【比特币】自己动手制作山寨币

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。 https://blog.csdn.net/wuzh1230/article/details/40422535

Key:

altcoin generate, make altcoin, bitcoin, coingen

关键字:

制作山寨币,山寨币,比特币


源代码地址:

https://github.com/imharrywu/fastcoin

构建问题可以参考这个[BGOLD](https://github.com/bitbaba/bitgold)的travis.sh

程序猿朋友可以自己动手编译生成安装包,有问题可以直接加群讨论 161928517(注明:csdn),也欢迎程序猿朋友PullRequest给我,只有知识共享才能促进比特币的繁荣。


可以支持任何算法(sha256,scrypt,x11,x13,nist,grostel,以及这些算法的串联)和参数定制。


目前预先内置了比特币的SHA256莱特币的scypt,以及SHA3-256(KECCAK)


在线编译目前提供三种安装包:

1,linux/unix的daemon程序(带钱包功能)

2,Mac钱包安装包 

3,windows钱包安装包


1、  截图预览

(1) 安装图1


(2)安装图2


(3)安装图3


(4)安装图4


(5)安装图5



(6)概览图 已经挖到3个block 奖励了300个FTC


(7)交易记录图


(8)点击显示交易细节 显示为挖矿所得 并且还没有确认


(9)版权页


(10)调试窗口



(11)显示已经连接的p2p网络节点 一个在虚拟机里面运行的节点



(12)2个节点构成的p2p通信网络



2、 山寨币修改步骤:

(1)迁出最新的比特币源代码

比特币官方代码: https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin

山寨币代码地址(紧跟bitcoin更新):https://github.com/imharrywu/fastcoin

git clone https://github.com/imharrywu/fastcoin 


一下修改都是一些代码片段,请用eclipse打开迁出的代码,对照查看。


(2)修改创世块

源文件 chainparams.cpp

        /**
         * Build the genesis block. Note that the output of the genesis coinbase cannot
         * be spent as it did not originally exist in the database.
         * 
         * CBlock(hash=000000000019d6, ver=1, hashPrevBlock=00000000000000, hashMerkleRoot=4a5e1e, nTime=1231006505, nBits=1d00ffff, nNonce=2083236893, vtx=1)
         *   CTransaction(hash=4a5e1e, ver=1, vin.size=1, vout.size=1, nLockTime=0)
         *     CTxIn(COutPoint(000000, -1), coinbase 04ffff001d0104455468652054696d65732030332f4a616e2f32303039204368616e63656c6c6f72206f6e206272696e6b206f66207365636f6e64206261696c6f757420666f722062616e6b73)
         *     CTxOut(nValue=50.00000000, scriptPubKey=0x5F1DF16B2B704C8A578D0B)
         *   vMerkleTree: 4a5e1e
         */

        // HarryWu, generate genesis block by genesis.py as following:
        //
        // localhost genesis # python genesis.py \
        //                            -t $(date +%s) \
        //                            -z "shanghai stock index closed at 2343.57, on 24th Sept., 2014" \
        //                            -a SHA256 \
        //                            -p 049e02fa9aa3c19a3b112a58bab503c5caf797972f5cfe1006275aa5485a01b48f9f648bc5380ee1e82dc6f474c8e0f7e2f6bbd0de9355f92496e3ea327ccb19cc \
        //                            -v 10000000000
        // Raw block data: 04ffff001d01043b7368616e676861692073746f636b20696e64657820636c6f73656420617420323334332e35372c206f6e203234746820536570742e2c2032303134
        // algorithm: SHA256
        // merkle hash: 1c395aad7fab156523a095a869d3fcdf3249a8a97c8d7337adb4f33d826da32b
        // pszTimestamp: shanghai stock index closed at 2343.57, on 24th Sept., 2014
        // pubkey: 049e02fa9aa3c19a3b112a58bab503c5caf797972f5cfe1006275aa5485a01b48f9f648bc5380ee1e82dc6f474c8e0f7e2f6bbd0de9355f92496e3ea327ccb19cc
        // time: 1411650667
        // bits: 0x1d00ffff
        // Searching for genesis hash..
        //
        // nonce: 1456993276
        // genesis hash: 000000004df0288b461e17d9a20e557fd296861c604f1944eb9e2cca866af0a5

        const char* pszTimestamp = "shanghai stock index closed at 2343.57, on 24th Sept., 2014";
        CMutableTransaction txNew;
        txNew.vin.resize(1);
        txNew.vout.resize(1);
        txNew.vin[0].scriptSig = CScript() << 0x1d00ffff << CScriptNum(4) << vector<unsigned char>((const unsigned char*)pszTimestamp, (const unsigned char*)pszTimestamp + strlen(pszTimestamp));
        txNew.vout[0].nValue = nGenesisSubsidy * COIN;
        txNew.vout[0].scriptPubKey = CScript() << ParseHex("049e02fa9aa3c19a3b112a58bab503c5caf797972f5cfe1006275aa5485a01b48f9f648bc5380ee1e82dc6f474c8e0f7e2f6bbd0de9355f92496e3ea327ccb19cc") << OP_CHECKSIG;
        genesis.vtx.push_back(txNew);
        genesis.hashPrevBlock = 0;
        genesis.hashMerkleRoot = genesis.BuildMerkleTree();
        genesis.nVersion = 1;
        genesis.nTime    = 1411666331;
        genesis.nBits    = 0x1d00ffff;
        genesis.nNonce   = 2056985438;

        hashGenesisBlock = genesis.GetHash();
        assert(hashGenesisBlock == uint256("0x0000000061b1aca334b059920fed7bace2336ea4d23d63428c7aee04da49e942"));
        assert(genesis.hashMerkleRoot == uint256("0x7bf229f629a6666596c1ce57117c28d1d29299e8a5303347929bd70847c49adb"));


(3)修改网络协议魔数

源文件 chainparams.cpp

class CMainParams : public CChainParams {
public:
    CMainParams() {
        networkID = CBaseChainParams::MAIN;
        strNetworkID = "main";
        /** 
         * The message start string is designed to be unlikely to occur in normal data.
         * The characters are rarely used upper ASCII, not valid as UTF-8, and produce
         * a large 4-byte int at any alignment.
         */
        pchMessageStart[0] = 0x90;
        pchMessageStart[1] = 0x0d;
        pchMessageStart[2] = 0xf0;
        pchMessageStart[3] = 0x0d;

0xgoodcafe(好咖啡的意思),大家可以自己选择,但是也有一些基本建议,看上面那个英文注释就好了,就是和某些常用的字符集可用字段不要冲突。

另外:对应的修改TESTNET和REGTESTNET的参数


(4)修改地址前缀

源文件 chainparams.cpp

        base58Prefixes[PUBKEY_ADDRESS] = list_of(35); // F prefix
        base58Prefixes[SCRIPT_ADDRESS] = list_of(65); // T prefix
        base58Prefixes[SECRET_KEY] =     list_of(45); // 7 prefix
        base58Prefixes[EXT_PUBLIC_KEY] = list_of(0x04)(0x88)(0xEE)(0x35);
        base58Prefixes[EXT_SECRET_KEY] = list_of(0x04)(0x88)(0xEE)(0x45);

有一个wiki的对照表可以用来悬在公钥和脚本地址的前缀,但是这个表不使用私钥等(因为长度不一样,规律不一样)。


(5)修改网络端口

源文件 chainparams.cpp

class CMainParams : public CChainParams {
public:
    CMainParams() {
        networkID = CBaseChainParams::MAIN;
        strNetworkID = "main";
        /** 
         * The message start string is designed to be unlikely to occur in normal data.
         * The characters are rarely used upper ASCII, not valid as UTF-8, and produce
         * a large 4-byte int at any alignment.
         */
        pchMessageStart[0] = 0x90;
        pchMessageStart[1] = 0x0d;
        pchMessageStart[2] = 0xf0;
        pchMessageStart[3] = 0x0d;
        vAlertPubKey = ParseHex("04e01590abdc5967eb550413fcf04bbd7cead46f13579b58d52ea2f08d71a1a94196c476cd4fa60c30b51737fe3d9c8c88a04a6bec2282ebb1f22286130a153b85");
        nDefaultPort = 9999;
        bnProofOfWorkLimit = ~uint256(0) >> 32;

修改了nDefaultPort=9999,比特币默认是8333

另外同时修改一下TESTNET和REGTESTNET的端口配置,一般加10000和20000即可

/**
 * Testnet (v3)
 */
class CTestNetParams : public CMainParams {
public:
    CTestNetParams() {
        networkID = CBaseChainParams::TESTNET;
        strNetworkID = "test";
        pchMessageStart[0] = 0xC0;
        pchMessageStart[1] = 0x1d;
        pchMessageStart[2] = 0xf0;
        pchMessageStart[3] = 0x0d;
        vAlertPubKey = ParseHex("045d2d29beffb0a0cbea44f266286ff8b1d11c035538fbb4dadcf6b4073b08f318afea74f01d5a3782e72a22273fb01ab40e99d93adff488236585cc8031323e7c");
        nDefaultPort = 19999;

/**
 * Regression test
 */
class CRegTestParams : public CTestNetParams {
public:
    CRegTestParams() {
        networkID = CBaseChainParams::REGTEST;
        strNetworkID = "regtest";
        pchMessageStart[0] = 0x0b;
        pchMessageStart[1] = 0xad;
        pchMessageStart[2] = 0xf0;
        pchMessageStart[3] = 0x0d;
        nDefaultPort = 29999;
        bnProofOfWorkLimit = ~uint256(0) >> 1;


(6)修改种子网络连接参数

源文件 chainparams.cpp

        //vSeeds.push_back(CDNSSeedData("bitcoin.sipa.be", "seed.bitcoin.sipa.be"));
        //vSeeds.push_back(CDNSSeedData("bluematt.me", "dnsseed.bluematt.me"));
        //vSeeds.push_back(CDNSSeedData("dashjr.org", "dnsseed.bitcoin.dashjr.org"));
        //vSeeds.push_back(CDNSSeedData("bitcoinstats.com", "seed.bitcoinstats.com"));
        //vSeeds.push_back(CDNSSeedData("bitnodes.io", "seed.bitnodes.io"));
        //vSeeds.push_back(CDNSSeedData("xf2.org", "bitseed.xf2.org"));

        base58Prefixes[PUBKEY_ADDRESS] = list_of(35); // F prefix
        base58Prefixes[SCRIPT_ADDRESS] = list_of(65); // T prefix
        base58Prefixes[SECRET_KEY] =     list_of(45); // 7 prefix
        base58Prefixes[EXT_PUBLIC_KEY] = list_of(0x04)(0x88)(0xEE)(0x35);
        base58Prefixes[EXT_SECRET_KEY] = list_of(0x04)(0x88)(0xEE)(0x45);

        //convertSeed6(vFixedSeeds, pnSeed6_main, ARRAYLEN(pnSeed6_main));


如果你有7x24在线的服务器运行节点,那么请在这里加入他们的地址,可以是dns也可以是ip地址(v4,v6,--enable-ipv6)。

如果没有的话,可以考虑和我一样暂时注释掉,在运行时候指定连接参数-addnoe=123.123.123.123 或者-dns -addnode=mynode.domain.com

对应的修改一下TESTNET和REGTESTNET的网络节点地址。

(7)修改工作量机制

源文件 miner.cpp

比特币在函数ScanHash()里面搜索随机数,

//
// ScanHash scans nonces looking for a hash with at least some zero bits.
// The nonce is usually preserved between calls, but periodically or if the
// nonce is 0xffff0000 or above, the block is rebuilt and nNonce starts over at
// zero.
//
bool static ScanHash(const CBlockHeader *pblock, uint32_t& nNonce, uint256 *phash)
{
    // Write the first 76 bytes of the block header to a double-SHA256 state.
    //CHash256 hasher;
    //CDataStream ss(SER_NETWORK, PROTOCOL_VERSION);
    //ss << *pblock;
    //assert(ss.size() == 80);
    //hasher.Write((unsigned char*)&ss[0], 76);

    while (true) {
        nNonce++;

        // Write the last 4 bytes of the block header (the nonce) to a copy of
        // the double-SHA256 state, and compute the result.
        //CHash256(hasher).Write((unsigned char*)&nNonce, 4).Finalize((unsigned char*)phash);

        *phash = pblock->ComputePowHash(nNonce);

        // Return the nonce if the hash has at least some zero bits,
        // caller will check if it has enough to reach the target
        if (((uint16_t*)phash)[15] == 0)
            return true;

        // If nothing found after trying for a while, return -1
        if ((nNonce & 0xffff) == 0)
            return false;
        if ((nNonce & 0xfff) == 0)
            boost::this_thread::interruption_point();
    }
}


在函数BitcoinMiner()里面创建新的block,设定时间戳(扰动1),获取mempool里面的最新交易(扰动2),调用ScanHash()搜索随机数(扰动3),直到找到满足条件的hash。

另外比特币的工作量证明的hash同时用作这个block的索引,litecoin里面这2个概念是区分的对待的(sha256的hash作为索引,scrypt出来的pow hash作为工作量证明)。

注意:设置独立挖矿的条件(chainparams.cpp里面设置)

        fMiningRequiresPeers = !true; // See BitcoinMiner() for details.

挖矿代码:

void static BitcoinMiner(CWallet *pwallet)
{
    LogPrintf("FastCoinMiner started\n");
    SetThreadPriority(THREAD_PRIORITY_LOWEST);
    RenameThread("fastcoin-miner");

    // Each thread has its own key and counter
    CReserveKey reservekey(pwallet);
    unsigned int nExtraNonce = 0;

    try {
        while (true) {
            if (Params().MiningRequiresPeers()) {
                // Busy-wait for the network to come online so we don't waste time mining
                // on an obsolete chain. In regtest mode we expect to fly solo.
                while (vNodes.empty())
                    MilliSleep(1000);
            }

            //
            // Create new block
            //
            unsigned int nTransactionsUpdatedLast = mempool.GetTransactionsUpdated();
            CBlockIndex* pindexPrev = chainActive.Tip();

            auto_ptr<CBlockTemplate> pblocktemplate(CreateNewBlockWithKey(reservekey));
            if (!pblocktemplate.get())
            {
                LogPrintf("Error in FastCoinMiner: Keypool ran out, please call keypoolrefill before restarting the mining thread\n");
                return;
            }
            CBlock *pblock = &pblocktemplate->block;
            IncrementExtraNonce(pblock, pindexPrev, nExtraNonce);

            LogPrintf("Running FastCoinMiner with %u transactions in block (%u bytes)\n", pblock->vtx.size(),
                ::GetSerializeSize(*pblock, SER_NETWORK, PROTOCOL_VERSION));

博主稍作修改,设置了几个预置的hash算法(sha256,scrypt,keccak(即SHA3)),可以通过block的版本号区分,那么在scanhash里面调用ComputePowHash的时候,可以选择不同的pow算法,甚至你可以把这些算法串联起来,以增加算法被破解的方攻击性。

看代码吧:

uint256 CBlockHeader::ComputePowHash(uint32_t nNonce) const
{
    if (nVersion == 1 || nVersion == 2){
        /**
         * Use SHA256+SHA256 to make PoW
         */
        // Write the first 76 bytes of the block header to a double-SHA256 state.
        CDoubleSHA256Pow hasher; // TODO: Create a new PowHasher named CPowHash256
        CDataStream ss(SER_NETWORK, PROTOCOL_VERSION);
        ss << *this;
        assert(ss.size() == 80);
        hasher.Write((unsigned char*)&ss[0], 76);
        uint256 powHash;
        CDoubleSHA256Pow(hasher).Write((unsigned char*)&nNonce, 4).Finalize((unsigned char*)&powHash);
        return powHash;
    }else if (nVersion == 3){
        /**
         * Scrypt PoW
         */
        CScryptHash256Pow hasher;
        CDataStream ss(SER_NETWORK, PROTOCOL_VERSION);
        ss << *this;
        assert(ss.size() == 80);
        hasher.Write((unsigned char*)&ss[0], 76);
        uint256 powHash;
        CScryptHash256Pow(hasher).Write((unsigned char*)&nNonce, 4).Finalize((unsigned char*)&powHash);
        return powHash;
    }else if (nVersion == 4){
        /**
         *  Scrypt+SHA256 PoW
         */
    }else if (nVersion == 5){
    	/**
    	 * Keccak(1088,512,256) or Known as SHA3-256(fips202draft) Pow
    	 */
    	CKeccak_256 hasher;
        CDataStream ss(SER_NETWORK, PROTOCOL_VERSION);
        ss << *this;
        assert(ss.size() == 80);
        hasher.Write((unsigned char*)&ss[0], 76);
        uint256 powHash;
        CKeccak_256(hasher).Write((unsigned char*)&nNonce, 4).Finalize((unsigned char*)&powHash);
        return powHash;
    }else{
        // Abort, unknown block version.
        assert(false);
        return ~(uint256)0;
    }
}


(8)修改奖励机制

参考9.3

8.1) 修改挖矿奖励的成熟时间

源代码:main.h

/** Coinbase transaction outputs can only be spent after this number of new blocks (network rule) */
static const int COINBASE_MATURITY = 14;


8.2) 修改交易确认块数推荐值

源代码 qt/transactionrecord.h

/** UI model for a transaction. A core transaction can be represented by multiple UI transactions if it has
    multiple outputs.
 */
class TransactionRecord
{
public:
    enum Type
    {
        Other,
        Generated,
        SendToAddress,
        SendToOther,
        RecvWithAddress,
        RecvFromOther,
        SendToSelf
    };

    /** Number of confirmation recommended for accepting a transaction */
    static const int RecommendedNumConfirmations = 2;


(9)修改难度配置

源文件 chainparams.cpp

class CMainParams : public CChainParams {
public:
    CMainParams() {
        networkID = CBaseChainParams::MAIN;
        strNetworkID = "main";
        /** 
         * The message start string is designed to be unlikely to occur in normal data.
         * The characters are rarely used upper ASCII, not valid as UTF-8, and produce
         * a large 4-byte int at any alignment.
         */
        pchMessageStart[0] = 0x90;
        pchMessageStart[1] = 0x0d;
        pchMessageStart[2] = 0xf0;
        pchMessageStart[3] = 0x0d;
        vAlertPubKey = ParseHex("04e01590abdc5967eb550413fcf04bbd7cead46f13579b58d52ea2f08d71a1a94196c476cd4fa60c30b51737fe3d9c8c88a04a6bec2282ebb1f22286130a153b85");
        nDefaultPort = 9999;
        bnProofOfWorkLimit = ~uint256(0) >> 32;
        nSubsidyHalvingInterval = 210000;
        nEnforceBlockUpgradeMajority = 750;
        nRejectBlockOutdatedMajority = 950;
        nToCheckBlockUpgradeMajority = 1000;
        nMinerThreads = 1; // 0 for all available cpus.
        nTargetTimespan = 60 * 60; // re-targeting every one hour
        nTargetSpacing = 1 * 60;  // do new pow every 1 minutes.
        nGenesisSubsidy = 100;


a) bnProofOfWorkLimit=~uint256(0) >> 32;

是一个大整数(256bit)表示,前面32个位数是0,这个参数表示全网允许的最小难度,低于这个难度的block是不会被挖掘的。


b) nGenesisSubsidy = 100;

初始津贴,比特币的第一个块的奖励是50个btc。


c) nSubsidyHavlingInterval = 210000; 

这个参数决定了多少个block以后比特币的奖励(补贴,挖矿奖励)会减半。这个参数结合初始奖励(比如比特币50)基本可以估算全网总的货币产量(比如比特币的2100万),这个初始津贴也是可以配置的,如2)所示。比如比特币,一个等比数列求和公式就可以计算货币总量 50(1/(1 - 0.5))*210000=2100万btc。
上面2个参数在查询区块奖励的时候用到,请查看main.cpp 的 GetBlockValue(height, fees)找到细节

CAmount GetBlockValue(int nHeight, const CAmount& nFees)
{
    CAmount nSubsidy = Params().GenesisSubsidy() * COIN;

    int halvings = nHeight / Params().SubsidyHalvingInterval();

    // Force block reward to zero when right shift is undefined.
    if (halvings >= 64)
        return nFees;

    // Subsidy is cut in half every 210,000 blocks which will occur approximately every 4 years.
    nSubsidy >>= halvings;

    return nSubsidy + nFees;
}
很多山寨比也是在这里修改货币分布的,比如 nHeight==1 的时候,奖励1000万个,其他块都不予奖励,这个即使预挖模式了吧。

另外,关于货币分布,这里satoshi同学可能已经考虑很多,他为什么设置到很多年以后才矿源枯竭,为什么采取递减的方式,可能都是出于保护区块链的目的(timestampserver)。

d)难度调节周期

nTargetTimespan = 60 * 60; // re-targeting every one hour, 60 blocks
nTargetSpacing = 1 * 60;  // expect 1 block/minute
这里的设置是60分钟(3600秒, 因为预期60秒钟1个block,那么就是60个blocks计算新难度,否则使用上一个block的难度),重新评估难度,下一个块的挖掘可能就要使用新的难度设置了。

比特币的调节周期是 2周/每10分钟,也就是 2 * 7 * 24 * 6 = 2016

参考:http://bitcoindifficulty.com/blog/

https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Difficulty

(10) 修改checkpoints检查


(11) 修改界面


github地址


TODO:

1)模板化的山寨币生成,可配置修改部分通过宏或者变量提取出来,用脚本批量替换修改。

2)矿池搭建与节点测试 P2pool  &Poclbm

3)移动支付和网页支付

4)应用生态

5)交易备注

6)复杂交易应用(脚本,非标准交易)


备注:

1)记得加上-checkpoints=0 参数启动,否则,会导致daemon报错,“FastCoin is downloading blocks...”


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