Java工具类--通过HttpClient发送http请求

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。 https://blog.csdn.net/frankcheng5143/article/details/50070591

在写网络程序的时候,经常会有从网址获取数据的需求,上一篇解析JSON就需要从百度获取天气数据,本文介绍一种Java发送http请求的工具–HttpClient。

##HttpClient的介绍

The most essential function of HttpClient is to execute HTTP methods. Execution of an HTTP method involves one or several HTTP request / HTTP response exchanges, usually handled internally by HttpClient. The user is expected to provide a request object to execute and HttpClient is expected to transmit the request to the target server return a corresponding response object, or throw an exception if execution was unsuccessful.

HttpClient最基本的功能就是执行http方法,执行http方法包括了一次或者几次HTTP请求和相应的变化,通常也是通过HttpClient来处理的。只要用户提供一个request的对象,HttpClient就会将用户的请求发送到目标服务器上,并且返回一个respone对象,如果没有执行成功将抛出一个异常。

通过文档的介绍我们可以知道,发送HTTP请求一般可以分为以下步骤

  1. 取得HttpClient对象
  2. 封装http请求
  3. 执行http请求
  4. 处理结果

其中可以发送的请求类型有GET, HEAD, POST, PUT, DELETE, TRACE 和 OPTIONS

HttpClient supports out of the box all HTTP methods defined in the HTTP/1.1 specification: GET, HEAD, POST, PUT, DELETE, TRACE and OPTIONS.

官方文档中的示例

//1.获得一个httpclient对象
CloseableHttpClient httpclient = HttpClients.createDefault();
//2.生成一个get请求
HttpGet httpget = new HttpGet("http://localhost/");
//3.执行get请求并返回结果
CloseableHttpResponse response = httpclient.execute(httpget);
try {
    //4.处理结果
} finally {
    response.close();
}

介绍一下最常用的HttpGet和HttpPost。
RESTful提倡,通过HTTP请求对应的POST、GET、PUT、DELETE来完成对应的CRUD操作。
所以本文介绍一下通过GET获取数据和POST提交数据的实现方法。

##发送HttpGet
先介绍发送HttpGet请求

	/**
	 * 发送HttpGet请求
	 * @param url
	 * @return
	 */
	public static String sendGet(String url) {
		//1.获得一个httpclient对象
		CloseableHttpClient httpclient = HttpClients.createDefault();
		//2.生成一个get请求
		HttpGet httpget = new HttpGet(url);
		CloseableHttpResponse response = null;
		try {
			//3.执行get请求并返回结果
			response = httpclient.execute(httpget);
		} catch (IOException e1) {
			e1.printStackTrace();
		}
		String result = null;
		try {
			//4.处理结果,这里将结果返回为字符串
			HttpEntity entity = response.getEntity();
			if (entity != null) {
				result = EntityUtils.toString(entity);
			}
		} catch (ParseException | IOException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		} finally {
			try {
				response.close();
			} catch (IOException e) {
				e.printStackTrace();
			}
		}
		return result;
	}

##发送HttpPost
发送HttpPost的方法和发送HttpGet很类似,只是将请求类型给位HttpPost即可。
代码如下

	/**
	 * 发送不带参数的HttpPost请求
	 * @param url
	 * @return
	 */
	public static String sendPost(String url) {
		//1.获得一个httpclient对象
		CloseableHttpClient httpclient = HttpClients.createDefault();
		//2.生成一个post请求
		HttpPost httppost = new HttpPost(url);
		CloseableHttpResponse response = null;
		try {
			//3.执行get请求并返回结果
			response = httpclient.execute(httppost);
		} catch (IOException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
		//4.处理结果,这里将结果返回为字符串
		HttpEntity entity = response.getEntity();
		String result = null;
		try {
			result = EntityUtils.toString(entity);
		} catch (ParseException | IOException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
		return result;
	}

##带参数的HttpPost
发送带参数的HttpPost

Many applications need to simulate the process of submitting an HTML form, for instance, in order to log in to a web application or submit input data. HttpClient provides the entity class UrlEncodedFormEntity to facilitate the process.

HttpClient通过UrlEncodedFormEntity,来提交带参数的请求

将需要提交的参数放在map里
代码如下

	/**
	 * 发送HttpPost请求,参数为map
	 * @param url
	 * @param map
	 * @return
	 */
	public static String sendPost(String url, Map<String, String> map) {
		CloseableHttpClient httpclient = HttpClients.createDefault();
		List<NameValuePair> formparams = new ArrayList<NameValuePair>();
		for (Map.Entry<String, String> entry : map.entrySet()) {
			//给参数赋值
			formparams.add(new BasicNameValuePair(entry.getKey(), entry.getValue()));
		}
		UrlEncodedFormEntity entity = new UrlEncodedFormEntity(formparams, Consts.UTF_8);
		HttpPost httppost = new HttpPost(url);
		httppost.setEntity(entity);
		CloseableHttpResponse response = null;
		try {
			response = httpclient.execute(httppost);
		} catch (IOException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
		HttpEntity entity1 = response.getEntity();
		String result = null;
		try {
			result = EntityUtils.toString(entity1);
		} catch (ParseException | IOException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
		return result;
	}

##完整代码
完成代码如下,用到的jar包有httpclient-4.5.1.jar,httpcore-4.4.3.jar,依赖的jar有commons-logging-1.2.jar
注意是Apache HttpClient,不是commons-httpclient

import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;
import org.apache.http.Consts;
import org.apache.http.HttpEntity;
import org.apache.http.NameValuePair;
import org.apache.http.ParseException;
import org.apache.http.client.entity.UrlEncodedFormEntity;
import org.apache.http.client.methods.CloseableHttpResponse;
import org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpGet;
import org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpPost;
import org.apache.http.impl.client.CloseableHttpClient;
import org.apache.http.impl.client.HttpClients;
import org.apache.http.message.BasicNameValuePair;
import org.apache.http.util.EntityUtils;
/**
 * @author GWCheng
 *
 */
public class HttpUtil {

	private static final CloseableHttpClient httpclient = HttpClients.createDefault();

	/**
	 * 发送HttpGet请求
	 * @param url
	 * @return
	 */
	public static String sendGet(String url) {

		HttpGet httpget = new HttpGet(url);
		CloseableHttpResponse response = null;
		try {
			response = httpclient.execute(httpget);
		} catch (IOException e1) {
			e1.printStackTrace();
		}
		String result = null;
		try {
			HttpEntity entity = response.getEntity();
			if (entity != null) {
				result = EntityUtils.toString(entity);
			}
		} catch (ParseException | IOException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		} finally {
			try {
				response.close();
			} catch (IOException e) {
				e.printStackTrace();
			}
		}
		return result;
	}

	/**
	 * 发送HttpPost请求,参数为map
	 * @param url
	 * @param map
	 * @return
	 */
	public static String sendPost(String url, Map<String, String> map) {
		List<NameValuePair> formparams = new ArrayList<NameValuePair>();
		for (Map.Entry<String, String> entry : map.entrySet()) {
			formparams.add(new BasicNameValuePair(entry.getKey(), entry.getValue()));
		}
		UrlEncodedFormEntity entity = new UrlEncodedFormEntity(formparams, Consts.UTF_8);
		HttpPost httppost = new HttpPost(url);
		httppost.setEntity(entity);
		CloseableHttpResponse response = null;
		try {
			response = httpclient.execute(httppost);
		} catch (IOException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
		HttpEntity entity1 = response.getEntity();
		String result = null;
		try {
			result = EntityUtils.toString(entity1);
		} catch (ParseException | IOException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
		return result;
	}

	/**
	 * 发送不带参数的HttpPost请求
	 * @param url
	 * @return
	 */
	public static String sendPost(String url) {
		HttpPost httppost = new HttpPost(url);
		CloseableHttpResponse response = null;
		try {
			response = httpclient.execute(httppost);
		} catch (IOException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
		HttpEntity entity = response.getEntity();
		String result = null;
		try {
			result = EntityUtils.toString(entity);
		} catch (ParseException | IOException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
		return result;
	}

}

##测试用例

服务器端代码

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/test")
// /test/**
public class TestController {
	// /test/view post 提交数据,模拟表单
	@RequestMapping(value = "/view", method = RequestMethod.POST)
	public void viewTest(PrintWriter out, HttpServletResponse response, @RequestParam("param1") String param1,
			@RequestParam("param2") String param2) {
		response.setContentType("application/json;charset=UTF-8");
		Gson gson = new GsonBuilder().create();
		Map<String, Object> map = new HashMap<String, Object>();
		map.put("param1", param1);
		map.put("param2", param2);
		System.out.println(gson.toJson(map));
		out.print(gson.toJson(map));
	}
	
	// /test/view?param1=aaa&param2=bbb get 
		@RequestMapping(value = "/view", method = RequestMethod.GET)
		public void viewTest3(PrintWriter out, HttpServletResponse response, @RequestParam("param1") String param1,
				@RequestParam("param2") String param2) {
			response.setContentType("application/json;charset=UTF-8");
			Gson gson = new GsonBuilder().create();
			Map<String, Object> map = new HashMap<String, Object>();
			map.put("param1", param1);
			map.put("param2", param2);
			System.out.println(gson.toJson(map));
			out.print(gson.toJson(map));
		}

	// /test/view2/{courseId}
	@RequestMapping(value = "/view2/{param}", method = RequestMethod.GET)
	public void viewTest1(PrintWriter out, HttpServletResponse response, @PathVariable("param") String param) {
		response.setContentType("application/json;charset=UTF-8");
		Gson gson = new GsonBuilder().create();
		Map<String, Object> map = new HashMap<String, Object>();
		map.put("param", param);
		out.print(gson.toJson(map));
	}

	// /test/view3
	@RequestMapping(value = "/view3", method = RequestMethod.POST)
	public void viewTest2(PrintWriter out, HttpServletResponse response) {
		response.setContentType("application/json;charset=UTF-8");
		Gson gson = new GsonBuilder().create();
		Map<String, Object> map = new HashMap<String, Object>();
		map.put("status", "success");
		out.print(gson.toJson(map));
	}

}

测试代码

public class HttpClientTest {

	@Test
	public void testGet() {
		//百度天气的api
		//String url1 = "http://api.map.baidu.com/telematics/v3/weather?location=%E5%8C%97%E4%BA%AC&output=json&ak=W69oaDTCfuGwzNwmtVvgWfGH";
		String url1 = "http://localhost:8080/wechat/test/view2/你好世界";
		String result1 = HttpUtil.sendGet(url1);
		System.out.println(result1);
		//输出{"param":"你好世界"}
	}
	@Test
	public void testPost() throws UnsupportedEncodingException{
		String url = "http://localhost:8080/wechat/test/view";
		Map<String,String> map = new HashMap<String,String>();
		map.put("param1", "你好世界");
		map.put("param2", "哈哈");
		String result = HttpUtil.sendPost(url, map);
		System.out.println(result);
		//输出结果{"param1":"你好世界","param2":"哈哈"}

	}
	
	@Test
	public void testPost1() throws UnsupportedEncodingException{
		String url = "http://localhost:8080/wechat/test/view3";
		String result = HttpUtil.sendPost(url);
		System.out.println(result);
		//输出结果{"status":"success"}

	}

}

建议通过HttpGet获取信息,HttpPost提交信息,而HttpGet获取信息时需要提交的参数一般会在url中体现,或者以?传参,或者在url中传参,所以就没写HttpGet带参数的。也希望大家能遵循Http的设计原则,通过HttpGet, HttpPost, HttpPut, HttpDelete,来实现获取数据,提交数据,修改数据,和删除数据的方法。

2018年10月25修改

依赖

        <!--apache工具类-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.apache.commons</groupId>
            <artifactId>commons-lang3</artifactId>
            <version>3.1</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.apache.commons</groupId>
            <artifactId>commons-collections4</artifactId>
            <version>4.1</version>
        </dependency>
        <!--lombok-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
            <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
            <version>1.18.2</version>
            <scope>provided</scope>
        </dependency>
        <!--httpclient-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.apache.httpcomponents</groupId>
            <artifactId>httpclient</artifactId>
            <version>4.5.6</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.apache.httpcomponents</groupId>
            <artifactId>httpmime</artifactId>
            <version>4.5.6</version>
        </dependency>
        <!--log-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.slf4j</groupId>
            <artifactId>slf4j-api</artifactId>
            <version>1.7.10</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>ch.qos.logback</groupId>
            <artifactId>logback-classic</artifactId>
            <version>1.1.2</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>ch.qos.logback</groupId>
            <artifactId>logback-core</artifactId>
            <version>1.1.2</version>
        </dependency>
        <!--MultipartFile-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
            <version>2.0.6.RELEASE</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-test</artifactId>
            <version>5.0.6.RELEASE</version>
        </dependency>

最近优化了一下这个方法,具体程序如下

package com.cgw.util;

import com.alibaba.fastjson.JSONObject;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
import org.apache.commons.collections4.CollectionUtils;
import org.apache.commons.collections4.MapUtils;
import org.apache.commons.lang3.StringUtils;
import org.apache.http.Consts;
import org.apache.http.Header;
import org.apache.http.HttpEntity;
import org.apache.http.client.config.RequestConfig;
import org.apache.http.client.methods.CloseableHttpResponse;
import org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpGet;
import org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpPost;
import org.apache.http.config.ConnectionConfig;
import org.apache.http.entity.ContentType;
import org.apache.http.entity.StringEntity;
import org.apache.http.entity.mime.HttpMultipartMode;
import org.apache.http.entity.mime.MultipartEntityBuilder;
import org.apache.http.entity.mime.content.StringBody;
import org.apache.http.impl.client.CloseableHttpClient;
import org.apache.http.impl.client.HttpClientBuilder;
import org.apache.http.impl.client.HttpClients;
import org.apache.http.message.BasicHeader;
import org.apache.http.util.EntityUtils;
import org.springframework.mock.web.MockMultipartFile;
import org.springframework.web.multipart.MultipartFile;

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.nio.charset.Charset;
import java.nio.charset.CodingErrorAction;
import java.nio.file.Files;
import java.nio.file.Path;
import java.nio.file.Paths;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;

/**
 * Http工具类
 *
 * @author 程高伟
 */
@Slf4j
public class HttpUtil {

    private static final String USER_AGENT = "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/69.0.3497.100 Safari/537.36";

    // 超时设置
    private static final RequestConfig requestConfig = RequestConfig.custom()
            .setConnectTimeout(5000)
            .setConnectionRequestTimeout(5000)
            .setSocketTimeout(10000)
            .build();

    // 编码设置
    private static final ConnectionConfig connectionConfig = ConnectionConfig.custom()
            .setMalformedInputAction(CodingErrorAction.IGNORE)
            .setUnmappableInputAction(CodingErrorAction.IGNORE)
            .setCharset(Consts.UTF_8)
            .build();

    private static HttpClientBuilder getBuilder() {
        List<Header> headers = new ArrayList<>();
        Header header = new BasicHeader("User-Agent", USER_AGENT);
        headers.add(header);
        return HttpClients.custom().setDefaultConnectionConfig(connectionConfig).setDefaultHeaders(headers).setDefaultRequestConfig(requestConfig);
    }

    /**
     * 发送HttpGet请求
     *
     * @param url 请求地址
     * @return
     */
    public static String sendGet(String url) throws IOException {
        String result;
        HttpGet httpGet = new HttpGet(url);
        try (CloseableHttpClient httpclient = getBuilder().build();
             CloseableHttpResponse response = httpclient.execute(httpGet)) {
            HttpEntity httpEntity = response.getEntity();
            result = EntityUtils.toString(httpEntity);
        }
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * 发送HttpPost请求,参数为json字符串
     *
     * @param url     请求地址
     * @param jsonStr json字符串
     * @return
     */
    public static String sendPost(String url, String jsonStr) throws IOException {
        String result;

        // 设置entity
        StringEntity stringEntity = new StringEntity(jsonStr, Consts.UTF_8);
        stringEntity.setContentType("application/json");

        HttpPost httpPost = new HttpPost(url);
        httpPost.setEntity(stringEntity);

        try (CloseableHttpClient httpclient = getBuilder().build(); CloseableHttpResponse httpResponse = httpclient.execute(httpPost);) {
            HttpEntity httpEntity = httpResponse.getEntity();
            result = EntityUtils.toString(httpEntity);
        }
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * 发送HttpPost请求,提交表单,支持文件上传
     *
     * @param url    请求地址
     * @param params 表单参数
     * @param files  上传文件
     * @return
     */
    public static String sendPost(String url, Map<String, Object> params, List<MultipartFile> files) throws IOException {
        String result;
        // 设置entity
        MultipartEntityBuilder builder = MultipartEntityBuilder.create();
        builder.setCharset(Charset.forName("UTF-8"));
        builder.setMode(HttpMultipartMode.BROWSER_COMPATIBLE);
        if (CollectionUtils.isNotEmpty(files)) { // 文件表单参数
            for (MultipartFile file : files) {
                Path path = Paths.get(file.getOriginalFilename());
                String contentType = Files.probeContentType(path);
                if (StringUtils.isEmpty(contentType)) {
                    contentType = "application/octet-stream";
                }
                builder.addBinaryBody(file.getName(), file.getInputStream(), ContentType.create(contentType), file.getOriginalFilename());
            }
        }
        if (MapUtils.isNotEmpty(params)) { // 普通表单参数
            params.forEach((k, v) -> {
                StringBody stringBody = new StringBody(v.toString(), ContentType.create("text/plain", "UTF-8"));
                builder.addPart(k, stringBody);
            });
        }

        HttpPost httpPost = new HttpPost(url);
        httpPost.setEntity(builder.build());

        try (CloseableHttpClient httpclient = getBuilder().build();
             CloseableHttpResponse httpResponse = httpclient.execute(httpPost)) {
            HttpEntity httpEntity = httpResponse.getEntity();
            result = EntityUtils.toString(httpEntity);
        }
        return result;
    }

    // MultipartFile里面的name就是表单的name,文件名是originalFilename
    private static MultipartFile fileToMultipartFile(File file, String name) throws IOException {
        log.info("File转MultipartFile:文件路径:{}", file.getAbsolutePath());
        FileInputStream inputStream = new FileInputStream(file);
        Path path = Paths.get(file.getAbsolutePath());
        String contentType = Files.probeContentType(path);
        if (StringUtils.isEmpty(contentType)) {
            contentType = "application/octet-stream";
        }
        MultipartFile multipartFile = new MockMultipartFile(
                name,
                file.getName(),
                contentType,
                inputStream);
        log.info("File转MultipartFile:转换后的文件信息:[name:{}, originalFilename:{} ,contentType:{}]",
                multipartFile.getName(),
                multipartFile.getOriginalFilename(),
                multipartFile.getContentType());
        return multipartFile;
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
        String url = "http://127.0.0.1:8080/file/uploadSingle";
        Map<String, Object> params = new HashMap<>();
        params.put("userId", 123);
        params.put("username", "张三");
        List<MultipartFile> files = new ArrayList<>();
        MultipartFile file = fileToMultipartFile(new File("d:\\file\\中文.jpg"), "file");
        files.add(file);
        System.out.println(sendPost(url, params, files));
    }

}

参考文献

HttpClient Tutorial

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