一些实用的sql

查找数据库中所有字段 以对应的表
select C.column_name,C.TABLE_NAME from dba_tab_columns C where owner=''

查每个科目class 分数scro前三名
select id, name, class, scro
from (select row_number() over(partition by class order by scro desc) cnt,
id,
name,
class,
scro
from student) a
where a.cnt <= 3;

查找排序后的前三行
select *
from (select rw.*, rownum
from (select *
from student d
where d.class = 'b'
order by d.scro desc) rw
where rw.id >= 1
order by rw.class desc) n
where rownum <= 3


表复制
insert into table_a (id,name,age) select b.id,b.name,b.age from table_b;

--删除表数据的触发器
CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE delete_data
IS
BEGIN
delete from test ;
COMMIT;
EXCEPTION
WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND
THEN
NULL;
WHEN OTHERS
THEN
RAISE;
END delete_data;


--定时删除 每隔5分钟执行一次的计划
DECLARE
X NUMBER;
BEGIN
SYS.DBMS_JOB.SUBMIT
( job => X
,what => 'delete_data;'
,next_date => to_date('25/08/2008 00:00:00','dd/mm/yyyy hh24:mi:ss')
,interval => 'sysdate+1/24/12'
,no_parse => FALSE
);
SYS.DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Job Number is: ' || to_char(x));
COMMIT;
END;

--查看当前oracle计划
select job,next_date,next_sec,failures,broken from user_jobs;

--删除一个job
begin
dbms_job.remove(46);--46为job号
end;

--给新表插入旧表对应字段的所有数据
insert into aaa(id,name) select b.id,b.name from bbb;


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select * from all_users; ##查看所有用户
select name from v$database; ##查看当前数据库
database test; ##进入test数据库
select * from v$instance; ##查看所有的数据库实例
shutdown immediate ##关闭数据库
alter user sys identified by new_password; ##更改用户密码
select username,password from dba_users; ##查看当实例中的用户和密码
show parameter control_files; ## 查看控制文件;
select member from v$logfile; ##查看日志文件
show parameter ; ## 查看数据库参数
select * from user_role_privs; ##查看当前用户的角色
select username,default_tablespace from user_users; ##查看当前用户的缺省表空间
alter user system identified by [password] ##修改用户的密码
ALTER USER "SCOTT" ACCOUNT UNLOCK ##解锁SCOTT用户
show parameter processes; ##查看最大会话数


查看当前库的所有数据表:
SQL> select TABLE_NAME from all_tables;
select * from all_tables;
SQL> select table_name from all_tables where table_name like ‘u’;
TABLE_NAME———————————————default_auditing_options

查看表结构:desc all_tables;

创建用户并赋予权限
###----------------------------创建用户并赋予权限------------------------------------####-
create user mpss
identified by "mpss12"
default tablespace TS_MPSS_DATA
temporary tablespace TEMP;

给用户赋予权限
grant connect to mpss;
grant resource,create session to mpss; 开发角色
grant create procedure to dbuser; #这些权限足够用于开发及生产环境


给用户授权
grant dba to spms;--授予DBA权限
grant unlimited tablespace to lxg;--授予不限制的表空间
grant select any table to lxg;--授予查询任何表
grant select any dictionary to lxg;--授予 查询 任何字典

删除用户
drop user mpss cascade;


建表空间
###---------------------------------建表空间------------------------------------####-
================建立表空间============================

CREATE TABLESPACE "TS_MPSS_DATA"
LOGGING
DATAFILE '/mpss/data/ts_mpss_data.dbf' SIZE 1024M
EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL SEGMENT SPACE MANAGEMENT AUTO
=====================================================
=================建立临时表空间============================

CREATE
TEMPORARY TABLESPACE "SWVIP" TEMPFILE '/app/oracle/oradata/
sworacle/SWVIP.dbf' SIZE 5M EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL UNIFORM
SIZE 1M
=====================================================


create tablespace TS_MPSS_DATA datafile '/mpss/data/ts_mpss_data.bdf ' size 1024m autoextend on ; ###autoextend on 自动扩展

###------------------------------------------------------------------------------------####-


查看表空间
###----------------------------查看表空间大小------------------------------------####-
SELECT D.TABLESPACE_NAME "Name",
TO_CHAR(((((A.BYTES - DECODE(F.BYTES, NULL, 0, F.BYTES)) / 1024 / 1024)) /(A.BYTES / 1024 / 1024))*100,'99,990.9') "used(%)",
TO_CHAR((DECODE(F.BYTES, NULL, 0, F.BYTES) / 1024 / 1024),'999,990.9') "Free (M)"
FROM SYS.DBA_TABLESPACES D, SYS.SM$TS_AVAIL A, SYS.SM$TS_FREE F
WHERE D.TABLESPACE_NAME = A.TABLESPACE_NAME
AND F.TABLESPACE_NAME (+) = D.TABLESPACE_NAME;
###--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------####-

SELECT D.TABLESPACE_NAME,SPACE "SUM_SPACE(M)",BLOCKS SUM_BLOCKS,SPACE-NVL(FREE_SPACE,0) "USED_SPACE(M)",
ROUND((1-NVL(FREE_SPACE,0)/SPACE)*100,2) "USED_RATE(%)",FREE_SPACE "FREE_SPACE(M)"
FROM
(SELECT TABLESPACE_NAME,ROUND(SUM(BYTES)/(1024*1024),2) SPACE,SUM(BLOCKS) BLOCKS
FROM DBA_DATA_FILES
GROUP BY TABLESPACE_NAME) D,
(SELECT TABLESPACE_NAME,ROUND(SUM(BYTES)/(1024*1024),2) FREE_SPACE
FROM DBA_FREE_SPACE
GROUP BY TABLESPACE_NAME) F
WHERE D.TABLESPACE_NAME = F.TABLESPACE_NAME(+)
UNION ALL --if have tempfile
SELECT D.TABLESPACE_NAME,SPACE "SUM_SPACE(M)",BLOCKS SUM_BLOCKS,
USED_SPACE "USED_SPACE(M)",ROUND(NVL(USED_SPACE,0)/SPACE*100,2) "USED_RATE(%)",
NVL(FREE_SPACE,0) "FREE_SPACE(M)"
FROM
(SELECT TABLESPACE_NAME,ROUND(SUM(BYTES)/(1024*1024),2) SPACE,SUM(BLOCKS) BLOCKS
FROM DBA_TEMP_FILES
GROUP BY TABLESPACE_NAME) D,
(SELECT TABLESPACE_NAME,ROUND(SUM(BYTES_USED)/(1024*1024),2) USED_SPACE,
ROUND(SUM(BYTES_FREE)/(1024*1024),2) FREE_SPACE
FROM V$TEMP_SPACE_HEADER
GROUP BY TABLESPACE_NAME) F
WHERE D.TABLESPACE_NAME = F.TABLESPACE_NAME(+) ;


查看表空间物理文件的名称及大小;

###--------------------表空间物理文件的名称及大小------------------------####-
select tablespace_name, file_id, file_name,
round(bytes/(1024*1024),0) total_space
from dba_data_files
order by tablespace_name;
###------------------------------------------------------------------------------------####-


查看数据文件放置的路径
###------------------------------------------------------------------------------------####-

SQL> col file_name format a50
SQL> select tablespace_name,file_id,bytes/1024/1024,file_name from dba_data_files order by file_id;
###------------------------------------------------------------------------------------####-


查看数据库库对象

select owner, object_type, status, count(*) count# from all_objects group by owner, object_type, status;


用系统管理员,查看当前数据库有几个用户连接:

SQL> select username,sid,serial# from v$session;


扩表空间
###------------------------------------------------------------------------------------####-
alter tablespace G000 add datafile '/dev/vgbilling/rg000_lv03' SIZE 7500m;
给表G000增加一个7500m的逻辑卷'/dev/vgbilling/rg000_lv03'
###------------------------------------------------------------------------------------####-

检查被长时间锁的对象
###------------------------------------------------------------------------------------####-

SQL>select a.session_id,a.process,a.locked_mode,b.object_name,b.object_type,b.status from v$locked_object a,dba_objects b where a.object_id=b.object_id;
1. 查看被锁的表
SELECT p.spid, a.serial#, c.object_name, b.session_id, b.oracle_username,
b.os_user_name
FROM v$process p, v$session a, v$locked_object b, all_objects c
WHERE p.addr = a.paddr AND a.process = b.process
AND c.object_id = b.object_id

2. 查看是哪个进程锁的
SELECT sid, serial#, username, osuser FROM v$session where osuser = 'applprd'

3. 杀掉这个进程 alter system kill session 'sid,serial#';

###------------------------------------------------------------------------------------####-



sys用户登陆
创建表空间:
SQL> create tablespace lmsstemp datafile 'F:\ORADATA\LMSS\LMSSTEMP01.DBF' SIZE 1
024M extent management local;

给表空间增加数据文件
alter tablespace lmsstemp add datafile 'F:\ORADATA\LMSS\LMSSTEMP02.DBF' SIZE 1
024M;

更改表空间为自动扩展
SQL> alter database datafile 'F:\ORADATA\LMSS\LMSSTEMP01.DBF' autoextend on;

查看表空间信息
SQL> select file_name,tablespace_name,autoextensible from dba_data_files;

授权:
create any table to leon


-- Create the user (用sys执行)
create user xx identified by xx123 default tablespace lmss temporary tablespace TEMP profile DEFAULT;

-- Grant/Revoke role privileges (用sys执行)
grant connect to xx;

--创建视图给hy用户(用leon用户)

create or replace view view_tableName as
select column。。。 from table;

-- Grant/Revoke object privileges
grant select, update on RES_XIM_CARD to hy;

--创建同义词
create synonym RES_XIM_CARD for YY.RES_XIM_CARD ;
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