python 多线程就这么简单

python 多线程就这么简单
 

  多线程和多进程是什么,请参考 多进程和多线程的概念

  对于python 多线程的理解,我花了很长时间,搜索的大部份文章都不够通俗易懂。所以,这里力图用简单的例子,让你对多线程有个初步的认识。

单线程

      在好些年前的MS-DOS时代,操作系统处理问题都是单任务的,我想做听音乐和看电影两件事,那么一定要先排一下顺序。

(好吧!我们不纠结在DOS时代是否有听音乐和看影的应用。^_^)

from time import ctime,sleep

def music():
    for i in range(2):
        print "I was listening to music. %s" %ctime()
        sleep(1)

def move():
    for i in range(2):
        print "I was at the movies! %s" %ctime()
        sleep(5)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    music()
    move()
    print "all over %s" %ctime()

       我们先听了一首音乐,通过for循环来控制音乐的播放了两次,每首音乐播放需要1秒钟,sleep()来控制音乐播放的时长。接着我们又看了一场电影,

每一场电影需要5秒钟,因为太好看了,所以我也通过for循环看两遍。在整个休闲娱乐活动结束后,我通过

print "all over %s" %ctime()
看了一下当前时间,差不多该睡觉了。

运行结果:

>>=========================== RESTART ================================
I was listening to music. Tue Jun  2 10:19:01 2020
I was listening to music. Tue Jun  2 10:19:02 2020
I was at the movies! Tue Jun  2 10:19:03 2020
I was at the movies! Tue Jun  2 10:19:08 2020
all over Tue Jun  2 10:19:13 2020

Process finished with exit code 0

       其实,music()和move()更应该被看作是音乐和视频播放器,至于要播放什么歌曲和视频应该由我们使用时决定。所以,我们对上面代码做了改造:

#coding=utf-8
import threading
from time import ctime,sleep

def music(func):
    for i in range(2):
        print "I was listening to %s. %s" %(func,ctime())
        sleep(1)

def move(func):
    for i in range(2):
        print "I was at the %s! %s" %(func,ctime())
        sleep(5)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    music(u'爱情买卖')
    move(u'阿凡达')
    print "all over %s" %ctime()

      对music()和move()进行了传参处理。体验中国经典歌曲和欧美大片文化。

运行结果:

>>> ======================== RESTART ================================
I was listening to 爱情买卖. Tue Jun  2 10:20:25 2020
I was listening to 爱情买卖. Tue Jun  2 10:20:26 2020
I was at the 阿凡达! Tue Jun  2 10:20:27 2020
I was at the 阿凡达! Tue Jun  2 10:20:32 2020
all over Tue Jun  2 10:20:37 2020

Process finished with exit code 0

多线程

  科技在发展,时代在进步,我们的CPU也越来越快,CPU抱怨,P大点事儿占了我一定的时间,其实我同时干多个活都没问题的;于是,操作系统就进入了多任务时代。我们听着音乐吃着火锅的不在是梦想。

python提供了两个模块来实现多线程thread 和threading ,thread 有一些缺点,在threading 得到了弥补,为了不浪费你和时间,所以我们直接学习threading 就可以了。

继续对上面的例子进行改造,引入threadring来同时播放音乐和视频:

#coding=utf-8
import threading
from time import ctime,sleep


def music(func):
    for i in range(2):
        print "I was listening to %s. %s" %(func,ctime())
        sleep(1)

def move(func):
    for i in range(2):
        print "I was at the %s! %s" %(func,ctime())
        sleep(5)

threads = []
t1 = threading.Thread(target=music,args=(u'爱情买卖',))
threads.append(t1)
t2 = threading.Thread(target=move,args=(u'阿凡达',))
threads.append(t2)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    for t in threads:
        t.setDaemon(True)
        t.start()

    print "all over %s" %ctime()

import threading

首先导入threading 模块,这是使用多线程的前提。

threads = []

t1 = threading.Thread(target=music,args=(u'爱情买卖',))

threads.append(t1)

  创建了threads数组,创建线程t1,使用threading.Thread()方法,在这个方法中调用music方法target=music,args方法对music进行传参。 把创建好的线程t1装到threads数组中。

  接着以同样的方式创建线程t2,并把t2也装到threads数组。

for t in threads:

  t.setDaemon(True)

  t.start()

最后通过for循环遍历数组。(数组被装载了t1和t2两个线程)

setDaemon()

  setDaemon(True)将线程声明为守护线程,必须在start() 方法调用之前设置,如果不设置为守护线程程序会被无限挂起。
子线程启动后,父线程也继续执行下去,当父线程执行完最后一条语句print "all over %s" %ctime()后,没有等待子线程,直接就退出了,同时子线程也一同结束。

start()

开始线程活动。

运行结果:

>>> ========================= RESTART ================================
I was listening to 爱情买卖. Tue Jun  2 10:21:29 2020
I was at the 阿凡达! Tue Jun  2 10:21:29 2020all over Tue Jun  2 10:21:29 2020


Process finished with exit code 0


从执行结果来看,子线程(muisc 、move )和主线程(print "all over %s" %ctime())都是同一时间启动,但由于主线程执行完结束,所以导致子线程也终止。 

继续调整程序,如下:

if __name__ == '__main__':
    for t in threads:
        t.setDaemon(True)
        t.start()
    t.join()
    
    print "all over %s" % ctime()

我们只对上面的程序加了个join()方法,用于等待线程终止。join()的作用是,在子线程完成运行之前,这个子线程的父线程将一直被阻塞。

注意:  join()方法的位置是在for循环外的,也就是说必须等待for循环里的两个进程都结束后,才去执行主进程。


运行结果:

>>> ========================= RESTART ================================
I was listening to 爱情买卖. Tue Jun  2 10:28:21 2020
I was at the 阿凡达! Tue Jun  2 10:28:21 2020
I was listening to 爱情买卖. Tue Jun  2 10:28:22 2020
I was at the 阿凡达! Tue Jun  2 10:28:26 2020
all over Tue Jun  2 10:28:31 2020

Process finished with exit code 0

从执行结果可看到,music 和move 是同时启动的。

开始时间28分21秒,直到调用主进程为28分31秒,总耗时为10秒。从单线程时减少了2秒,我们可以把music的sleep()的时间调整为4秒。

def music(func):
    for i in range(2):
        print "I was listening to %s. %s" %(func,ctime())
        sleep(4)

执行结果:

>>> ====================== RESTART ================================
I was listening to 爱情买卖. Tue Jun  2 10:29:46 2020
I was at the 阿凡达! Tue Jun  2 10:29:46 2020
I was listening to 爱情买卖. Tue Jun  2 10:29:50 2020
I was at the 阿凡达! Tue Jun  2 10:29:51 2020
all over Tue Jun  2 10:29:56 2020

Process finished with exit code 0

子线程启动29分46秒,主线程运行29分56秒。

虽然music每首歌曲从1秒延长到了4 ,但通多程线的方式运行脚本,总的运行时间(10s)没变化。

本文从感性上让你快速理解python多线程的使用,更详细的使用请参考其它文档或资料。


class threading.Thread()说明:

class threading.Thread(group=None, target=None, name=None, args=(), kwargs={})

This constructor should always be called with keyword arguments. Arguments are:

  group should be None; reserved for future extension when a ThreadGroup class is implemented.

  target is the callable object to be invoked by the run() method. Defaults to None, meaning nothing is called.

  name is the thread name. By default, a unique name is constructed of the form “Thread-N” where N is a small decimal number.

  args is the argument tuple for the target invocation. Defaults to ().

  kwargs is a dictionary of keyword arguments for the target invocation. Defaults to {}.

If the subclass overrides the constructor, it must make sure to invoke the base class constructor (Thread.__init__()) before doing 

anything else to the thread.

参考:https://www.cnblogs.com/fnng/p/3670789.html

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