ehcache常用API

cache技术在应用中向来属于高级话题, 但今天却贴一个ehcache的低级备份.参考其官方文档整理. 一 ehcache API:

1: Using the CacheManager

1.1所有ehcache的使用, 都是从 CacheManager. 开始的. 有多种方法创建CacheManager实例:

//Create a singleton CacheManager using defaults, then list caches.

CacheManager.getInstance()

或者: //Create a CacheManager instance using defaults, then list caches. CacheManager manager = new CacheManager(); String[] cacheNames = manager.getCacheNames();

如果需要从指定配置文件创建 CacheManager: Create two CacheManagers, each with a different configuration, and list the caches in each. CacheManager manager1 = new CacheManager("src/config/ehcache1.xml"); CacheManager manager2 = new CacheManager("src/config/ehcache2.xml"); String[] cacheNamesForManager1 = manager1.getCacheNames(); String[] cacheNamesForManager2 = manager2.getCacheNames();

1.2 Adding and Removing Caches Programmatically 手动创建一个cache, 而不是通过配置文件: //creates a cache called testCache, which //will be configured using defaultCache from the configuration CacheManager singletonManager = CacheManager.create(); singletonManager.addCache("testCache"); Cache test = singletonManager.getCache("testCache");

或者: //Create a Cache and add it to the CacheManager, then use it. Note that Caches are not usable until they have //been added to a CacheManager. public void testCreatCacheByProgram() { CacheManager singletonManager = CacheManager.create(); Cache memoryOnlyCache = new Cache("testCache", 5000, false, false, 5, 2); singletonManager.addCache(memoryOnlyCache); Cache testCache = singletonManager.getCache("testCache"); assertNotNull(testCache); } 手动移除一个cache: //Remove cache called sampleCache1 CacheManager singletonManager = CacheManager.create(); singletonManager.removeCache("sampleCache1");

1.3 Shutdown the CacheManager ehcache应该在使用后关闭, 最佳实践是在code中显式调用: //Shutdown the singleton CacheManager CacheManager.getInstance().shutdown();

2 Using Caches 比如我有这样一个cache: <cache name="sampleCache1" maxElementsInMemory="10000" maxElementsOnDisk="1000" eternal="false" overflowToDisk="true" diskSpoolBufferSizeMB="20" timeToIdleSeconds="300" timeToLiveSeconds="600" memoryStoreEvictionPolicy="LFU" /> 2.1 Obtaining a reference to a Cache 获得该cache的引用: String cacheName = "sampleCache1"; CacheManager manager = new CacheManager("src/ehcache1.xml"); Cache cache = manager.getCache(cacheName);

2.2 Performing CRUD operations 下面的代码演示了ehcache的增删改查: public void testCRUD() { String cacheName = "sampleCache1"; CacheManager manager = new CacheManager("src/ehcache1.xml"); Cache cache = manager.getCache(cacheName); //Put an element into a cache Element element = new Element("key1", "value1"); cache.put(element); //This updates the entry for "key1" cache.put(new Element("key1", "value2")); //Get a Serializable value from an element in a cache with a key of "key1". element = cache.get("key1"); Serializable value = element.getValue(); //Get a NonSerializable value from an element in a cache with a key of "key1". element = cache.get("key1"); assertNotNull(element); Object valueObj = element.getObjectValue(); assertNotNull(valueObj); //Remove an element from a cache with a key of "key1". assertNotNull(cache.get("key1")); cache.remove("key1"); assertNull(cache.get("key1")); } 2.3Disk Persistence on demand //sampleCache1 has a persistent diskStore. We wish to ensure that the data and index are written immediately. public void testDiskPersistence() { String cacheName = "sampleCache1"; CacheManager manager = new CacheManager("src/ehcache1.xml"); Cache cache = manager.getCache(cacheName); for (int i = 0; i < 50000; i++) { Element element = new Element("key" + i, "myvalue" + i); cache.put(element); } cache.flush(); Log.debug("java.io.tmpdir = " + System.getProperty("java.io.tmpdir")); } 备注: 持久化到硬盘的路径由虚拟机参数"java.io.tmpdir"决定. 例如, 在windows中, 会在此路径下 C:\Documents and Settings\li\Local Settings\Temp 在linux中, 通常会在: /tmp 下

2.4 Obtaining Cache Sizes 以下代码演示如何获得cache个数: public void testCachesizes() { long count = 5; String cacheName = "sampleCache1"; CacheManager manager = new CacheManager("src/ehcache1.xml"); Cache cache = manager.getCache(cacheName); for (int i = 0; i < count; i++) { Element element = new Element("key" + i, "myvalue" + i); cache.put(element); } //Get the number of elements currently in the Cache. int elementsInCache = cache.getSize(); assertTrue(elementsInCache == 5); //Cache cache = manager.getCache("sampleCache1"); long elementsInMemory = cache.getMemoryStoreSize(); //Get the number of elements currently in the DiskStore. long elementsInDiskStore = cache.getDiskStoreSize(); assertTrue(elementsInMemory + elementsInDiskStore == count); } 3: Registering CacheStatistics in an MBeanServer ehCache 提供jmx支持: CacheManager manager = new CacheManager(); MBeanServer mBeanServer = ManagementFactory.getPlatformMBeanServer(); ManagementService.registerMBeans(manager, mBeanServer, false, false, false, true); 把该程序打包, 然后: java -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote -jar 程序名.jar

再到javahome/bin中运行jconsole.exe, 便可监控cache.

4. 用户可以自定义处理cacheEventHandler, 处理诸如元素放入cache的各种事件(放入,移除,过期等事件) 只需三步: 4.1 在cache配置中, 增加cacheEventListenerFactory节点. <cache name="Test" maxElementsInMemory="1" eternal="false" overflowToDisk="true" timeToIdleSeconds="1" timeToLiveSeconds="2" diskPersistent="false" diskExpiryThreadIntervalSeconds="1" memoryStoreEvictionPolicy="LFU"> <cacheEventListenerFactory class="co.ehcache.EventFactory" /> </cache> 4.2: 编写EventFactory, 继承CacheEventListenerFactory: public class EventFactory extends CacheEventListenerFactory { @Override public CacheEventListener createCacheEventListener(Properties properties) { // TODO Auto-generated method stub return new CacheEvent(); }

}

4.3 编写 class: CacheEvent, 实现 CacheEventListener 接口: public class CacheEvent implements CacheEventListener {

public void dispose() { log("in dispose"); }

public void notifyElementEvicted(Ehcache cache, Element element) { // TODO Auto-generated method stub log("in notifyElementEvicted" + element); }

public void notifyElementExpired(Ehcache cache, Element element) { // TODO Auto-generated method stub log("in notifyElementExpired" + element); }

public void notifyElementPut(Ehcache cache, Element element) throws CacheException { // TODO Auto-generated method stub log("in notifyElementPut" + element); }

public void notifyElementRemoved(Ehcache cache, Element element) throws CacheException { // TODO Auto-generated method stub log("in notifyElementRemoved" + element); }

public void notifyElementUpdated(Ehcache cache, Element element) throws CacheException { // TODO Auto-generated method stub log("in notifyElementUpdated" + element); }

public void notifyRemoveAll(Ehcache cache) { // TODO Auto-generated method stub log("in notifyRemoveAll"); } public Object clone() throws CloneNotSupportedException { return super.clone(); } private void log(String s) { Log.debug(s); } }

现在可以编写测试代码: public void testEventListener() { String key = "person"; Person person = new Person("lcl", 100); MyCacheManager.getInstance().put("Test", key, person); Person p = (Person) MyCacheManager.getInstance().get("Test", key);

try { Thread.sleep(10000); } catch (InterruptedException e) { // TODO Auto-generated catch block e.printStackTrace(); }

assertNull(MyCacheManager.getInstance().get("Test", key)); } 根据配置, 该缓存对象生命期只有2分钟, 在Thread.sleep(10000)期间, 该缓存元素将过期被销毁, 在销毁前, 触发notifyElementExpired事件. 二 Ehcache配置文件 以如下配置为例说明: <cache name="CACHE_FUNC" maxElementsInMemory="2" eternal="false" timeToIdleSeconds="10" timeToLiveSeconds="20" overflowToDisk="true" diskPersistent="true" diskExpiryThreadIntervalSeconds="120" /> maxElementsInMemory :cache 中最多可以存放的元素的数量。如果放入cache中的元素超过这个数值,有两种情况: 1、若overflowToDisk的属性值为true,会将cache中多出的元素放入磁盘文件中。 2、若overflowToDisk的属性值为false,会根据memoryStoreEvictionPolicy的策略替换cache中原有的元素。 eternal :是否永驻内存。如果值是true,cache中的元素将一直保存在内存中,不会因为时间超时而丢失,所以在这个值为true的时候, timeToIdleSeconds和timeToLiveSeconds两个属性的值就不起作用了。 timeToIdleSeconds :访问这个cache中元素的最大间隔时间。如果超过这个时间没有访问这个cache中的某个元素,那么这个元素将被从cache中清除。 timeToLiveSeconds : cache中元素的生存时间。意思是从cache中的某个元素从创建到消亡的时间,从创建开始计时,当超过这个时间,这个元素将被从cache中清除。 overflowToDisk :溢出是否写入磁盘。系统会根据标签<diskStore path="java.io.tmpdir"/> 中path的值查找对应的属性值,如果系统的java.io.tmpdir的值是 D:\temp, 写入磁盘的文件就会放在这个文件夹下。文件的名称是cache的名称,后缀名的data。如:CACHE_FUNC.data。 diskExpiryThreadIntervalSeconds :磁盘缓存的清理线程运行间隔. memoryStoreEvictionPolicy :内存存储与释放策略。有三个值: LRU -least recently used LFU -least frequently used FIFO-first in first out, the oldest element by creation time diskPersistent : 是否持久化磁盘缓存。当这个属性的值为true时,系统在初始化的时候会在磁盘中查找文件名为cache名称,后缀名为index的的文件,如CACHE_FUNC.index 。 这个文件中存放了已经持久化在磁盘中的cache的index,找到后把cache加载到内存。要想把cache真正持久化到磁盘,写程序时必须注意, 在是用net.sf.ehcache.Cache的void put (Element element)方法后要使用void flush()方法。 更多说明可看ehcache自带的ehcache.xml的注释说明.

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