java-代理

简介

代理是基本的设计模式之一。代理模式的作用是:为其他对象提供一个代理对象以控制对目标对象的访问。代理对象可以在客户端和目标对象之间起到中介的作用

1.静态代理

由代码手动实现代理,在代码编译前已经确定了目标类、代理类。

2.动态代理

在程序运行时对不确定的目标对象创建代理的方式。在运行时将字节码内容动态写到内存中去
两种动态代理的实现方式:

1.jdk代理,目标对象一定要实现接口(有接口、有实现类)

java.lang.reflect.Proxy类

/**
 * {@code Proxy} provides static methods for creating dynamic proxy
 * classes and instances, and it is also the superclass of all
 * dynamic proxy classes created by those methods.
 *
 * <p>To create a proxy for some interface {@code Foo}:
 * <pre>
 *     InvocationHandler handler = new MyInvocationHandler(...);
 *     Class&lt;?&gt; proxyClass = Proxy.getProxyClass(Foo.class.getClassLoader(), Foo.class);
 *     Foo f = (Foo) proxyClass.getConstructor(InvocationHandler.class).
 *                     newInstance(handler);
 * </pre>
 * or more simply:
 * <pre>
 *     Foo f = (Foo) Proxy.newProxyInstance(Foo.class.getClassLoader(),
 *                                          new Class&lt;?&gt;[] { Foo.class },
 *                                          handler);
 * </pre>
 
 Proxy类提供了创建动态代理类和实例的静态方法。他是用此方法创建的动态代理类的基类。

代理类

public interface IUserDao {
    void save();
}

public class UserDao implements IUserDao {
    public void save() {
        System.out.println("----已经保存数据!----");
    }
}

测试类

public class Test {
    public static void main(String[] args){
        // 目标对象
        IUserDao target = new UserDao();
        // 【原始的类型 class cn.itcast.b_dynamic.UserDao】
        System.out.println(target.getClass());

        // 给目标对象,创建代理对象
        IUserDao proxy = (IUserDao) new ProxyFactory(target).getProxyInstance();
        // class $Proxy0   内存中动态生成的代理对象
        System.out.println(proxy.getClass());

        // 执行方法   【代理对象】
        proxy.save();
    }
}

public class ProxyFactory{

    //维护一个目标对象
    private Object target;
    public ProxyFactory(Object target){
        this.target=target;
    }

   //给目标对象生成代理对象
    public Object getProxyInstance(){
        return Proxy.newProxyInstance(
                target.getClass().getClassLoader(),
                target.getClass().getInterfaces(),
                new InvocationHandler() {
                    @Override
                    public Object invoke(Object proxy, Method method, Object[] args) throws Throwable {
                        System.out.println("开始事务2");
                        //执行目标对象方法
                        Object returnValue = method.invoke(target, args);
                        System.out.println("提交事务2");
                        return returnValue;
                    }
                }
        );
    }

}

控制台打印
class com.sun.proxy.$Proxy4
开始事务2
----已经保存数据!----
提交事务2

看下Proxy.newProxyInstance()的源码

/**
     * Returns an instance of a proxy class for the specified interfaces
     * that dispatches method invocations to the specified invocation
     * handler.
     *
     * <p>{@code Proxy.newProxyInstance} throws
     * {@code IllegalArgumentException} for the same reasons that
     * {@code Proxy.getProxyClass} does.
     *
     * @param   loader the class loader to define the proxy class
     * @param   interfaces the list of interfaces for the proxy class
     *          to implement
     * @param   h the invocation handler to dispatch method invocations to
     * @return  a proxy instance with the specified invocation handler of a
     *          proxy class that is defined by the specified class loader
     *          and that implements the specified interfaces
     * @throws  IllegalArgumentException if any of the restrictions on the
     *          parameters that may be passed to {@code getProxyClass}
     *          are violated
     * @throws  SecurityException if a security manager, <em>s</em>, is present
     *          and any of the following conditions is met:
     *          <ul>
     *          <li> the given {@code loader} is {@code null} and
     *               the caller's class loader is not {@code null} and the
     *               invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
     *               s.checkPermission} with
     *               {@code RuntimePermission("getClassLoader")} permission
     *               denies access;</li>
     *          <li> for each proxy interface, {@code intf},
     *               the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
     *               ancestor of the class loader for {@code intf} and
     *               invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
     *               s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to {@code intf};</li>
     *          <li> any of the given proxy interfaces is non-public and the
     *               caller class is not in the same {@linkplain Package runtime package}
     *               as the non-public interface and the invocation of
     *               {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission s.checkPermission} with
     *               {@code ReflectPermission("newProxyInPackage.{package name}")}
     *               permission denies access.</li>
     *          </ul>
     * @throws  NullPointerException if the {@code interfaces} array
     *          argument or any of its elements are {@code null}, or
     *          if the invocation handler, {@code h}, is
     *          {@code null}
     */
    @CallerSensitive
    public static Object newProxyInstance(ClassLoader loader,
                                          Class<?>[] interfaces,
                                          InvocationHandler h)
        throws IllegalArgumentException
    {
        Objects.requireNonNull(h);

        final Class<?>[] intfs = interfaces.clone();
        final SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
        if (sm != null) {
            checkProxyAccess(Reflection.getCallerClass(), loader, intfs);
        }

        /*
         * Look up or generate the designated proxy class.
         */
         //用被代理类的类加载器和接口拷贝,调用getProxyClass0方法生成一个动态类
        Class<?> cl = getProxyClass0(loader, intfs);

        /*
         * Invoke its constructor with the designated invocation handler.
         */
        try {
            if (sm != null) {
                checkNewProxyPermission(Reflection.getCallerClass(), cl);
            }

            final Constructor<?> cons = cl.getConstructor(constructorParams);
            final InvocationHandler ih = h;
            if (!Modifier.isPublic(cl.getModifiers())) {
                AccessController.doPrivileged(new PrivilegedAction<Void>() {
                    public Void run() {
                        cons.setAccessible(true);
                        return null;
                    }
                });
            }
            return cons.newInstance(new Object[]{h});
        } catch (IllegalAccessException|InstantiationException e) {
            throw new InternalError(e.toString(), e);
        } catch (InvocationTargetException e) {
            Throwable t = e.getCause();
            if (t instanceof RuntimeException) {
                throw (RuntimeException) t;
            } else {
                throw new InternalError(t.toString(), t);
            }
        } catch (NoSuchMethodException e) {
            throw new InternalError(e.toString(), e);
        }
    }

//对被代理类的所有接口进行克隆
//进行了检查操作
//用被代理类的类加载器和接口拷贝,调用getProxyClass0方法生成一个动态类
//反射拿到这个动态代理类的构造器生成这个动态代理类

getProxyClass0方法

private static Class<?> getProxyClass0(ClassLoader loader,
                                           Class<?>... interfaces) {
        if (interfaces.length > 65535) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("interface limit exceeded");
        }

        // If the proxy class defined by the given loader implementing
        // the given interfaces exists, this will simply return the cached copy;
        // otherwise, it will create the proxy class via the ProxyClassFactory
        return proxyClassCache.get(loader, interfaces);
    }
byte[] proxyClassFile = ProxyGenerator.generateProxyClass(
                proxyName, interfaces, accessFlags);
            try {
                return defineClass0(loader, proxyName,
                                    proxyClassFile, 0, proxyClassFile.length);

//ProxyGenerator.generateProxyClass方法生成了一个字节码文件,然后通过defineClass0这个native方法把字节码加载到内存中形成一个类。

2.spring的cglib代理,目标对象只是一个单独的对象

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