# poj-2142 The Balance 扩展欧几里德算法

## 题目链接

poj-2142 The Balance

## 题目

The Balance
 Time Limit: 5000MS Memory Limit: 65536K Total Submissions: 8015 Accepted: 3506

Description

Ms. Iyo Kiffa-Australis has a balance and only two kinds of weights to measure a dose of medicine. For example, to measure 200mg of aspirin using 300mg weights and 700mg weights, she can put one 700mg weight on the side of the medicine and three 300mg weights on the opposite side (Figure 1). Although she could put four 300mg weights on the medicine side and two 700mg weights on the other (Figure 2), she would not choose this solution because it is less convenient to use more weights.
You are asked to help her by calculating how many weights are required.

Input

The input is a sequence of datasets. A dataset is a line containing three positive integers a, b, and d separated by a space. The following relations hold: a != b, a <= 10000, b <= 10000, and d <= 50000. You may assume that it is possible to measure d mg using a combination of a mg and b mg weights. In other words, you need not consider "no solution" cases.
The end of the input is indicated by a line containing three zeros separated by a space. It is not a dataset.

Output

The output should be composed of lines, each corresponding to an input dataset (a, b, d). An output line should contain two nonnegative integers x and y separated by a space. They should satisfy the following three conditions.
• You can measure dmg using x many amg weights and y many bmg weights.
• The total number of weights (x + y) is the smallest among those pairs of nonnegative integers satisfying the previous condition.
• The total mass of weights (ax + by) is the smallest among those pairs of nonnegative integers satisfying the previous two conditions.

No extra characters (e.g. extra spaces) should appear in the output.

Sample Input

700 300 200
500 200 300
500 200 500
275 110 330
275 110 385
648 375 4002
3 1 10000
0 0 0

Sample Output

1 3
1 1
1 0
0 3
1 1
49 74
3333 1

Source

## 题解

ax+by = c

x与y可以为负数。可以理解为，正数表示和物品在同一边，负数表示不在同一边。而x、y就代表了a、b的数量。所以一定是0或者正整数。那么这个问题也就可以化成求x、y的最小解的问题。

a*(c/gcd(a,b))*x + b*(c/gcd(a,b))*y = c/gcd(a,b)

## C++ AC代码0ms

#include<iostream>
#include<vector>
#include<string>
#include<math.h>
#include<algorithm>
#include<map>
#include<utility>
#include<queue>
#include<memory>
#include<stack>
#include<sstream>
#define TIME std::ios::sync_with_stdio(false)
#define LL long long
#define MAX 5
#define INF 0x3f3f3f3f

using namespace std;

int num[1010];

int exgcd(int a,int b,int &x,int &y){
if(b == 0){
x = 1;
y = 0;
return a;
}
int ans = exgcd(b,a%b,x,y);
int temp = y;
y = x - (a/b)*y;
x = temp;
return ans;
}

int gcd(int a, int b){
if(b == 0) return a;
return gcd(b, a%b);
}

int main(){
TIME;
int a,b,d;
while(cin >> a >> b >> d){
if(!a && !b && !d) break;
int x,y;
int m = gcd(a,b);
if(d % m != 0){  // 判定是否有解，不过看别人的代码，好像数据中没有这种情况
cout << "no solution" << endl;
continue;
}
int flag = 0;
if(a < b){  // 确保a > b
flag = 1;
swap(a,b);
}
exgcd(a,b,x,y);
x = x*d/m;
y = y*d/m;  // 对解进行转化，扩展欧几里德算法是默认解的翡蜀方程
int t = (y*m)/a;  // 求出k的值(代码中是t)
int ans = INF;
int x1,x2,y1,y2;
for(int i = t-5;i <= t+5;i++){  // 枚举范围5即可
x1 = x + (b*i)/m;
y1 = y - (a*i)/m;
if(abs(x1) + abs(y1) < ans){
x2 = x1;
y2 = y1;
ans = abs(x1) + abs(y1);
}
}
if(flag == 0){
cout << abs(x2) << " " << abs(y2) << endl;  // 因为a、b调换了位置，所以输出顺序可能不一样
}else{
cout << abs(y2) << " " << abs(x2) << endl;
}
}

system("pause");
return 0;
}

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