# [Codeforces Round #447] 894D - Ralph And His Tour in Binary Country(预处理，二分)

## Ralph And His Tour in Binary Country

time limit per test2.5 seconds
memory limit per test512 megabytes
inputstandard input
outputstandard output

Ralph is in the Binary Country. The Binary Country consists of n cities and (n - 1) bidirectional roads connecting the cities. The roads are numbered from 1 to (n - 1), the i-th road connects the city labeled (here ⌊ x⌋ denotes the x rounded down to the nearest integer) and the city labeled (i + 1), and the length of the i-th road is Li.

Now Ralph gives you m queries. In each query he tells you some city Ai and an integer Hi. He wants to make some tours starting from this city. He can choose any city in the Binary Country (including Ai) as the terminal city for a tour. He gains happiness (Hi - L) during a tour, where L is the distance between the city Ai and the terminal city.

Ralph is interested in tours from Ai in which he can gain positive happiness. For each query, compute the sum of happiness gains for all such tours.

Ralph will never take the same tour twice or more (in one query), he will never pass the same city twice or more in one tour.

Input
The first line contains two integers n and m (1 ≤ n ≤ 106, 1 ≤ m ≤ 105).

(n - 1) lines follow, each line contains one integer Li (1 ≤ Li ≤ 105), which denotes the length of the i-th road.

m lines follow, each line contains two integers Ai and Hi (1 ≤ Ai ≤ n, 0 ≤ Hi ≤ 107).

Output
Print m lines, on the i-th line print one integer — the answer for the i-th query.

Examples
input
2 2
5
1 8
2 4
output
11
4
input
6 4
2
1
1
3
2
2 4
1 3
3 2
1 7
output
11
6
3
28

#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
typedef long long ll;
const int maxn=1e6+50;
const int maxm=1005;
const ll mod=1000000007;
vector<int> ln[maxn];
vector<ll> sm[maxn];
int len[maxn],n,q,a[maxn];
void mergee(int x,int y){
int lx=ln[x].size(),ly=ln[y].size();
int i=0,j=0,k=0;
while(i<lx&&j<ly){
}
while(i<lx)a[k++]=ln[x][i++];
for(int i=0;i<lx;i++)ln[x][i]=a[i];
for(int i=lx;i<k;i++)ln[x].push_back(a[i]);
}

ll cal(int node,int lx){
int lb=0,rb=ln[node].size()-1,mid;
while(lb<=rb){
mid=(lb+rb)>>1;
if(ln[node][mid]<=lx)lb=mid+1;
else rb=mid-1;
}
if(rb<0)return 0;
return 1ll*lx*(rb+1)-sm[node][rb];
}

int main(){
scanf("%d%d",&n,&q);
for(int i=2;i<=n;i++)scanf("%d",&len[i]);
for(int i=1;i<=n;i++)ln[i].push_back(0);//zero represent himself
for(int i=n;i>1;i--)mergee(i/2,i);
for(int i=1;i<=n;i++){
for(int j=0,k=ln[i].size();j<k;j++){
sm[i].push_back(ln[i][j]);
if(j)sm[i][j]+=sm[i][j-1];//prefix sum
}
}
for(int i=1;i<=q;i++){
int j,k;
scanf("%d%d",&j,&k);
ll cnt=0;
for(int last=0;j;k-=len[j],last=j,j>>=1){
if(k<0)break;
cnt+=k;
int lch=j<<1,rch=j<<1|1;
if(lch<=n&&last!=lch)
cnt+=cal(lch,k-len[lch]);
if(rch<=n&&last!=rch)
cnt+=cal(rch,k-len[rch]);
}
printf("%lld\n",cnt);
}
return 0;
}


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