DirectX 9.0 C++ 教程 绘制三角形

1.定义一个自定义的顶点(Vertex)类型

// A structure for our custom vertex type
struct CUSTOMVERTEX
{
FLOAT x, y, z, rhw; // The transformed position for the vertex
DWORD color;        // The vertex color
};
//这里加入了颜色，后面设计到纹理(Texture)时，还可以加入纹理属性
struct CUSTOMVERTEX
{
FLOAT x,y,z,rhw;
DWORD color;
FLOAT u,v;  //texture coordinate
}


2. 设置顶点缓存(Setting Up the Vertex Buffer)

    // 初始化三个顶点
CUSTOMVERTEX Vertices[] =
{
{ 150.0f,  50.0f, 0.5f, 1.0f, D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,0,0), }, // x, y, z, rhw, color //颜色为蓝色
{ 250.0f, 250.0f, 0.5f, 1.0f, D3DCOLOR_XRGB(0,255,0), },//颜色为绿色
{  50.0f, 250.0f, 0.5f, 1.0f, D3DCOLOR_XRGB(0,0,255), },//颜色为蓝色
};
LPDIRECT3DVERTEXBUFFER9 g_pVB = NULL; // Buffer to hold Vertices
// 创建顶点缓存
#define D3DFVF_CUSTOMVERTEX (D3DFVF_XYZRHW|D3DFVF_DIFFUSE)
if( FAILED( g_pd3dDevice->CreateVertexBuffer( 3*sizeof(CUSTOMVERTEX), //空间大小，3个点故乘以3
0, D3DFVF_CUSTOMVERTEX,
D3DPOOL_DEFAULT, &g_pVB, NULL ) ) )
{
return E_FAIL;
}

// 先锁定需要的内存块，再复制数据
VOID* pVertices;
if( FAILED( g_pVB->Lock( 0, sizeof(Vertices), (void**)&pVertices, 0 ) ) )
return E_FAIL;
memcpy( pVertices, Vertices, sizeof(Vertices) );
g_pVB->Unlock();

3.绘制三角形(Rendering the Display)

    // Clear the backbuffer to a blue color
g_pd3dDevice->Clear( 0, NULL, D3DCLEAR_TARGET, D3DCOLOR_XRGB(0,0,255), 1.0f, 0 );

// Begin the scene
if( SUCCEEDED( g_pd3dDevice->BeginScene() ) )
{
//Binds a vertex buffer to a device data stream
g_pd3dDevice->SetStreamSource( 0, g_pVB, 0, sizeof(CUSTOMVERTEX) );
g_pd3dDevice->SetFVF( D3DFVF_CUSTOMVERTEX );//FVF 指flexible vertex format
g_pd3dDevice->DrawPrimitive( D3DPT_TRIANGLELIST, 0, 1 ); //D3DPT_TRIANGLELIST表示三角形
// End the scene
g_pd3dDevice->EndScene();
}
// Present the backbuffer contents to the display
g_pd3dDevice->Present( NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL );

4.上面设计到的一些函数解释

//CreateVertexBuffer 函数原型
HRESULT CreateVertexBuffer(
UINT Length, //长度,size of vertex buffer
DWORD Usage, //未使用D3DUSAGE_DYNAMIC，则为静态缓存，地形或城市建筑适合
DWORD FVF, //这里用了D3DFVF_XYZRHW和D3DFVF_DIFFUSE，因为顶点定义包含了rhw和颜色
D3DPOOL Pool,//D3DPOOL_DEFAULT
IDirect3DVertexBuffer9** ppVertexBuffer,
HANDLE* pSharedHandle//保留参数，未使用，设置为NULL);

//DrawPrimitive 函数原型
HRESULT DrawPrimitive(
D3DPRIMITIVETYPE PrimitiveType,// D3DPT_POINTLIST点,LINELIST线，D3DPT_TRIANGLELIST三角形 等
UINT StartVertex, //index of first vertex to load
UINT PrimitiveCount //数量
);


5.全部源码

//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// File: Vertices.cpp
//
// Desc: In this tutorial, we are rendering some Vertices. This introduces the
//       concept of the vertex buffer, a Direct3D object used to store
//       Vertices. Vertices can be defined any way we want by defining a
//       custom structure and a custom FVF (flexible vertex format). In this
//       tutorial, we are using Vertices that are transformed (meaning they
//       are already in 2D window coordinates) and lit (meaning we are not
//       using Direct3D lighting, but are supplying our own colors).
//
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
#include <d3d9.h>
#include <strsafe.h>

//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Global variables
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
LPDIRECT3D9             g_pD3D       = NULL; // Used to create the D3DDevice
LPDIRECT3DDEVICE9       g_pd3dDevice = NULL; // Our rendering device
LPDIRECT3DVERTEXBUFFER9 g_pVB        = NULL; // Buffer to hold Vertices

// 三角形顶点 结构体
struct CUSTOMVERTEX
{
FLOAT x, y, z, rhw; // The transformed position for the vertex
DWORD color;        // The vertex color
};

// Our custom FVF, which describes our custom vertex structure
#define D3DFVF_CUSTOMVERTEX (D3DFVF_XYZRHW|D3DFVF_DIFFUSE)

//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Name: InitD3D()
// Desc: Initializes Direct3D
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
HRESULT InitD3D( HWND hWnd )
{
// Create the D3D object.
if( NULL == ( g_pD3D = Direct3DCreate9( D3D_SDK_VERSION ) ) )
return E_FAIL;

// 初始化 D3DPRESENT_PARAMETERS 结构体
D3DPRESENT_PARAMETERS d3dpp;
ZeroMemory( &d3dpp, sizeof(d3dpp) );
d3dpp.Windowed = TRUE;
d3dpp.BackBufferFormat = D3DFMT_UNKNOWN;

// 创建 D3DDevice
if( FAILED( g_pD3D->CreateDevice( D3DADAPTER_DEFAULT, D3DDEVTYPE_HAL, hWnd,
D3DCREATE_SOFTWARE_VERTEXPROCESSING,
&d3dpp, &g_pd3dDevice ) ) )
{
return E_FAIL;
}

// Device state would normally be set here

return S_OK;
}

//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Name: InitVB()
// Desc: Creates a vertex buffer and fills it with our Vertices. The vertex
//       buffer is basically just a chuck of memory that holds Vertices. After
//       creating it, we must Lock()/Unlock() it to fill it. For indices, D3D
//       also uses index buffers. The special thing about vertex and index
//       buffers is that they can be created in device memory, allowing some
//       cards to process them in hardware, resulting in a dramatic
//       performance gain.
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
HRESULT InitVB()
{
// 初始化三角形的三个顶点坐标
CUSTOMVERTEX Vertices[] =
{
{ 150.0f,  50.0f, 0.5f, 1.0f, D3DCOLOR_XRGB(255,0,0), }, // x, y, z, rhw, color
{ 250.0f, 250.0f, 0.5f, 1.0f, D3DCOLOR_XRGB(0,255,0), },
{  50.0f, 250.0f, 0.5f, 1.0f, D3DCOLOR_XRGB(0,0,255), },
};

// 创建 顶点buffer
if( FAILED( g_pd3dDevice->CreateVertexBuffer( 3*sizeof(CUSTOMVERTEX),
0, D3DFVF_CUSTOMVERTEX,
D3DPOOL_DEFAULT, &g_pVB, NULL ) ) )
{
return E_FAIL;
}

// 锁定内存，复制
VOID* pVertices;
if( FAILED( g_pVB->Lock( 0, sizeof(Vertices), (void**)&pVertices, 0 ) ) )
return E_FAIL;
memcpy( pVertices, Vertices, sizeof(Vertices) );
g_pVB->Unlock();

return S_OK;
}

//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Name: Cleanup()
// Desc: Releases all previously initialized objects
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
VOID Cleanup()
{
if( g_pVB != NULL )
g_pVB->Release();

if( g_pd3dDevice != NULL )
g_pd3dDevice->Release();

if( g_pD3D != NULL )
g_pD3D->Release();
}

//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Name: Render()
// Desc: Draws the scene
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
VOID Render()
{
// Clear the backbuffer to a blue color
g_pd3dDevice->Clear( 0, NULL, D3DCLEAR_TARGET, D3DCOLOR_XRGB(0,0,255), 1.0f, 0 );

// Begin the scene
if( SUCCEEDED( g_pd3dDevice->BeginScene() ) )
{
g_pd3dDevice->SetStreamSource( 0, g_pVB, 0, sizeof(CUSTOMVERTEX) );
g_pd3dDevice->SetFVF( D3DFVF_CUSTOMVERTEX );
//绘制三角形
g_pd3dDevice->DrawPrimitive( D3DPT_TRIANGLELIST, 0, 1 );

// End the scene
g_pd3dDevice->EndScene();
}

// Present the backbuffer contents to the display
g_pd3dDevice->Present( NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL );
}

//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Name: MsgProc()
// Desc: The window's message handler
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
LRESULT WINAPI MsgProc( HWND hWnd, UINT msg, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam )
{
switch( msg )
{
case WM_DESTROY:
Cleanup();
PostQuitMessage( 0 );
return 0;
}

return DefWindowProc( hWnd, msg, wParam, lParam );
}

//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Name: WinMain()
// Desc: The application's entry point
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
INT WINAPI WinMain( HINSTANCE hInst, HINSTANCE, LPSTR, INT )
{
// Register the window class
WNDCLASSEX wc = { sizeof(WNDCLASSEX), CS_CLASSDC, MsgProc, 0L, 0L,
GetModuleHandle(NULL), NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL,
"D3D Tutorial", NULL };
RegisterClassEx( &wc );

// Create the application's window
HWND hWnd = CreateWindow( "D3D Tutorial", "D3D Tutorial 02: Vertices",
WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW, 100, 100, 300, 300,
GetDesktopWindow(), NULL, wc.hInstance, NULL );

// Initialize Direct3D
if( SUCCEEDED( InitD3D( hWnd ) ) )
{
// Create the vertex buffer
if( SUCCEEDED( InitVB() ) )
{
// Show the window
ShowWindow( hWnd, SW_SHOWDEFAULT );
UpdateWindow( hWnd );

// Enter the message loop
MSG msg;
ZeroMemory( &msg, sizeof(msg) );
while( msg.message!=WM_QUIT )
{
if( PeekMessage( &msg, NULL, 0U, 0U, PM_REMOVE ) )
{
TranslateMessage( &msg );
DispatchMessage( &msg );
}
else
Render();
}
}
}

UnregisterClass( "D3D Tutorial", wc.hInstance );
return 0;
}


Project下载：Vertices（本站下载）

2.DirectX 9.0 C++ 教程 第一个程序

6.DirectX 9.0 C++ 教程 Texture 纹理映射

7.DirectX 9.0 C++ 教程 字体 迟到的helloworld

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