struts2: include和global-results

先贴两段代码,在慢慢解释

(1)struts-user.xml

  1. <struts>
  2.     <package name="struts-user" extends="struts-default">
  3.         
  4.         <global-results>
  5.             <result type="redirect-action">UserAction_queryAll</result>
  6.         </global-results>
  7.         
  8.         <action name="UserAction_login" class="userAction" method="login"></action>
  9.         <action name="UserAction_insert" class="userAction" method="insert"></action>
  10.         <action name="UserAction_update" class="userAction" method="update"></action>
  11.         <action name="UserAction_delete" class="userAction" method="delete"></action>
  12.         <action name="UserAction_queryById" class="userAction" method="queryById"></action> 
  13.         <action name="UserAction_queryByLike" class="userAction" method="queryByLike"></action>
  14.         <action name="UserAction_queryAll" class="userAction" method="queryAll">
  15.             <result>/user/user_list.jsp</result>
  16.         </action>
  17.         
  18.     </package>
  19. </struts>

(2)struts.xml(引入了struts-user.xml)

  1. <struts>
  2.     <include file="struts-user.xml"></include>
  3.     <package name="struts" extends="struts-default"></package>
  4.     
  5. </struts>

1. 使用<include>标签重用配置文件

(1)在Struts2中提供了一个默认的struts.xml文件,但如果package、action、interceptors等配置比较多时,都放到一个struts.xml文件不太容易维护。因此,就需要将struts.xml文件分成多个配置文件,然后在struts.xml文件中使用<include>标签引用这些配置文件。如上面的代码。

注意:用<include>引用的xml文件也必须是完成的struts2的配置。实际上<include>在引用时是单独解析的xml文件,而不是将被引用的文件插入到struts.xml文件中。

注意:struts.xml和struts-user.xml中<package></package>标签中的name属性不能相同。道理很简单,<struts></struts>标签中可以有多个<package></package>标签,要通过name属性以示区别。

(2)Apache Struts 2 Documentation: Can we break up a large struts.xml file into smaller pieces --> Yes, there are two approaches. We can include other struts.xml file from a bootstrap, or we can package a struts.xml files in a JAR. Or both.

<1>By Include:A typical struts.xml files will have one or more include elements:

  1. <struts>
  2.     <include file="struts-default.xml"/>
  3.     <include file="config-browser.xml"/>
  4.     <package name="default" extends="struts-default">
  5.     ....
  6.     </package>
  7.     <include file="other.xml"/>
  8. </struts>

The first include element tells the framework to load the struts-default.xml, which it will find in the struts2.jar file. The struts-default.xml file defines the "standard" interceptor and result definitions. You can put your own <include> elements in your struts.xml interchangeably with <package> elements. The configuration objects will be loaded in the order of appearance. The framework reads the configuration from top to bottom and adds objects as they are referenced.

<2>By JAR

A "module" can be added to an application by placing a struts.xml and related classes into a JAR on the classpath. FreeMarker and Velocity templates can also be provided by JAR, making it possible to distribution a module in a single, self-contained JAR that is automatically configured on startup.

2. 全局result(global-results)

(1)有很多时候一个<result>可供很多<action>使用,这时可以使用<global-results>标签来定义全局的<result>,代码见struts-user.xml。执行顺序:当一个Action返回的String没有相应的<result>与之对应,Struts2就会查找全局的<result>。

(2)Apache Struts 2 Documentation: Global Results

Most often, results are nested with the action element. But some results apply to multiple actions. In a secure application, a client might try to access a page without being authorized, and many actions may need access to a "logon" result. If actions need to share results, a set of global results can be defined for each package. The framework will first look for a local result nested in the action. If a local match is not found, then the global results are checked.

  1. <!-- Defining global results -->
  2. <global-results>
  3.     <result name="error">/Error.jsp</result>
  4.     <result name="invalid.token">/Error.jsp</result>
  5.     <result name="login" type="redirectAction">Logon!input</result>
  6. </global-results>

3. <include>标签和<global-results>标签结合

(1)<global-results>标签的作用域只是当前<struts></struts>,也可以说是当前的xml文件;struts2不允许把struts-user.xml(通过<include>引入到struts.xml)中的<global-results>标签写在struts.xml中。

(2)如果struts-user.xml中的package继承自struts.xml中的package,则可以将struts-user.xml中的<global-results>放在struts.xml中。然后struts-user.xml将此<global-results>从struts.xml中继承过来。例如(将上面的两段代码简单修改):

(1)struts-user.xml

  1. <struts>
  2.     <!-- 这里struts-user继承(extends)的是struts, 即struts.xml中package的name属性值 -->
  3.     <package name="struts-user" extends="struts">
  4.         
  5.         <action name="UserAction_login" class="userAction" method="login"></action>
  6.         <action name="UserAction_insert" class="userAction" method="insert"></action>
  7.         <action name="UserAction_update" class="userAction" method="update"></action>
  8.         <action name="UserAction_delete" class="userAction" method="delete"></action>
  9.         <action name="UserAction_queryById" class="userAction" method="queryById"></action> 
  10.         <action name="UserAction_queryByLike" class="userAction" method="queryByLike"></action>
  11.         <action name="UserAction_queryAll" class="userAction" method="queryAll">
  12.             <result>/user/user_list.jsp</result>
  13.         </action>
  14.         
  15.     </package>
  16. </struts>

(2)struts.xml(引入了struts-user.xml)

  1. <struts>
  2.     <include file="struts-user.xml"></include>
  3.     <package name="struts" extends="struts-default">
  4.         <global-results>
  5.             <result type="redirect-action">UserAction_queryAll</result>
  6.         </global-results>
  7.     </package>
  8.     
  9. </struts>
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