Java:HttpClient篇,HttpClient4.2在Java中的几则应用:Get、Post参数、Session(会话)保持、Proxy(代理服务器)设置,多线程设置...

新版HttpClient4.2与之前的3.x版本有了很大变化,建议从http://hc.apache.org/处以得到最新的信息。

  1. 关于HttpCore与HttpClient:HttpCore是位于HTTP传输组件的底层包,可以用来简化HTTP客户端与服务器端的开发。HttpClient是一个符合HTTP1.1版本,基于HttpCore类包的一个实现。它同时为客户端认证、HTTP状态管理、HTTP连接管理提供了可重用的客户端组件。HttpCore类包目前最新发布版本是httpcore-4.2.4;HttpClient类包的版本是httpclient-4.2.5。
    了解到HttpCore包与HttpClient包的差别,在程序中就应该大致知道一些包它们存在于哪个类库中。比如:org.apache.http包属于HttpCore,而org.apache.http.client包属于HttpClient。
  2. HttpClient的API文档在下载的zip中已经包括;
    HttpCore的API文档可以参考:http://hc.apache.org/httpcomponents-core-4.2.x/httpcore/apidocs/index.html
  3. HttpClient4.2需要Java 5.0及以上版本;需要支持包有(下载zip包中已经包括):
    * Apache HttpComponents HttpCore
    * Apache Commons Logging
    * Apache Commons Codec

1. 获取一个HTML页面的内容,一个简单的get应用

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    // 获取一个HTML页面的内容,一个简单的get应用
    public void grabPageHTML() throws Exception {
        HttpClient httpclient = new DefaultHttpClient();
        HttpGet httpget = new HttpGet("http://www.baidu.com/");
        HttpResponse response = httpclient.execute(httpget);
        HttpEntity entity = response.getEntity();
        String html = EntityUtils.toString(entity, "GBK");
        
        // releaseConnection等同于reset,作用是重置request状态位,为下次使用做好准备。
        // 其实就是用一个HttpGet获取多个页面的情况下有效果;否则可以忽略此方法。
        httpget.releaseConnection();

        System.out.println(html);
    }
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2. 下载一个文件到本地(本示范中为一个验证码图片)

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    // 下载一个文件到本地(本示范中为一个验证码图片)
    public void downloadFile() throws Exception {
        String url = "http://www.lashou.com/account/captcha";
        String destfilename = "D:\\TDDOWNLOAD\\yz.png";
        HttpClient httpclient = new DefaultHttpClient();
        HttpGet httpget = new HttpGet(url);
        File file = new File(destfilename);
        if (file.exists()) {
            file.delete();
        }
        
        HttpResponse response = httpclient.execute(httpget);
        HttpEntity entity = response.getEntity();
        InputStream in = entity.getContent();
        try {
            FileOutputStream fout = new FileOutputStream(file);
            int l = -1;
            byte[] tmp = new byte[2048]; 
            while ((l = in.read(tmp)) != -1) {
                fout.write(tmp);
            } 
            fout.close();
        } finally {
            // 在用InputStream处理HttpEntity时,切记要关闭低层流。
            in.close();
        }
        
        httpget.releaseConnection();
    }
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3. Post方法,模拟表单提交参数登录到网站并打开会员页面获取内容(会话保持)

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    // Post方法,模拟表单提交参数登录到网站。
    // 结合了上面两个方法:grabPageHTML/downloadFile,同时增加了Post的代码。
    public void login2Lashou() throws Exception {
        // 第一步:先下载验证码到本地
        String url = "http://www.lashou.com/account/captcha";
        String destfilename = "D:\\TDDOWNLOAD\\yz.png";
        HttpClient httpclient = new DefaultHttpClient();
        HttpGet httpget = new HttpGet(url);
        File file = new File(destfilename);
        if (file.exists()) {
            file.delete();
        }
        
        HttpResponse response = httpclient.execute(httpget);
        HttpEntity entity = response.getEntity();
        InputStream in = entity.getContent();
        try {
            FileOutputStream fout = new FileOutputStream(file);
            int l = -1;
            byte[] tmp = new byte[2048]; 
            while ((l = in.read(tmp)) != -1) {
                fout.write(tmp);
            } 
            fout.close();
        } finally {
            in.close();
        }
        httpget.releaseConnection();

// 第二步:用Post方法带若干参数尝试登录,需要手工输入下载验证码中显示的字母、数字 BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(System.in)); System.out.println("请输入下载下来的验证码中显示的数字..."); String yan = br.readLine(); HttpPost httppost = new HttpPost("http://www.lashou.com/account/login/"); List<NameValuePair> params = new ArrayList<NameValuePair>(); params.add(new BasicNameValuePair("user_id", "testuser007")); params.add(new BasicNameValuePair("pwd", "asdfg123")); params.add(new BasicNameValuePair("yan", yan)); params.add(new BasicNameValuePair("save_user", "on")); params.add(new BasicNameValuePair("save_pwd", "on")); params.add(new BasicNameValuePair("sub", "登录")); httppost.setEntity(new UrlEncodedFormEntity(params)); response = httpclient.execute(httppost); entity = response.getEntity(); // 在这里可以用Jsoup之类的工具对返回结果进行分析,以判断登录是否成功 String postResult = EntityUtils.toString(entity, "GBK"); // 我们这里只是简单的打印出当前Cookie值以判断登录是否成功。 List<Cookie> cookies = ((AbstractHttpClient)httpclient).getCookieStore().getCookies(); for(Cookie cookie: cookies) System.out.println(cookie); httppost.releaseConnection();
// 第三步:打开会员页面以判断登录成功(未登录用户是打不开会员页面的) String memberpage = "http://www.lashou.com/account/orders/"; httpget = new HttpGet(memberpage); response = httpclient.execute(httpget); // 必须是同一个HttpClient! entity = response.getEntity(); String html = EntityUtils.toString(entity, "GBK"); httpget.releaseConnection(); System.out.println(html); }
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输出:

请输入下载下来的验证码中显示的数字...
sbzq
...

[version: 0][name: login_name2][value: testuser007][domain:www.lashou.com][path: /][expiry: Mon Sep 09 10:21:19 CST 2013]
[version: 0][name: pwd2][value: 4c88a4062736c26572d3ec382868fa2b][domain: lashou.com][path: /][expiry: Mon Sep 09 10:21:19 CST 2013]
?<!doctype html>

...

4. 设置代理服务器

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    // 设置代理服务器
    public void testProxy() throws Exception {
        HttpHost proxy = new HttpHost("127.0.0.1", 8888);
        
        // 方式一
        HttpClient httpclient = new DefaultHttpClient();
        httpclient.getParams().setParameter(ConnRoutePNames.DEFAULT_PROXY, proxy);
        
        // 方式二
        HttpParams params = new BasicHttpParams(); 
        params.setParameter(ConnRoutePNames.DEFAULT_PROXY, proxy);
        HttpClient httpclient1 = new DefaultHttpClient(params);
    }
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5. 几种常用HTTP头的设置

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    // 几种常用HTTP头的设置
    public void testBasicHeader() throws Exception {
        HttpParams params = new BasicHttpParams(); 
        Collection<BasicHeader> collection = new ArrayList<BasicHeader>();
        collection.add(new BasicHeader("Accept", "text/html, application/xhtml+xml, */*"));
        collection.add(new BasicHeader("Referer", "http://www.sina.com/"));
        collection.add(new BasicHeader("Accept-Language", "zh-CN"));
        collection.add(new BasicHeader("User-Agent", "Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 10.0; Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; Trident/6.0)"));
        collection.add(new BasicHeader("Accept-Encoding", "gzip, deflate"));
        params.setParameter(ClientPNames.DEFAULT_HEADERS, collection);
        
        HttpClient httpclient = new DefaultHttpClient(params);
        
        // 下面内容略
    }
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6. 多线程编程下的线程池设置

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    // 多线程编程下的线程池设置(这点在需要登录且用一个HttpClient对象抓取多个页面的情况下特别有用)
    public void testConnectionManager() throws Exception {
        // 连接池设置
        SchemeRegistry schemeRegistry = new SchemeRegistry();
        schemeRegistry.register(new Scheme("http", 80, PlainSocketFactory.getSocketFactory()));
        schemeRegistry.register(new Scheme("https", 443, SSLSocketFactory.getSocketFactory()));

        PoolingClientConnectionManager cm = new PoolingClientConnectionManager(schemeRegistry);
        cm.setMaxTotal(200); // 连接池里的最大连接数
        cm.setDefaultMaxPerRoute(20); // 每个路由的默认最大连接数
        HttpHost localhost = new HttpHost("locahost", 80); // 可以针对某特定网站指定最大连接数
        cm.setMaxPerRoute(new HttpRoute(localhost), 30);

        // 其它设置
        HttpParams params = new BasicHttpParams(); 
        params.setParameter(ClientPNames.COOKIE_POLICY, CookiePolicy.BROWSER_COMPATIBILITY);
        HttpClient httpclient = new DefaultHttpClient(cm, params);
        
        // 下面内容略
    }
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7. 测试HTTP上下文对象(HttpContext)

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    // 测试HTTP上下文对象(HttpContext)
    public void testContext() throws Exception {
        // 请求一个页面,然后解析各上下文对象
        DefaultHttpClient httpclient = new DefaultHttpClient();

        HttpContext localContext = new BasicHttpContext();
        HttpGet httpget = new HttpGet("http://www.baidu.com/");

        HttpResponse response = httpclient.execute(httpget, localContext);
        
        // the actual connection to the target server.
        HttpConnection conn = (HttpConnection) localContext.getAttribute(
            ExecutionContext.HTTP_CONNECTION);  
        System.out.println("Socket timeout: " + conn.getSocketTimeout());  

        // the connection target
        HttpHost target = (HttpHost) localContext.getAttribute(
            ExecutionContext.HTTP_TARGET_HOST);
        System.out.println("Final target: " + target);
        
        // the connection proxy, if used 
        HttpHost proxy = (HttpHost) localContext
                .getAttribute(ExecutionContext.HTTP_PROXY_HOST);
        if (proxy != null)
            System.out.println("Proxy host/port: " + proxy.getHostName() + "/"
                    + proxy.getPort());

        // the actual HTTP request
        HttpRequest request = (HttpRequest) localContext
                .getAttribute(ExecutionContext.HTTP_REQUEST);
        System.out.println("HTTP version: " + request.getProtocolVersion());
        Header[] headers = request.getAllHeaders();
        System.out.println("HTTP Headers: ");
        for (Header header : headers) {
            System.out.println("\t" + header.getName() + ": " + header.getValue());
        }
        System.out.println("HTTP URI: " + request.getRequestLine().getUri());

        // the actual HTTP response
        response = (HttpResponse) localContext
                .getAttribute(ExecutionContext.HTTP_RESPONSE);
        HttpEntity entity = response.getEntity();
        if (entity != null) {
            System.out.println("Content Encoding:" + entity.getContentEncoding());
            System.out.println("Content Type:" + entity.getContentType());
        }
        
        // the flag indicating whether the actual request has been fully transmitted to the connection target. 
        System.out.println("Sent flag: " + localContext.getAttribute(ExecutionContext.HTTP_REQ_SENT));

// 如果没有用到返回entity中的内容,那么要把它消费掉,以保证底层的资源得以释放。 entity = response.getEntity(); EntityUtils.consume(entity); }
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输出:

Socket timeout: 0
Final target: http://www.baidu.com
HTTP version: HTTP/1.1
HTTP Headers: 
    Host: www.baidu.com
    Connection: Keep-Alive
    User-Agent: Apache-HttpClient/4.2.5 (java 1.5)
HTTP URI: /
Content Encoding:null
Content Type:Content-Type: text/html;charset=utf-8
Sent flag: true

8. 完整的代码

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