# 比特币：一个点对点的电子现金系统

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#### 5 网络(Network)

• (1) 新的交易向全网进行广播；
• (2) 每一个节点都将收到的交易信息纳入一个区块中；
• (3) 每个节点都尝试在自己的区块中找到一个具有足够难度的工作量证明；
• (4) 当一个节点找到了一个工作量证明，它就向全网进行广播；
• (5) 当且仅当包含在该区块中的所有交易都是有效的且之前未存在过的，其他节点才认同该区块的有效性；
• (6) 其他节点表示他们接受该区块是通过在跟随该区块的末尾，制造新的区块以延长该链条，而将被接受区块的随机散列值视为previous的随机散列值。

#### 11 计算(Calculations)

λ=zqp λ = z q p

i=0λkeλk!{(qp)zk1k<zk>z} ∑ i = 0 ∞ λ k e − λ k ! { ( q p ) z − k k < z 1 k > z }

1i=0zλkeλk!(1(qp)zk) 1 − ∑ i = 0 z λ k e − λ k ! ( 1 − ( q p ) z − k )

C代码：

#include <math.h>
double AttackerSuccessProbability(double q, int z)
{
double p = 1.0 - q;
double lambda = z * (q / p);
double sum = 1.0;
int i, k;
for (k = 0; k <= z; k++)
{
double poisson = exp(-lambda);
for (i = 1; i <= k; i++)
poisson *= lambda / i;
sum -= poisson * (1 - pow(q / p, z - k));
}
return sum;
}


z=0 P=1.0000000
z=1 P=0.2045873
z=2 P=0.0509779
z=3 P=0.0131722
z=4 P=0.0034552
z=5 P=0.0009137
z=6 P=0.0002428
z=7 P=0.0000647
z=8 P=0.0000173
z=9 P=0.0000046
z=10 P=0.0000012

z=0 P=1.0000000
z=5 P=0.1773523
z=10 P=0.0416605
z=15 P=0.0101008
z=20 P=0.0024804
z=25 P=0.0006132
z=30 P=0.0001522
z=35 P=0.0000379
z=40 P=0.0000095
z=45 P=0.0000024
z=50 P=0.0000006

q=0.10 z=5
q=0.15 z=8
q=0.20 z=11
q=0.25 z=15
q=0.30 z=24
q=0.35 z=41
q=0.40 z=89
q=0.45 z=340

#### 参考文献(References)

[1] W. Dai, “b-money,” http://www.weidai.com/bmoney.txt, 1998
[2] H. Massias, X.S. Avila, and J.-J. Quisquater, “Design of a secure timestamping service with minimal
trust requirements,” In 20th Symposium on Information Theory in the Benelux, May 1999.
[3] S. Haber, W.S. Stornetta, “How to time-stamp a digital document,” In Journal of Cryptology, vol 3, no 2, pages 99-111, 1991.
[4] D. Bayer, S. Haber, W.S. Stornetta, “Improving the efficiency and reliability of digital time-stamping,” In Sequences II: Methods in Communication, Security and Computer Science, pages 329-334, 1993.
[5] S. Haber, W.S. Stornetta, “Secure names for bit-strings,” In Proceedings of the 4th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pages 28-35, April 1997.
[6] A. Back, “Hashcash - a denial of service counter-measure,”http://www.hashcash.org/papers/hashcash.pdf, 2002.
[7] R.C. Merkle, “Protocols for public key cryptosystems,” In Proc. 1980 Symposium on Security and Privacy, IEEE Computer Society, pages 122-133, April 1980.
[8] W. Feller, “An introduction to probability theory and its applications,” 1957.

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