C++模拟Http/Https POST登录web站点

C++模拟Http/Https访问web站点

一、概述

1.HttpHttps的区别与联系

OSI参考模型中HttpHttps均属于应用层协议。HttpHypertext Transfer Protocol,超文本传输协议;而HttpsSecure Hypertext Transfer Protocol安全超文本传输协议,它是一个安全通信通道,基于HTTP开发,用于在客户端与服务器之间交换信息,它使用安全套接字层SSL进行信息交换,简单来说它就是HTTP的安全版。

Http默认使用80端口,Https使用443端口。

Http的数据在网络上是明文传输,而Https则是通过加密后的传输,因此它相比http会更加安全,但是由于需要额外加解密操作,因为Https的效率没有那么高。在登录Https站点和Http站点时,可以明显感觉到性能差异。

2.关于web访问的安全性

当前许多的web站点登录时都是采用普通的http进行传输,这种方式有着极大的安全隐患。当前web开发登录系统常用的有以下四种方式:

1) 账号和密码完全没有加密,明文传送。这种方式的安全级别是最低的,它无疑是将自己的账号和密码直接暴露给别人,通过抓包工具(例:WireShark)可以很容易的截获到账号和密码。

2) 密码采用MD5或其它加密方式进行加密,声称不可破解。其实,完全没有必要破解,只要截获加密后的密码串,就可以以你的身份访问服务器,这样也是可以通过认证授权的。这种方式在加密程度上有了一定程度的提高,但仍是不安全的。

3) 客户端在登录前去服务端拿一次密钥,通过该密钥进行加密,而服务器端的密钥是随机生成的,每次访问均会用不同的密钥。这种方式的安全性比较高。

4) 采用“安全性最高”的HTTPS方式传输,客户端与服务端会经过认证,且中间的传输数据全部进行加密。之所以在安全性最高上加引号,是因为它也不是绝对安全的,比如前段时间Openssl曝出安全漏洞,大名鼎鼎的“心脏出血”,黑客利用它的一个memcpybug,可以从溢出的内存中拿到64K的用户数据,导致用户信息泄露。但是这个安全性级别相对前面三个是最高的,当前服务端的证书一年收费大约3-5千,用这点钱换来相对安全,是很划算的事情了。

二、SOCKET发送HTTP请求

1.基本流程

无论是Http还是Https都是基于TCP进行传输的,因此使用SOCKET模拟HTTP访问web站点的方式,很简单,就是将头部数据拼接成数据包,发送给服务端,然后接收返回再解析就可以了。

其基本流程和编写普通SOCKET通信是一样的。Windows下的流程为:

a. WSAStartupWinsock服务进行初始化

b. 建立socket套接字

c. connect连接服务端

d. send发送数据

e. recv接收数据

下面,以某站点的登录为例,利用Fiddler抓到的POST的头部信息如下:

                                            

这样,我们就可以构建这样的数据包发送出去,然后接收响应了,C++实现核心代码请见下部分。

2.核心代码

BOOL SocketClient::ConnectToServer(const CString strServerUrl, const int nPort)
{
	cstrServerUrl = strServerUrl;
	nServerPort = nPort;
	BOOL bRet = FALSE;

	do 
	{
		if (!InitializeContext())
		{
			break;
		}

		if(!Connect())
		{
			break;
		}

		bRet = TRUE;
	} while (FALSE);
	return bRet;
}

BOOL SocketClient::LoginToServer(const CString strUsername, const CString strPasswd)
{
	cstrUserName = strUsername;
	cstrPassWord = strPasswd;
	BOOL bRet = FALSE;

	do 
	{
		if (!SendPostData())
		{
			break;
		}

		bRet = TRUE;
	} while (FALSE);

	return bRet;
}

BOOL SocketClient::LogoutOfServer()
{
	return FALSE;
}

BOOL SocketClient::InitializeContext()
{
	BOOL bRet = FALSE;
	wsaData = new WSADATA;
	WORD wVersion = MAKEWORD(2, 2);

	do 
	{
		if(0 != WSAStartup(wVersion, wsaData))
		{
			break;
		}

		if(LOBYTE( wsaData->wVersion ) != 2 || HIBYTE( wsaData->wVersion ) != 2 )
		{
			WSACleanup();
			break;
		}

		LPHOSTENT lpHostTent;
		lpHostTent = gethostbyname(cstrServerUrl);
		if (NULL == lpHostTent)
		{
			break;
		}

		socketClient = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, IPPROTO_TCP);
		if (socketClient == INVALID_SOCKET)
		{
			WSACleanup();
			break;
		}

		socketAddrClient = new SOCKADDR_IN;
		socketAddrClient->sin_family = AF_INET;
		socketAddrClient->sin_port = htons(nServerPort);
		socketAddrClient->sin_addr = *((LPIN_ADDR)*lpHostTent->h_addr_list);
		memset(socketAddrClient->sin_zero, 0, sizeof(socketAddrClient->sin_zero));

		bRet = TRUE;
	} while (FALSE);

	return bRet;
}

BOOL SocketClient::Connect()
{
	BOOL bRet = FALSE;

	do 
	{
		if (SOCKET_ERROR == connect(socketClient, (LPSOCKADDR)socketAddrClient, sizeof(SOCKADDR_IN)))
		{
			 int nErrorCode = WSAGetLastError();
			closesocket(socketClient);
			break;
		}

		bRet = TRUE;
	} while (FALSE);

	return bRet;
}

BOOL SocketClient::SendPostData()
{
	CString cstrSendData;
	CString cstrSendParam = "redirect=&username="+cstrUserName+"&password="+cstrPassWord+"&auto_login=checked&submit=%E7%99%BB%E5%BD%95";
	BOOL bRet = FALSE;

	CString cstrSendParamLen;
	cstrSendParamLen.Format("%d", cstrSendParam.GetLength());

	cstrSendData = "POST http://account.vsochina.com/user/login HTTP/1.1\r\n";
	cstrSendData += "Host: account.vsochina.com\r\n";
	cstrSendData += "User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64; rv:35.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/35.0\r\n";
	cstrSendData += "Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8\r\n";
	cstrSendData += "Accept-Language: zh-cn,zh;q=0.8,en-us;q=0.5,en;q=0.3\r\n";
	cstrSendData += "Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate\r\n";
	cstrSendData += "DNT: 1\r\n";
	cstrSendData += "Referer: http://account.vsochina.com/user/login\r\n";
	cstrSendData += "Connection: keep-alive\r\n";
	cstrSendData += "Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded\r\n";
	cstrSendData += "Content-Length: " + cstrSendParamLen +"\r\n";
	cstrSendData += "\r\n";
	cstrSendData += cstrSendParam;

	CString cstrRecvData;
	do 
	{
		if (-1 == send(socketClient, cstrSendData.GetBuffer(), cstrSendData.GetLength(), 0))
		{
			break;
		}

		char recvData[1000] = {0};
		int nRecvLen;

		while((nRecvLen = recv(socketClient, recvData, sizeof(recvData), 0)) > 0)
		{
			cstrRecvData += recvData;
		}

		if (cstrRecvData.GetLength() == 0)
		{
			break;
		}

		ParseCookieFromRecvData(cstrRecvData);

		//!判断返回的COOKIE信息中,UID是否存在
		if (cstrCookieUid.IsEmpty())
		{
			break;
		}

		bRet = TRUE;
	} while (FALSE);


	return bRet;
}

void SocketClient::ParseCookieFromRecvData(const CString cstrRecvData)
{
	list<CString> lstCookiesLine;        //!存放Set-Cookie的一行,例:Set-Cookie: vso_uname=houqd_1111;
	CString cstrFind = "Set-Cookie:";    //!查找标记
	CString cstrSeperator = "\r\n";      //!以"\r\n"分割号来分割字符串

	int nPos = 0;
	int nStart = cstrRecvData.Find(cstrSeperator);

	while(nStart != -1)
	{
		CString cstrSessionLine = cstrRecvData.Mid(nPos, nStart - nPos + 1);

		if (cstrSessionLine.Find(cstrFind) != -1)
		{
			CString cstrRealRecord = cstrSessionLine.Right(cstrSessionLine.GetLength() - cstrFind.GetLength() - 3);
			list<CString>::iterator it = find(lstCookiesLine.begin(), lstCookiesLine.end(), cstrRealRecord);
			if (it == lstCookiesLine.end())
			{
				lstCookiesLine.push_back(cstrRealRecord);
			}
		}

		nPos = nStart;
		nStart = cstrRecvData.Find(cstrSeperator, nPos + 2);
	}

	//!根据每行获取的cookie值,解析为key-value的形式
	vector<CString> vecCookieSet;
	for (list<CString>::iterator it = lstCookiesLine.begin(); it != lstCookiesLine.end(); it++)
	{
		CString cstrCookies = *it;
		CString cstrSeperator = ";";
		StaticUtility::StringSplit(cstrCookies, cstrSeperator, vecCookieSet);
	}

	vector<CString> vecTemp;
	for (vector<CString>::iterator it = vecCookieSet.begin(); it != vecCookieSet.end(); it++)
	{
		vecTemp.clear();
		CString cstrOneCookies = *it;
		CString cstrSeperator = "=";

		StaticUtility::StringSplit(cstrOneCookies, cstrSeperator, vecTemp);
		CString cstrKey = vecTemp[0];
		CString cstrVal = vecTemp[1];

		if(cstrKey.Compare("vso_uid") == 0)
		{
			cstrCookieUid = cstrVal;
			break;
		}
	}
}

通过接收来的头部信息中,将cookie信息解析出来,就可以判断是否登录成功了。然后,如果有或许的操作,在请求中挂上这些cookie信息,就可以获取想要的数据,完成想要的操作了。

三、OpenSSL发送HTTPS请求

1.基本流程

HTTPS=HTTP + SSL,因此利用OpenSSL发送请求给HTTPS站点和第二章的SOCKET发送HTTP是非常相似的,只不过要在原生的套接字上套上SSL层,基本流程如下:

a. WSAStartupWinsock服务进行初始化

b. 建立socket套接字

c. connect连接服务端

d. 建立SSL上下文

e. 建立SSL

f. 将SSL与前面建立的socket套接字绑定

g. SSL_write()发送数据

h. SSL_read()接收数据

下面以小米官网站点的登录为例,来展示利用OpenSSL如何访问HTTPS站点,模拟登陆,核心代码,见下一章节。

2.核心代码

#pragma comment( lib, "libeay32.lib" )
#pragma comment( lib, "ssleay32.lib" )
HttpsClient::HttpsClient(void):
			 wsaData(NULL),
		     socketAddrClient(NULL),
			 ssl(NULL),
			 sslCtx(NULL),
			 sslMethod(NULL),
			 serverCertification(NULL)
{
	SSL_load_error_strings();
	SSLeay_add_ssl_algorithms();
}


HttpsClient::~HttpsClient(void)
{
	//!清理打开的句柄
	if (NULL != ssl)
	{
		SSL_shutdown(ssl);
		closesocket(socketClient);
		SSL_free(ssl);
		ssl = NULL;
	}

	if (NULL != sslCtx)
	{
		SSL_CTX_free(sslCtx);
	}

	WSACleanup();
}

BOOL HttpsClient::ConnectToServer(const CString strServerUrl, const int nPort)
{
	cstrServerUrl = strServerUrl;
	nServerPort = nPort;
	BOOL bRet = FALSE;

	do 
	{
		if (!InitializeSocketContext())
		{
			break;
		}

		if (!SocketConnect())
		{
			break;
		}

		if (!InitializeSslContext())
		{
			break;
		}

		if (!SslConnect())
		{
			break;
		}

		bRet = TRUE;
	} while (FALSE);
	return bRet;
}

BOOL HttpsClient::LoginToServer(const CString strUsername, const CString strPasswd)
{
	cstrUserName = strUsername;
	cstrPassWord = strPasswd;
	BOOL bRet = FALSE;

	do 
	{
		if (!SendLoginPostData())
		{
			break;
		}

		CString cstrRecvData;
		RecvLoginPostData(cstrRecvData);
		if (cstrRecvData.GetLength() == 0)
		{
			break;
		}

		ParseCookieFromRecvData(cstrRecvData);

		if (cstrCookieUid.IsEmpty() || cstrCookieUid.Compare("EXPIRED") == 0)
		{
			break;
		}

		bRet = TRUE;
	} while (FALSE);
	return bRet;
}

BOOL HttpsClient::LogoutOfServer()
{
	return FALSE;
}

BOOL HttpsClient::InitializeSocketContext()
{
	//!初始化winSocket环境
	BOOL bRet = FALSE;
	wsaData = new WSADATA;
	WORD wVersion = MAKEWORD(2, 2);

	do 
	{
		if(0 != WSAStartup(wVersion, wsaData))
		{
			break;
		}

		if(LOBYTE( wsaData->wVersion ) != 2 || HIBYTE( wsaData->wVersion ) != 2 )
		{
			WSACleanup();
			break;
		}

		LPHOSTENT lpHostTent;
		lpHostTent = gethostbyname(cstrServerUrl);
		if (NULL == lpHostTent)
		{
			break;
		}

		socketClient = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, IPPROTO_TCP);
		if (socketClient == INVALID_SOCKET)
		{
			WSACleanup();
			break;
		}

		socketAddrClient = new SOCKADDR_IN;
		socketAddrClient->sin_family = AF_INET;
		socketAddrClient->sin_port = htons(nServerPort);
		socketAddrClient->sin_addr = *((LPIN_ADDR)*lpHostTent->h_addr_list);
		memset(socketAddrClient->sin_zero, 0, sizeof(socketAddrClient->sin_zero));

		bRet = TRUE;
	} while (FALSE);

	return bRet;
}

BOOL HttpsClient::SocketConnect()
{
	//!原生socket连接
	BOOL bRet = FALSE;

	do 
	{
		if (SOCKET_ERROR == connect(socketClient, (LPSOCKADDR)socketAddrClient, sizeof(SOCKADDR_IN)))
		{
			int nErrorCode = WSAGetLastError();
			closesocket(socketClient);
			break;
		}

		bRet = TRUE;
	} while (FALSE);

	return bRet;
}

BOOL HttpsClient::InitializeSslContext()
{
	//!SSL通信初始化
	BOOL bRet = FALSE;

	do 
	{
		sslMethod = SSLv23_client_method();
		if(NULL == sslMethod)
		{
			break;
		}

		sslCtx = SSL_CTX_new(sslMethod);
		if (NULL == sslCtx)
		{
			break;
		}

		ssl = SSL_new(sslCtx);
		if (NULL == ssl)
		{
			break;
		}

		bRet = TRUE;
	} while (FALSE);

	return bRet;
}

BOOL HttpsClient::SslConnect()
{
	//!SSL绑定原生socket,并连接服务器
	BOOL bRet = FALSE;

	do 
	{
		SSL_set_fd(ssl, socketClient);

		int nRet = SSL_connect(ssl);
		if (-1 == nRet)
		{
			break;
		}

		bRet = TRUE;
	} while (FALSE);

	return bRet;
}

BOOL HttpsClient::SslGetCipherAndCertification()
{
	BOOL bRet = FALSE;

	do 
	{
		cstrSslCipher = SSL_get_cipher(ssl);
		serverCertification = SSL_get_certificate(ssl);

		if (NULL == serverCertification)
		{
			break;
		}

		cstrSslSubject = X509_NAME_oneline(X509_get_subject_name(serverCertification), 0, 0);
		cstrSslIssuer = X509_NAME_oneline(X509_get_issuer_name(serverCertification), 0, 0);

		X509_free(serverCertification);

		bRet = TRUE;
	} while (FALSE);

	return bRet;
}

BOOL HttpsClient::SendLoginPostData()
{
	CString cstrSendData;
	//CString cstrSendParam = "redirect=&username="+cstrUserName+"&password="+cstrPassWord+"&auto_login=checked&submit=%E7%99%BB%E5%BD%95";
	CString cstrSendParam = "user="+cstrUserName+"&_json=true&pwd="+cstrPassWord+"&callback=http%3A%2F%2Forder.mi.com%2Flogin%2Fcallback%3Ffollowup%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.mi.com%252F%26sign%3DNWU4MzRmNjBhZmU4MDRmNmZkYzVjMTZhMGVlMGFmMTllMGY0ZTNhZQ%2C%2C&sid=mi_eshop&qs=%253Fcallback%253Dhttp%25253A%25252F%25252Forder.mi.com%25252Flogin%25252Fcallback%25253Ffollowup%25253Dhttp%2525253A%2525252F%2525252Fwww.mi.com%2525252F%252526sign%25253DNWU4MzRmNjBhZmU4MDRmNmZkYzVjMTZhMGVlMGFmMTllMGY0ZTNhZQ%25252C%25252C%2526sid%253Dmi_eshop&hidden=&_sign=%2Bw73Dr7cAfRlMfOR6fW%2BF0QG4jE%3D&serviceParam=%7B%22checkSafePhone%22%3Afalse%7D&captCode=";
	BOOL bRet = FALSE;

	CString cstrSendParamLen;
	cstrSendParamLen.Format("%d", cstrSendParam.GetLength());

	cstrSendData = "POST https://account.xiaomi.com/pass/serviceLoginAuth2 HTTP/1.1\r\n";
	cstrSendData += "Host: account.xiaomi.com\r\n";
	cstrSendData += "User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64; rv:35.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/35.0\r\n";
	cstrSendData += "Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8\r\n";
	cstrSendData += "Accept-Language: zh-cn,zh;q=0.8,en-us;q=0.5,en;q=0.3\r\n";
	cstrSendData += "Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate\r\n";
	cstrSendData += "DNT: 1\r\n";
	cstrSendData += "Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8\r\n";
	cstrSendData += "Referer: https://account.xiaomi.com/pass/serviceLogin?callback=http%3A%2F%2Forder.mi.com%2Flogin%2Fcallback%3Ffollowup%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.mi.com%252Findex.html%26sign%3DNDRhYjQwYmNlZTg2ZGJhZjI0MTJjY2ZiMTNiZWExODMwYjkwNzg2ZQ%2C%2C&sid=mi_eshop\r\n";
	cstrSendData += "Content-Length: " + cstrSendParamLen +"\r\n";
	cstrSendData += "Connection: keep-alive\r\n";	
	cstrSendData += "\r\n";
	cstrSendData += cstrSendParam;

	CString cstrRecvData;
	do 
	{
		int nRet = SSL_write(ssl, cstrSendData, cstrSendData.GetLength());

		if(-1 == nRet)
		{
			break;
		}
        
		bRet = TRUE;
	} while (FALSE);

	return bRet;
}

void HttpsClient::RecvLoginPostData(CString &cstrRecvData)
{
	BOOL bRet = FALSE;

	do 
	{
		TIMEVAL tval;
		tval.tv_sec = 20;
		tval.tv_usec = 0;

		while(TRUE)
		{
			FD_SET fds;
			FD_ZERO(&fds);
			FD_SET(socketClient, &fds);

			char recvData[1000] = {0};
			int nRecvLen;

			//int nSelect = select(FD_SETSIZE, &fds, NULL, NULL, &tval);
			//if (1 != nSelect)
			//{
			//	break;
			//}

			int nErr = SSL_read(ssl, recvData, sizeof(recvData));
			if (nErr <= 0)
			{
				break;
			}

			cstrRecvData += recvData;
		}

		if (cstrRecvData.GetLength() == 0)
		{
			break;
		}

		bRet = TRUE;
	} while (FALSE);
}

void HttpsClient::ParseCookieFromRecvData(const CString cstrRecvData)
{
	list<CString> lstCookiesLine;        //!存放Set-Cookie的一行,例:Set-Cookie: vso_uname=houqd_1111;
	CString cstrFind = "Set-Cookie:";    //!查找标记
	CString cstrSeperator = "\r\n";      //!以"\r\n"分割号来分割字符串

	int nPos = 0;
	int nStart = cstrRecvData.Find(cstrSeperator);

	while(nStart != -1)
	{
		CString cstrSessionLine = cstrRecvData.Mid(nPos, nStart - nPos + 1);

		if (cstrSessionLine.Find(cstrFind) != -1)
		{
			CString cstrRealRecord = cstrSessionLine.Right(cstrSessionLine.GetLength() - cstrFind.GetLength() - 3);
			list<CString>::iterator it = find(lstCookiesLine.begin(), lstCookiesLine.end(), cstrRealRecord);
			if (it == lstCookiesLine.end())
			{
				lstCookiesLine.push_back(cstrRealRecord);
			}
		}

		nPos = nStart;
		nStart = cstrRecvData.Find(cstrSeperator, nPos + 2);
	}

	//!根据每行获取的cookie值,解析为key-value的形式
	vector<CString> vecCookieSet;
	for (list<CString>::iterator it = lstCookiesLine.begin(); it != lstCookiesLine.end(); it++)
	{
		CString cstrCookies = *it;
		CString cstrSeperator = ";";
		StaticUtility::StringSplit(cstrCookies, cstrSeperator, vecCookieSet);
	}

	vector<CString> vecTemp;
	for (vector<CString>::iterator it = vecCookieSet.begin(); it != vecCookieSet.end(); it++)
	{
		vecTemp.clear();
		CString cstrOneCookies = *it;
		CString cstrSeperator = "=";

		StaticUtility::StringSplit(cstrOneCookies, cstrSeperator, vecTemp);
		CString cstrKey;
		CString cstrVal;

		if (vecTemp.size() == 2)
		{
			cstrKey = vecTemp[0];
			cstrVal = vecTemp[1];
		}

		if(cstrKey.Compare("userId") == 0)
		{
			cstrCookieUid = cstrVal;
			break;
		}
	}
}

同理,判断登录也是在返回的信息中拿cookie信息,再进行下一步操作。

四、参考资料及代码下载链接

1) 使用OpenSSL API进行安全编程:http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/cn/linux/l-openssl.html

2) SSL建立过程分析:http://blog.chinaunix.net/uid-127037-id-2919489.html

3) Openssl使用:http://www.cppblog.com/woomsg/archive/2008/11/03/64508.html

4) 知乎OpenSSLhttp://www.zhihu.com/topic/19584279

5) Retrieving a file via HTTPhttp://www.codeproject.com/Articles/1876/Retrieving-a-file-via-HTTP

6) Step in a Typical HTTP Client Applicationhttps://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/8yh4zs9e%28v=VS.80%29.aspx

7) Make a POST HTTP request over a sockethttp://paul.grozav.info/2013/05/16/c-make-a-post-http-request-over-a-socket/

8) C++ STL中哈希表hash_map介绍:blog.csdn.net/ddkxddkx/article/details/6555754

9) 我的代码实现的下载链接为:http://download.csdn.net/detail/houqingdong2012/8540317

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