【Android】直播必备之YUV使用总结

说明

  因工作方面接触到图像处理这一块,需要对手机摄像头采集的原始帧做Rotate或者Scale,但无奈对此的了解少之又少,于是网上搜了一顿,完事后将最近所学总结一下,以方便之后的人别踩太多坑。

  首先想要了解YUV为何物: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa904813  

  上面的链接中微软已经写的很详细了,国内大部分文章都是翻译这篇文章的,如果还有疑问的同学可以参考下面这些大神的博客:


  看完上面的文章应该都会有所了解和认识了,因为在Android SDK <= 20(Android5.0)中Google支持的Camera Preview Callback的YUV常用格式有两种:NV21 / YV12,在此针对这两种格式做分析。

NV21:

引用一段微软的叙述:

4:2:0 Formats, 12 Bits per Pixel

Four 4:2:0 12-bpp formats are recommended, with the following FOURCC codes:

  • IMC2
  • IMC4
  • YV12
  • NV12
    In all of these formats, the chroma channels are subsampled by a factor of two in both the horizontal and vertical dimensions.
YV12

All of the Y samples appear first in memory as an array of unsigned char values. This array is followed immediately by all of the V (Cr) samples. The stride of the V plane is half the stride of the Y plane, and the V plane contains half as many lines as the Y plane. The V plane is followed immediately by all of the U (Cb) samples, with the same stride and number of lines as the V plane (Figure 12).
Figure 12:
YV12 memory layout

NV12

All of the Y samples are found first in memory as an array of unsigned char values with an even number of lines.The Y plane is followed immediately by an array of unsigned char values that contains packed U (Cb) and V (Cr) samples, as shown in Figure 13. When the combined U-V array is addressed as an array of little-endian WORD values, the LSBs contain the U values, and the MSBs contain the V values. NV12 is the preferred 4:2:0 pixel format for DirectX VA. It is expected to be an intermediate-term requirement for DirectX VA accelerators supporting 4:2:0 video.
Figure 13:
NV12 memory layout

  从上可知YV12和NV12所占内存是12bits/Pixel,因为每个Y就是一个像素点,注意着色加粗的叙述,YUV值在内存中是按照数组的形式存放的,而由于YV12和NV21都是属于planar格式,也就是Y值和UV值是独立采样的:

In a planar format, the Y, U, and V components are stored as three separate planes.

  既然Y、U、V值都是独立的,那就意味着我们可以分别处理相应的值,比如在YV12中,排列方式是这样的,每4个Y共用一对UV值,而U、V值又是按照如下格式排列
下面是YV12格式中宽为16,高为4像素的排列

Y第一行:Y  YY  YY  YY  Y
Y第二行:Y  YY  YY  YY  Y
Y第三行:Y  YY  YY  YY  Y
Y第四行:Y  YY  YY  YY  Y
V第一行:V0V1V2V3
U第一行:U0U1U2U3
V第二行:V4V5V6V7
U第二行:U4U5U6U7

  既然知道了YUV值的结构,我们就可以任性的对此图像做Rotate,scale等等。这里我以480x270 (16:9)的一张原始帧图像举例,贴出部分代码示例:
任意设定的一个带有onPreviewFrame的类,CameraPreviewFrame.java:

/**
 * 获取preview的原始帧:
 * 
 * 这里有个前提,因为Android camera preview默认格式为NV21的,所以需要
 * 调用setPreviewFormat()方法设置为我们需要的格式
 * 
 */

@Override
public void onPreviewFrame(byte[] data, Camera camera) {// 假设这里的data为480x270原始帧

        String SRC_FRAME_WIDTH = 480;
        String SRC_FRAME_HEIGHT = 270;
        
        String DES_FRAME_WIDTH = 480;
        String DES_FRAME_HEIGHT = 270;
        // 此处将data数组保存在了指定的路径,保存类型为jpeg格式,但是普通的图片浏
        // 览器是无法打开的,需要使用RawView等专业的工具打开。
        saveImageData(data);

        // 定义与原始帧大小一样的outputData,因为YUV420所占内存是12Bits/Pixel,
         // 每个Y为一个像素8bit=1Byte,U=2bit=1/4(Byte),V=2bit=1/4(Byte),
         // Y值数量为480*270,则U=V=480*270*(1/4)
        byte[] outputData = new byte[DES_FRAME_WIDTH * DES_FRAME_HEIGHT * 3 / 2]; 
        // call the JNI method to rotate frame data clockwise 90 degrees
        YuvUtil.DealYV12(data, outputData, SRC_FRAME_WIDTH, SRC_FRAME_HEIGHT, 90);
        saveImageData(outputData);

    }
}

    // save image to sdcard path: Pictures/MyTestImage/
public void saveImageData(byte[] imageData) {
        File imageFile = getOutputMediaFile(MEDIA_TYPE_IMAGE);
        if (imageFile == null) {
            return;
        }

        try {
            FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(imageFile);
            fos.write(imageData);
            fos.close();

        } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
            Log.e(TAG, "File not found: " + e.getMessage());

        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
            Log.e(TAG, "Error accessing file: " + e.getMessage());
        }
    }

public static File getOutputMediaFile(int type) {
        File imageFileDir = new File(Environment.getExternalStoragePublicDirectory(Environment.DIRECTORY_PICTURES), "MyTestImage");

        if (!imageFileDir.exists()) {
            if (!imageFileDir.mkdirs()) {
                Log.e(TAG, "can't makedir for imagefile");
                return null;
            }
        }
        // Create a media file name
        String timeStamp = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyyMMdd_HHmmss").format(new Date());
        File imageFile;
        if (type == MEDIA_TYPE_IMAGE) {
            imageFile = new File(imageFileDir.getPath() + File.separator +
                    "IMG_" + timeStamp + ".jpg");
        } else if (type == MEDIA_TYPE_VIDEO) {
            imageFile = new File(imageFileDir.getPath() + File.separator +
                    "VID_" + timeStamp + ".mp4");
        } else {
            return null;
        }
        return imageFile;
}

上面的代码中可以看到调用了JNI的方法:YuvUtil.RotateYV12()

public class YuvUtil {
    // 初始化,为data分配相应大小的内存
    public static native void initYV12(int length, int scale_length);

    public static native void DealYV12(byte[] src_data, byte[] dst_data, int width, int height, int rotation);
}

com_example_jni_YuvUtil.h

/* DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE - it is machine generated */
#include <jni.h>
/* Header for class _Included_com_example_jni_YuvUtil */

#ifndef _Included_com_example_jni_YuvUtil
#define _Included_com_example_jni_YuvUtil
#ifdef __cplusplus
extern "C" {
#endif
/*
 * Class:     com_example_jni_YuvUtil
 * Method:    initYV12
 * Signature: (II)V
 */
JNIEXPORT void JNICALL Java_com_example_jni_YuvUtil_initYV12
  (JNIEnv *, jclass, jint, jint);

/*
 * Class:     com_example_jni_YuvUtil
 * Method:    DealYV12
 * Signature: ([B[BIIIII)V
 */
JNIEXPORT void JNICALL Java_com_example_jni_YuvUtil_DealYV12
  (JNIEnv *, jclass, jbyteArray, jbyteArray, jint, jint, jint, jint, jint);


#ifdef __cplusplus
}
#endif
#endif

com_example_jni_YuvUtil.c

#include "com_example_jni_YuvUtil.h"
#include <android/log.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <jni.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#define TAG "jni-log-jni" // 这个是自定义的LOG的标识
#define LOGD(...) __android_log_print(ANDROID_LOG_DEBUG,TAG ,__VA_ARGS__) // 定义LOGD类型
#define LOGI(...) __android_log_print(ANDROID_LOG_INFO,TAG ,__VA_ARGS__) // 定义LOGI类型
#define LOGW(...) __android_log_print(ANDROID_LOG_WARN,TAG ,__VA_ARGS__) // 定义LOGW类型
#define LOGE(...) __android_log_print(ANDROID_LOG_ERROR,TAG ,__VA_ARGS__) // 定义LOGE类型
#define LOGF(...) __android_log_print(ANDROID_LOG_FATAL,TAG ,__VA_ARGS__) // 定义LOGF类型

char *input_src_data, *output_src_data, *src_y_data,
     *src_u_data, *src_v_data, *dst_y_data, *dst_v_data;
int src_data_width, src_data_height, len_src;

/*
 * Class:     com_example_jni_YuvUtil
 */
JNIEXPORT void JNICALL Java_com_example_jni_YuvUtil_initYV12
(JNIEnv *env, jclass jcls, jint length, jint scaleDataLength) {
len_src = length;
len_scale = scaleDataLength;
LOGD("########## len_src  = %d, len_scale = %d \n", len_src, len_scale);

input_src_data = malloc(sizeof(char) * len_src);
LOGD("########## input_src_data  = %d \n", input_src_data);

src_y_data = malloc(sizeof(char) * (len_src * 2 / 3));
src_u_data = malloc(sizeof(char) * (len_src / 6));
src_v_data = malloc(sizeof(char) * (len_src / 6));

dst_y_data = malloc(sizeof(char) * (len_src * 2 / 3));
dst_u_data = malloc(sizeof(char) * (len_src / 6));
dst_v_data = malloc(sizeof(char) * (len_src / 6));

}

JNIEXPORT void JNICALL Java_com_example_jni_YuvUtil_DealYV12
(JNIEnv *env, jclass jcls, jbyteArray src_data,
    jbyteArray dst_data, jint width, jint height, jint rotation, jint dst_width, jint dst_height) {
src_data_width = width;
src_data_height = height;

// 将src_data的数据传给input_src_data
(*env)->GetByteArrayRegion (env, src_data, 0, len_src, (jbyte*)(input_src_data));

/*以下三个memcpy分别将Y、U、V值从src_data中提取出来,将YUV值分别scale或者rotate,则可得到对应格式的图像数据*/
// get y plane
memcpy(src_y_data, input_src_data , (len_src * 2 /3));
// get u plane
memcpy(src_u_data, input_src_data + (len_src * 2 / 3), len_src / 6);
// get v plane
memcpy(src_v_data, input_src_data + (len_src * 5 / 6 ), len_src / 6);
/*获取yuv三个值的数据可以做相应操作*/
// ......... 
// .........


// 例:将Y值置为0,则得到没有灰度的图像;
memset(input_src_data + src_data_width * src_data_height, 0, src_data_width * src_data_height);

// 将input_src_data的数据返回给dst_data输出
// output to the dst_data
(*env)->SetByteArrayRegion (env, dst_data, 0, len_src, (jbyte*)(input_src_data));

}

/**
 * free memory
 */
JNIEXPORT void JNICALL Java_com_example_jni_YuvUtil_ReleaseYV12
(JNIEnv *env , jclass jcls) {
free(output_src_data);
free(input_src_data);
}

** 注意:以上代码不是完全的,只是用于说明而已,如果需要更多的操作还请各位朋友自己完善,如有表述的不清楚和有问题的地方,大家可以给我留言。** 

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