodName = "getWeather";
		HttpTransportSE ht = new HttpTransportSE(SERVICE_URL);
		ht.debug = true;
		SoapSerializationEnvelope envelope = new SoapSerializationEnvelope(
				SoapEnvelope.VER11);
		SoapObject soapObject = new SoapObject(SERVICE_NAMESPACE, methodName);
		soapObject.addProperty("theCityCode", cityName);
		envelope.bodyOut = soapObject;
		envelope.dotNet = true;

		try {
			ht.call(SERVICE_NAMESPACE + methodName, envelope);
			SoapObject result = (SoapObject) envelope.bodyIn;
			SoapObject detail = (SoapObject) result.getProperty(methodName
					+ "Result");
			return detail;
		} catch (IOException e) {
			// TODO Auto-generated catch block
			e.printStackTrace();
		} catch (XmlPullParserException e) {
			// TODO Auto-generated catch block
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
		return null;
	}

}



 

上面这个便是主要实现远程调用webservice的代码,其他实现在activity中完成即可,但是这里也会涉及到一个问题,就是Android多线程问题,在调用webservice时,为了防止ANR的出现,不能在主线程中进行,需要另开子线程执行,,因为子线程涉及到UI更新,Android主线程是线程不安全的,也就是说,更新UI只能在主线程中更新,子线程中操作是危险的.便要涉及Handler的使用了,实在是不才,自己更多时候习惯使用AsyncTask来代替Handler(还是要重新琢磨下Handler的使用方法),因为操作起来比较简单方便,下面是项目中异步操作类中的一个:

 

package com.example.webservicedemo;

import java.util.List;
import android.os.AsyncTask;
import android.widget.Spinner;

public class ProvinceAsyncTask extends AsyncTask<String, String, List<String>> {
	private MainActivity activity;
	private List<String> provinces;
	private Spinner sp_province;
	
	public ProvinceAsyncTask (MainActivity activity,Spinner sp_province){
		this.activity = activity;
		this.sp_province = sp_province;
	}

	@Override
	protected List<String> doInBackground(String... params) { 
		// TODO Auto-generated method stub
		provinces = WebServiceUtil.getProvinceList();
		return null;
	}

	@Override
	protected void onPostExecute(List<String> result) {
		// TODO Auto-generated method stub
		ListAdapter adapter = new ListAdapter(activity, provinces);
		sp_province.setAdapter(adapter);
		
	}
}



可以看出来比较简单,在doInBackground中执行调用webservice,在onPostExecute中执行列表刷新展示

 

 

最后附上该demo的代码,希望可以对初涉及android调用webservice的朋友有帮助

http://download.csdn.net/detail/eyu8874521/5609627

 

 

 

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