ansible的使用

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本文个人博客地址:http://www.huweihuang.com/article/linux/ansible-usage/

1. 安装

以centos为例。

yum install -y ansible

2. 配置

默认配置目录在/etc/ansible/,主要有以下两个配置:

  • ansible.cfg:ansible的配置文件
  • hosts:配置ansible所连接的机器IP信息

2.1. ansible.cfg

2.2. hosts

# This is the default ansible 'hosts' file.
#
# It should live in /etc/ansible/hosts
#
#   - Comments begin with the '#' character
#   - Blank lines are ignored
#   - Groups of hosts are delimited by [header] elements
#   - You can enter hostnames or ip addresses
#   - A hostname/ip can be a member of multiple groups

# Ex 1: Ungrouped hosts, specify before any group headers.

## green.example.com
## blue.example.com
## 192.168.100.1
## 192.168.100.10

# Ex 2: A collection of hosts belonging to the 'webservers' group

## [webservers]
## alpha.example.org
## beta.example.org
## 192.168.1.100
## 192.168.1.110

# If you have multiple hosts following a pattern you can specify
# them like this:

## www[001:006].example.com

# Ex 3: A collection of database servers in the 'dbservers' group

## [dbservers]
##
## db01.intranet.mydomain.net
## db02.intranet.mydomain.net
## 10.25.1.56
## 10.25.1.57

# Here's another example of host ranges, this time there are no
# leading 0s:

## db-[99:101]-node.example.com

[k8s]
192.168.201.52
192.168.201.53
192.168.201.54
192.168.201.55
192.168.201.56
192.168.201.57

3. ansible的命令

命令格式为:ansible [options]

  • host-pattern:即hosts文件中配置的集群名称
  • options:命令操作符

例如:ansible k8s -a ‘uname -r’

[root@k8s-master ansible]# ansible k8s -a 'uname -r'
172.16.201.56 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
4.16.11-1.el7.elrepo.x86_64

172.16.201.55 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
4.16.11-1.el7.elrepo.x86_64

172.16.201.54 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
4.16.11-1.el7.elrepo.x86_64

172.16.201.53 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
4.16.11-1.el7.elrepo.x86_64

172.16.201.52 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
4.16.11-1.el7.elrepo.x86_64

172.16.201.57 | SUCCESS | rc=0 >>
4.16.11-1.el7.elrepo.x86_64

具体的命令信息:

Usage: ansible <host-pattern> [options]

Define and run a single task 'playbook' against a set of hosts

Options:
  -a MODULE_ARGS, --args=MODULE_ARGS
                        module arguments
  --ask-vault-pass      ask for vault password
  -B SECONDS, --background=SECONDS
                        run asynchronously, failing after X seconds
                        (default=N/A)
  -C, --check           don't make any changes; instead, try to predict some
                        of the changes that may occur
  -D, --diff            when changing (small) files and templates, show the
                        differences in those files; works great with --check
  -e EXTRA_VARS, --extra-vars=EXTRA_VARS
                        set additional variables as key=value or YAML/JSON, if
                        filename prepend with @
  -f FORKS, --forks=FORKS
                        specify number of parallel processes to use
                        (default=5)
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -i INVENTORY, --inventory=INVENTORY, --inventory-file=INVENTORY
                        specify inventory host path or comma separated host
                        list. --inventory-file is deprecated
  -l SUBSET, --limit=SUBSET
                        further limit selected hosts to an additional pattern
  --list-hosts          outputs a list of matching hosts; does not execute
                        anything else
  -m MODULE_NAME, --module-name=MODULE_NAME
                        module name to execute (default=command)
  -M MODULE_PATH, --module-path=MODULE_PATH
                        prepend colon-separated path(s) to module library
                        (default=[u'/root/.ansible/plugins/modules',
                        u'/usr/share/ansible/plugins/modules'])
  -o, --one-line        condense output
  --playbook-dir=BASEDIR
                        Since this tool does not use playbooks, use this as a
                        subsitute playbook directory.This sets the relative
                        path for many features including roles/ group_vars/
                        etc.
  -P POLL_INTERVAL, --poll=POLL_INTERVAL
                        set the poll interval if using -B (default=15)
  --syntax-check        perform a syntax check on the playbook, but do not
                        execute it
  -t TREE, --tree=TREE  log output to this directory
  --vault-id=VAULT_IDS  the vault identity to use
  --vault-password-file=VAULT_PASSWORD_FILES
                        vault password file
  -v, --verbose         verbose mode (-vvv for more, -vvvv to enable
                        connection debugging)
  --version             show program's version number and exit

  Connection Options:
    control as whom and how to connect to hosts

    -k, --ask-pass      ask for connection password
    --private-key=PRIVATE_KEY_FILE, --key-file=PRIVATE_KEY_FILE
                        use this file to authenticate the connection
    -u REMOTE_USER, --user=REMOTE_USER
                        connect as this user (default=None)
    -c CONNECTION, --connection=CONNECTION
                        connection type to use (default=smart)
    -T TIMEOUT, --timeout=TIMEOUT
                        override the connection timeout in seconds
                        (default=10)
    --ssh-common-args=SSH_COMMON_ARGS
                        specify common arguments to pass to sftp/scp/ssh (e.g.
                        ProxyCommand)
    --sftp-extra-args=SFTP_EXTRA_ARGS
                        specify extra arguments to pass to sftp only (e.g. -f,
                        -l)
    --scp-extra-args=SCP_EXTRA_ARGS
                        specify extra arguments to pass to scp only (e.g. -l)
    --ssh-extra-args=SSH_EXTRA_ARGS
                        specify extra arguments to pass to ssh only (e.g. -R)

  Privilege Escalation Options:
    control how and which user you become as on target hosts

    -s, --sudo          run operations with sudo (nopasswd) (deprecated, use
                        become)
    -U SUDO_USER, --sudo-user=SUDO_USER
                        desired sudo user (default=root) (deprecated, use
                        become)
    -S, --su            run operations with su (deprecated, use become)
    -R SU_USER, --su-user=SU_USER
                        run operations with su as this user (default=None)
                        (deprecated, use become)
    -b, --become        run operations with become (does not imply password
                        prompting)
    --become-method=BECOME_METHOD
                        privilege escalation method to use (default=sudo),
                        valid choices: [ sudo | su | pbrun | pfexec | doas |
                        dzdo | ksu | runas | pmrun | enable ]
    --become-user=BECOME_USER
                        run operations as this user (default=root)
    --ask-sudo-pass     ask for sudo password (deprecated, use become)
    --ask-su-pass       ask for su password (deprecated, use become)
    -K, --ask-become-pass
                        ask for privilege escalation password

Some modules do not make sense in Ad-Hoc (include, meta, etc)

4. ansible-playbook

Usage: ansible-playbook [options] playbook.yml [playbook2 ...]

Runs Ansible playbooks, executing the defined tasks on the targeted hosts.

Options:
  --ask-vault-pass      ask for vault password
  -C, --check           don't make any changes; instead, try to predict some
                        of the changes that may occur
  -D, --diff            when changing (small) files and templates, show the
                        differences in those files; works great with --check
  -e EXTRA_VARS, --extra-vars=EXTRA_VARS
                        set additional variables as key=value or YAML/JSON, if
                        filename prepend with @
  --flush-cache         clear the fact cache for every host in inventory
  --force-handlers      run handlers even if a task fails
  -f FORKS, --forks=FORKS
                        specify number of parallel processes to use
                        (default=5)
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -i INVENTORY, --inventory=INVENTORY, --inventory-file=INVENTORY
                        specify inventory host path or comma separated host
                        list. --inventory-file is deprecated
  -l SUBSET, --limit=SUBSET
                        further limit selected hosts to an additional pattern
  --list-hosts          outputs a list of matching hosts; does not execute
                        anything else
  --list-tags           list all available tags
  --list-tasks          list all tasks that would be executed
  -M MODULE_PATH, --module-path=MODULE_PATH
                        prepend colon-separated path(s) to module library
                        (default=[u'/root/.ansible/plugins/modules',
                        u'/usr/share/ansible/plugins/modules'])
  --skip-tags=SKIP_TAGS
                        only run plays and tasks whose tags do not match these
                        values
  --start-at-task=START_AT_TASK
                        start the playbook at the task matching this name
  --step                one-step-at-a-time: confirm each task before running
  --syntax-check        perform a syntax check on the playbook, but do not
                        execute it
  -t TAGS, --tags=TAGS  only run plays and tasks tagged with these values
  --vault-id=VAULT_IDS  the vault identity to use
  --vault-password-file=VAULT_PASSWORD_FILES
                        vault password file
  -v, --verbose         verbose mode (-vvv for more, -vvvv to enable
                        connection debugging)
  --version             show program's version number and exit

  Connection Options:
    control as whom and how to connect to hosts

    -k, --ask-pass      ask for connection password
    --private-key=PRIVATE_KEY_FILE, --key-file=PRIVATE_KEY_FILE
                        use this file to authenticate the connection
    -u REMOTE_USER, --user=REMOTE_USER
                        connect as this user (default=None)
    -c CONNECTION, --connection=CONNECTION
                        connection type to use (default=smart)
    -T TIMEOUT, --timeout=TIMEOUT
                        override the connection timeout in seconds
                        (default=10)
    --ssh-common-args=SSH_COMMON_ARGS
                        specify common arguments to pass to sftp/scp/ssh (e.g.
                        ProxyCommand)
    --sftp-extra-args=SFTP_EXTRA_ARGS
                        specify extra arguments to pass to sftp only (e.g. -f,
                        -l)
    --scp-extra-args=SCP_EXTRA_ARGS
                        specify extra arguments to pass to scp only (e.g. -l)
    --ssh-extra-args=SSH_EXTRA_ARGS
                        specify extra arguments to pass to ssh only (e.g. -R)

  Privilege Escalation Options:
    control how and which user you become as on target hosts

    -s, --sudo          run operations with sudo (nopasswd) (deprecated, use
                        become)
    -U SUDO_USER, --sudo-user=SUDO_USER
                        desired sudo user (default=root) (deprecated, use
                        become)
    -S, --su            run operations with su (deprecated, use become)
    -R SU_USER, --su-user=SU_USER
                        run operations with su as this user (default=None)
                        (deprecated, use become)
    -b, --become        run operations with become (does not imply password
                        prompting)
    --become-method=BECOME_METHOD
                        privilege escalation method to use (default=sudo),
                        valid choices: [ sudo | su | pbrun | pfexec | doas |
                        dzdo | ksu | runas | pmrun | enable ]
    --become-user=BECOME_USER
                        run operations as this user (default=root)
    --ask-sudo-pass     ask for sudo password (deprecated, use become)
    --ask-su-pass       ask for su password (deprecated, use become)
    -K, --ask-become-pass
                        ask for privilege escalation password

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