More generally, a function is convex on an interval if for any two points and in and any where ,
(Rudin 1976, p. 101; cf. Gradshteyn and Ryzhik 2000, p. 1132).
If the inequality above is strict for all and , then is called strictly convex.
Examples of convex functions include for or even , for , and for all . If the sign of the inequality is reversed, the function is called concave.