如何判断一个Http Message的结束——python源码解读


HTTP/1.1 默认的连接方式是长连接,不能通过简单的TCP连接关闭判断HttpMessage的结束。

以下是几种判断HttpMessage结束的方式:

 

1.      HTTP协议约定status code 为1xx,204,304的应答消息不能包含消息体(Message Body), 直接忽略掉消息实体内容。

        [适用于应答消息]

        Http Message =Http Header

2.      如果请求消息的Method为HEAD,则直接忽略其消息体。[适用于请求消息]

         Http Message =Http Header

3.      如果Http消息头部有“Transfer-Encoding:chunked”,则通过chunk size判断长度。

4.      如果Http消息头部有Content-Length且没有Transfer-Encoding(如果同时有Content-Length和Transfer-Encoding,则忽略Content-Length),

         则通过Content-Length判断消息体长度。

5.      如果采用短连接(Http Message头部Connection:close),则直接可以通过服务器关闭连接来确定消息的传输长度。

         [适用于应答消息,Http请求消息不能以这种方式确定长度]

6.      还可以通过接收消息超时判断,但是不可靠。Python Proxy实现的http代理服务器用到了超时机制,源码地址见References[7],仅100多行。


HTTP协议规范RFC 2616的4.4 Message Length中对相关内容有较多的描述(https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616#section-4.4)。

                              

一个实例,Python标准库httplib.py源码解读(http协议客户端的实现)

httplib最简单的使用方法:

import httplib
conn = httplib.HTTPConnection("google.com")
conn.request('GET', '/')
print conn.getresponse().read()
conn.close()

但是一般不直接使用httplib,而是使用更高层的封装urllib,urllib2

conn = httplib.HTTPConnection("google.com")创建HTTPConnection对象,指定要请求的webserver.

conn.request('GET''/')google.com发送http请求,MethodGET

conn.getresponse()创建HTTPResponse对象,接收并读取http应答消息头,read()读取应答消息体。


函数调用关系:

       getresponse()->[创建HTTPResponse对象response]-> response.begin()->response.read()


重点是begin()read()begin()完成了4件事:

       (1)创建HTTPMessage对象并解析Http应答消息的头部。

       (2)查看头部是否有“Transfer-Encoding:chunked”

       (3)查看接收完应答消息后是否关闭TCP连接(调用_check_close())

       (4)如果头部有“Content-Length”并且没有“Transfer-Encoding:chunked”,则获取消息体长度。

          _check_close()判断若Http应答消息头部有“Connection:close”则接收完应答消息后关闭TCP连接,同时还有一些向后兼容HTTP/1.0的代码。HTTP/1.1默认是“Connection:Keep-Alive”,即使头部中没有。

          read()根据Content-Lengthchunked分块方式读取Http应答消息体,可一次全部读取也可以指定要读取的字节数。如果是chunked方式,调用_read_chunked()读取。

       _read_chunked()根据chunksize读取chunks,当读取完最后一个chunk(最后一个chunkchunksize = 0)后就完成了Http应答消息的接收。相关的HTTP协议规范参考RFC2616 3.6.1RFC2616 19.4.6


RFC 2616 19.4.6有一段如何解析chunked方式的Http消息的伪代码:

length:= 0

readchunk-size, chunk-extension (if any) and CRLF

while(chunk-size > 0) {

    read chunk-data and CRLF

    append chunk-data to entity-body

    length := length + chunk-size

    read chunk-size and CRLF

}

readentity-header

while(entity-header not empty) {

    append entity-header to existing headerfields

    read entity-header

}

Content-Length:= length

Remove"chunked" from Transfer-Encoding


来看一下begin(),_check_close()read(),_read_chunked()的主要代码:

(1)begin():

 def begin(self):
		......
        self.msg = HTTPMessage(self.fp, 0)
        # don't let the msg keep an fp
        self.msg.fp = None

        # are we using the chunked-style of transfer encoding?
        tr_enc = self.msg.getheader('transfer-encoding')
        if tr_enc and tr_enc.lower() == "chunked":
            self.chunked = 1
            self.chunk_left = None
        else:
            self.chunked = 0

        # will the connection close at the end of the response?
        self.will_close = self._check_close()

        # do we have a Content-Length?
        # NOTE: RFC 2616, S4.4, #3 says we ignore this if tr_enc is "chunked"
        length = self.msg.getheader('content-length')
        if length and not self.chunked:
            try:
                self.length = int(length)
            except ValueError:
                self.length = None
            else:
                if self.length < 0:  # ignore nonsensical negative lengths
                    self.length = None
        else:
            self.length = None

        # does the body have a fixed length? (of zero)
        # NO_CONTENT = 204, NOT_MODIFIED = 304
        #判断Http Response Message 结束,见本文开头总结的第1点
        if (status == NO_CONTENT or status == NOT_MODIFIED or
            100 <= status < 200 or      # 1xx codes
            self._method == 'HEAD'):
            self.length = 0

        # if the connection remains open, and we aren't using chunked, and
        # a content-length was not provided, then assume that the connection
        # WILL close.
        #判断Http Response Message 结束,如果没有chunked和Content-Length都没有使用,就关闭连接
        if not self.will_close and \
           not self.chunked and \
           self.length is None:
            self.will_close = 1

(2)_check_close():

    def _check_close(self):
        #判断Http Response Message 结束,见本文开头总结的第5点
        conn = self.msg.getheader('connection')
        if self.version == 11:
            # An HTTP/1.1 proxy is assumed to stay open unless
            # explicitly closed.
            conn = self.msg.getheader('connection')
            if conn and "close" in conn.lower():
                return True
            return False

        # Some HTTP/1.0 implementations have support for persistent
        # connections, using rules different than HTTP/1.1.

        # For older HTTP, Keep-Alive indicates persistent connection.
        if self.msg.getheader('keep-alive'):
            return False

        # At least Akamai returns a "Connection: Keep-Alive" header,
        # which was supposed to be sent by the client.
        if conn and "keep-alive" in conn.lower():
            return False

        # Proxy-Connection is a netscape hack.
        pconn = self.msg.getheader('proxy-connection')
        if pconn and "keep-alive" in pconn.lower():
            return False

        # otherwise, assume it will close
        return True

(3)read():

    def read(self, amt=None):
        if self.fp is None:
            return ''

        if self._method == 'HEAD':
            self.close()
            return ''

        if self.chunked:
            return self._read_chunked(amt)

        if amt is None:
            # unbounded read
            if self.length is None:
                s = self.fp.read()
            else:
                try:
                    s = self._safe_read(self.length)
                except IncompleteRead:
                    self.close()
                    raise
                self.length = 0
            self.close()        # we read everything
            return s

        if self.length is not None:
            if amt > self.length:
                # clip the read to the "end of response"
                amt = self.length

        # we do not use _safe_read() here because this may be a .will_close
        # connection, and the user is reading more bytes than will be provided
        # (for example, reading in 1k chunks)
        s = self.fp.read(amt)
        if not s:
            # Ideally, we would raise IncompleteRead if the content-length
            # wasn't satisfied, but it might break compatibility.
            self.close()
        if self.length is not None:
            #计算剩余长度,供下次读取
            self.length -= len(s)
            if not self.length:
                self.close()

        return s

(4) _read_chunked():

def _read_chunked(self, amt):    
        assert self.chunked != _UNKNOWN
        # self.chunk_left is None when reading chunk for the first time(see self.begin())
        #chunk_left :bytes left in certain chunk
        #chunk_left = None means that reading hasn't been started.
        chunk_left = self.chunk_left
        value = []
        while True:
            if chunk_left is None:
                # read a new chunk
                line = self.fp.readline(_MAXLINE + 1)
                if len(line) > _MAXLINE:
                    raise LineTooLong("chunk size")
                i = line.find(';')
                if i >= 0:
                    line = line[:i] # strip chunk-extensions
                try:
                    chunk_left = int(line, 16)
                except ValueError:
                    # close the connection as protocol synchronisation is
                    # probably lost
                    self.close()
                    raise IncompleteRead(''.join(value))
                if chunk_left == 0:
                    ##RFC 2661 3.6.1 last-chunk chunk_left = 0
                    break
            if amt is None:
                value.append(self._safe_read(chunk_left))
            elif amt < chunk_left:
                value.append(self._safe_read(amt))
                self.chunk_left = chunk_left - amt
                return ''.join(value)
            elif amt == chunk_left:
                value.append(self._safe_read(amt))
                self._safe_read(2)  # toss the CRLF at the end of the chunk
                self.chunk_left = None
                return ''.join(value)
            else:
                value.append(self._safe_read(chunk_left))
                amt -= chunk_left

            # we read the whole chunk, get another
            self._safe_read(2)      # toss the CRLF at the end of the chunk
            chunk_left = None

        ......

        # we read everything; close the "file"
        self.close()

        return ''.join(value)

另一个实际的源码,PythonProxy中,到达超时时间后停止接收消息。_read_write()读取和写入已打开的socket。

def _read_write(self):
        time_out_max = self.timeout/3
        socs = [self.client, self.target]
        count = 0
        while 1:
            count += 1
            # time_out = 3
            (recv, _, error) = select.select(socs, [], socs, 3)
            if error:
                break
            if recv:
                for in_ in recv:
                    data = in_.recv(BUFLEN)
                    if in_ is self.client:
                        out = self.target
                    else:
                        out = self.client
                    if data:
                        out.send(data)
                        count = 0
            #连续time_out_max次未接收到数据就停止接收和发送[超时了]
            if count == time_out_max:
                break

有了上面的分析和源码,这个问题应该很好回答了:

        当HTTP采用keepalive模式,当服务器响应客户端的请求后,客户端如何判断接收到的Http ResponseMessage已经接收完成?


最后,再附上stackoverflow上一个关于如何判断Http Message结束的回答:


References

[1]Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1

       https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616

[2]Detect end of HTTP request body

       http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4824451/detect-end-of-http-request-body

[3]Detect the end of a HTTP packet

       http://stackoverflow.com/questions/3718158/detect-the-end-of-a-http-packet

[4] 判断Keep-Alive模式的HTTP请求的结束

       http://blog.quanhz.com/archives/141

[5] 这样被判了死刑!

      http://www.cnblogs.com/skynet/archive/2010/12/11/1903347.html

[6]杂谈Nginx与HTTP协议

      http://blog.xiuwz.com/tag/content-length/

[7]Python Proxy- A Fast HTTP proxy

       https://code.google.com/p/python-proxy/

[8] python基于http协议编程:httplib,urllib和urllib2

      http://www.cnblogs.com/chenzehe/archive/2010/08/30/1812995.html


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