Java, Groovy & Scala: side to side 2

Java, Groovy & Scala: side to side 2
Posted By: Andres Almiray on Thu. Jun. 12, 2008

Second part of the series, (first part here). Thanks a lot to Daniel Spiewak who took the time to expand the topics presented about Scala. Without further ado...
Feature
Java
Groovy
Scala
Instance Fields
[access_modifier] Type name where access_modifier is any of
  • public
  • protected
  • private
  • empty - means package protected [default access]
[access_modifier] Type name where access_modifier is any of
  • public [default access]
  • protected
  • private
If no access modifier is provided then the field would be promoted to a property. Properties have their get/set methods auto generated in bytecode which means that the following Groovy class class Person {   String name } Is equivalent to the following Java class public class Person {   private String name;   publicvoid setName( String name )   { this.name = name; }   public String getName()   { return name; } }
[access_modifier] [definition] name: Type where access_modifier is any of
  • empty - [default access]
  • protected
  • private
where definition is any of
  • var - mutable
  • val - immutable (think final in Java)
private works as in Java protected baffles me, as a subclass can't access its parent's protected fields (perhaps I missed something here), same thing with empty access modifier (strong encapsulation?)
Class Fields (static)
[access_modifier] static Type name where access_modifier is any of
  • public
  • protected
  • private
  • empty - means package protected [default access]
[access_modifier] static Type name where access_modifier is any of
  • public
  • protected
  • private
No static modifier (?) but object can be used object Foo {   val aConstant = "Foo"   privatevar seed = 42   def foo() = { seed += 1; seed - 1 } } object Bar {   import Foo._   def main(args: Array[String]) {     var bar = foo()     println( aConstant ) // Foo     println( bar ) // 42     println( foo() ) // 43   } }
Global Variables
Not supported. Every field/constant must belong to a class
Supported only in scripts, otherwise follows Java rules
Not supported. Every field/constant must belong to a class
Method definition
class Person {   [access_modifier] Type name() {     // statements   } } where access_modifier is any of
  • public
  • protected
  • private
  • empty - means package protected [default access]
class Person {   [access_modifier] Type name() {     // statements   } } where access_modifier is any of
  • public
  • protected
  • private
  • empty - same as public [default access]
class Person {   [access_modifier] def name() [:Type] = {     // statements   } } where access_modifier is any of
  • protected
  • private
  • empty - public? [default access]
The type of the method may be optional No-arg methods can be written and called without parens class Person {   def name = {     "Scala"   } } ... // this is a method call new Person().name
Static Method Definition
class Person {   [access_modifier] static Type name() {     // statements   } } where access_modifier is any of
  • public
  • protected
  • private
  • empty - same as public [default access]
class Person {   [access_modifier] static Type name() {     // statements   } } where access_modifier is any of
  • public
  • protected
  • private
  • empty - same as public [default access]
Follows the rules of Class Fields and Method Definition
Returning from a method
return expression; return;
Same as Java. But can leave the return statement - in that case the last expression evaluated is returned.
Same as Java. But can leave the return statement - in that case the last expression evaluated is returned.
Null
null
null - Guillaume Laforge notes that "Null Object Pattern" is supported in Groovy. See also: NullObject. So, you can call null.toString() for example.
null Which is actually of type Null, the only one of its kind. Can't call methods on it.
Arrays
int[] a = new int[10]; a[0] = 3;
int[] a = new int[10] a[0] = 3
var a:Array[Int] = new Array(10) a(0) = 3 also var a = new Array[Int](10) a(0) = 3
Array Literals
int[] a = {0,1,2}; a[0] = 3;
int[] a = [0,1,2] a[0] = 3
val nums = Array(0,1,2)
Lists
Supported by the Collections framefork (JSL), not really part of the language
List list = [0,1,2] list[0] = 'Foo' list[10] = 11 Lists can be heterogeneous Lists grow as needed
val nums = List(1,2,3,4) Lists are immutable, values can't be reassigned List are homogeneous
Hash Literals
Not supported. (See java.util.Map)
def hash = [key:'value', 'id': 1] hash.key = 'value2' // bean like access hash[key] = 'value3' // hash like access
val nums = Map("one" -> 1, "two" -> 2, "three" -> 3) nums("one") // 1 nums("two") // 2 Daniel explains: Scala does have a syntax for map literals (sort of), but it's not really built into the language. It's actually an implicit conversion on Any (common superclass of all objects incl. primitives) and a symbolic method.

http://groovygrails.com/gg/blog/view/123176;jsessionid=11297C7AB6F87D53BBBC1CEFBCA6B0AB.vhost01

 
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