史上最简单的SpringCloud教程 | 第六篇: 分布式配置中心(Spring Cloud Config)

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转载请标明出处:
https://www.fangzhipeng.com/springcloud/2017/07/12/sc06-config/
本文出自方志朋的博客

最新Finchley版本:
https://www.fangzhipeng.com/springcloud/2018/08/30/sc-f6-config/
或者
http://blog.csdn.net/forezp/article/details/81041028

在上一篇文章讲述zuul的时候,已经提到过,使用配置服务来保存各个服务的配置文件。它就是Spring Cloud Config。

一、简介

在分布式系统中,由于服务数量巨多,为了方便服务配置文件统一管理,实时更新,所以需要分布式配置中心组件。在Spring Cloud中,有分布式配置中心组件spring cloud config ,它支持配置服务放在配置服务的内存中(即本地),也支持放在远程Git仓库中。在spring cloud config 组件中,分两个角色,一是config server,二是config client。

二、构建Config Server

创建一个spring-boot项目,取名为config-server,其pom.xml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
	<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

	<groupId>com.forezp</groupId>
	<artifactId>config-server</artifactId>
	<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
	<packaging>jar</packaging>

	<name>config-server</name>
	<description>Demo project for Spring Boot</description>

	<parent>
		<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
		<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
		<version>1.5.2.RELEASE</version>
		<relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository -->
	</parent>

	<properties>
		<project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
		<project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding>
		<java.version>1.8</java.version>
	</properties>

	<dependencies>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-cloud-config-server</artifactId>
		</dependency>

		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
			<scope>test</scope>
		</dependency>

		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-eureka</artifactId>
		</dependency>
	</dependencies>

	<dependencyManagement>
		<dependencies>
			<dependency>
				<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
				<artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
				<version>Camden.SR6</version>
				<type>pom</type>
				<scope>import</scope>
			</dependency>
		</dependencies>
	</dependencyManagement>


	<build>
		<plugins>
			<plugin>
				<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
				<artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
			</plugin>
		</plugins>
	</build>

	<repositories>
		<repository>
			<id>spring-milestones</id>
			<name>Spring Milestones</name>
			<url>https://repo.spring.io/milestone</url>
			<snapshots>
				<enabled>false</enabled>
			</snapshots>
		</repository>
	</repositories>


</project>


在程序的入口Application类加上@EnableConfigServer注解开启配置服务器的功能,代码如下:


@SpringBootApplication
@EnableConfigServer
public class ConfigServerApplication {

	public static void main(String[] args) {
		SpringApplication.run(ConfigServerApplication.class, args);
	}
}

需要在程序的配置文件application.properties文件配置以下:

spring.application.name=config-server
server.port=8888


spring.cloud.config.server.git.uri=https://github.com/forezp/SpringcloudConfig/
spring.cloud.config.server.git.searchPaths=respo
spring.cloud.config.label=master
spring.cloud.config.server.git.username=your username
spring.cloud.config.server.git.password=your password


  • spring.cloud.config.server.git.uri:配置git仓库地址
  • spring.cloud.config.server.git.searchPaths:配置仓库路径
  • spring.cloud.config.label:配置仓库的分支
  • spring.cloud.config.server.git.username:访问git仓库的用户名
  • spring.cloud.config.server.git.password:访问git仓库的用户密码

如果Git仓库为公开仓库,可以不填写用户名和密码,如果是私有仓库需要填写,本例子是公开仓库,放心使用。

远程仓库https://github.com/forezp/SpringcloudConfig/ 中有个文件config-client-dev.properties文件中有一个属性:

foo = foo version 3

启动程序:访问http://localhost:8888/foo/dev

{"name":"foo","profiles":["dev"],"label":"master",
"version":"792ffc77c03f4b138d28e89b576900ac5e01a44b","state":null,"propertySources":[]}

证明配置服务中心可以从远程程序获取配置信息。

http请求地址和资源文件映射如下:

  • /{application}/{profile}[/{label}]
  • /{application}-{profile}.yml
  • /{label}/{application}-{profile}.yml
  • /{application}-{profile}.properties
  • /{label}/{application}-{profile}.properties

三、构建一个config client

重新创建一个springboot项目,取名为config-client,其pom文件:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
	<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

	<groupId>com.forezp</groupId>
	<artifactId>config-client</artifactId>
	<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
	<packaging>jar</packaging>

	<name>config-client</name>
	<description>Demo project for Spring Boot</description>

	<parent>
		<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
		<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
		<version>1.5.2.RELEASE</version>
		<relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository -->
	</parent>

	<properties>
		<project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
		<project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding>
		<java.version>1.8</java.version>
	</properties>

	<dependencies>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-config</artifactId>
		</dependency>

		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
		</dependency>

		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
			<scope>test</scope>
		</dependency>
	</dependencies>

	<dependencyManagement>
		<dependencies>
			<dependency>
				<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
				<artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
				<version>Dalston.RC1</version>
				<type>pom</type>
				<scope>import</scope>
			</dependency>
		</dependencies>
	</dependencyManagement>

	<build>
		<plugins>
			<plugin>
				<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
				<artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
			</plugin>
		</plugins>
	</build>

	<repositories>
		<repository>
			<id>spring-milestones</id>
			<name>Spring Milestones</name>
			<url>https://repo.spring.io/milestone</url>
			<snapshots>
				<enabled>false</enabled>
			</snapshots>
		</repository>
	</repositories>


</project>


其配置文件bootstrap.properties

spring.application.name=config-client
spring.cloud.config.label=master
spring.cloud.config.profile=dev
spring.cloud.config.uri= http://localhost:8888/
server.port=8881

  • spring.cloud.config.label 指明远程仓库的分支

  • spring.cloud.config.profile

    • dev开发环境配置文件
    • test测试环境
    • pro正式环境
  • spring.cloud.config.uri= http://localhost:8888/ 指明配置服务中心的网址。

程序的入口类,写一个API接口“/hi”,返回从配置中心读取的foo变量的值,代码如下:

@SpringBootApplication
@RestController
public class ConfigClientApplication {

	public static void main(String[] args) {
		SpringApplication.run(ConfigClientApplication.class, args);
	}

	@Value("${foo}")
	String foo;
	@RequestMapping(value = "/hi")
	public String hi(){
		return foo;
	}
}


打开网址访问:http://localhost:8881/hi,网页显示:

foo version 3

这就说明,config-client从config-server获取了foo的属性,而config-server是从git仓库读取的,如图:

Azure (2).png

本文源码下载:
https://github.com/forezp/SpringCloudLearning/tree/master/chapter6

四、参考资料

spring_cloud_config

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