北京地铁乘坐路线查询

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本文链接:https://blog.csdn.net/Jason_Ranger/article/details/52595040

【问题描述】

编写一个程序实现北京地铁最短乘坐(站)线路查询,输入为起始站名和目的站名,输出为从起始站到目的站的最短乘坐站换乘线路。注:1. 要求采用Dijkstra算法实现;2)本题在实际测试时对数据文件进行了调整,使得输入的两站间只有一条最短路径。

【输入形式】

文件bgstations.txt为数据文件(可从课程网站中课程信息处下载),包含了北京地铁的线路及车站信息。其格式如下:

<地铁线路总条数>

<线路1> <线路1站数>

<站名1> <换乘状态>

<站名2> <换乘状态>

...

<线路2> <线路2站数>

<站名1> <换乘状态>

<站名2> <换乘状态>

...

说明:文件第一行为地铁总线路数;第二行第一个数为某条地铁线线号(如,1为1号线),第二个数为该条地铁线的总站数(如1号线共有23站),两数之间由一个空格分隔;第三行两个数据分别为地铁站名及换乘状态(0为非换乘站,1为换乘站),两数据间由一个空格分隔;以下同,依次为该线地铁其它站信息。在一条线路信息之后是下条地铁线路信息,格式相同。若某条地铁线为环线,则首站与末站信息相同(如北京地铁2号线,首站信息“西直门 1” ,末站信息为“西直门 1”)。例如本题提供的bgstations.txt文件(可从课程网站中课程信息处下载)内容如下:

12

1 23

苹果园 0

古城 0

八角游乐园 0

八宝山 0

玉泉路 0

五棵松 0

万寿路 0

公主坟 1

军事博物馆 1

木樨地 0

南礼士路 0

复兴门 1

西单 1

...

2 19

西直门 1

积水潭 0

鼓楼大街 1

...

西直门 1

...

该文件表明当前北京地铁共有12条线路(不含郊区线路),接着为每条线路信息。

打开当前目录下文件bgstations.txt,读入地铁线路信息,并从标准输入中读入起始站和目的站名(均为字符串,各占一行)。


【输出形式】

输出从起始站到目的站的乘坐信息,要求乘坐站数最少。换乘信息格式如下:

SSN-n1(m1)-S1-n2(m2)-...-ESN

其中:SSN和ESN分别为起始站名和目的站名;n为乘坐的地铁线路号,m为乘坐站数。
【样例输入】

西土城

北京西站

【样例输出】

西土城-10(1)-知春路-13(2)-西直门-4(2)-国家图书馆-9(4)-北京西站

【样例说明】

打开文件bgstations.txt,读入地铁线路信息,并从标准输入中读入查询起始站名为“西土城”,目的站名为“北京西站”。程序运行结果两站间最少乘坐站数的乘坐方式为“西土城站乘坐10号线1站至知春路站换乘13号线乘坐2站至西直门站换乘4号线乘坐2站至国家图书馆站换乘9号线乘坐4站至北京西站”。

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>

#define MAXSTRLEN 41
#define INF 0x3f3f3f3f
#define MAXSTATNUM 500

typedef struct _Edge
{
	int adjseq;
	int weight;
	int lineseq;
	struct _Edge *next;
} Edge;

typedef struct _Station
{
	char name[MAXSTRLEN];
	int trans;
	int lineseq;
	int statseq;
	Edge *link;
} Station;

typedef struct _Line
{
	int size;
	int seq;
	int isloop;
	struct _Station *list;
} Line;

typedef struct _Railway
{
	int size;
	struct _Station list[MAXSTATNUM];
} Railway;

void insert_Edge(Station *head, int end, int lineseq)
{
	Edge *rear = head->link;
	Edge *newEdge = (Edge *)malloc(sizeof(Edge));
	if (newEdge == NULL) 
	{
		printf("allocation failure");
		exit(1);
	}

	newEdge->weight = 1;
	newEdge->lineseq = lineseq;
	newEdge->adjseq = end;
	newEdge->next = NULL;
	if (rear == NULL)
	{
		head->link = newEdge;
	}
	else
	{
		while (rear->next != NULL) rear = rear->next; // reach the rear
		rear->next = newEdge;						// add the new Edge at the rear
	}
}

void input_Station(Railway *railway, Line line, int seq_inline, int seq_inrail)
{// input a station in a processed line to a railway system, and in this case seq_inrail == railway->size
	strcpy(railway->list[seq_inrail].name, line.list[seq_inline].name);
	railway->list[seq_inrail].trans = line.list[seq_inline].trans;
	railway->list[seq_inrail].lineseq = line.seq;
	railway->list[seq_inrail].statseq = seq_inrail;
	railway->list[seq_inrail].link = NULL;
	railway->size++;

	if (seq_inline == 0)
	{// the first station
		if (line.isloop)
		{// the line is a loop, with the same station as start and end
			insert_Edge(&(railway->list[seq_inrail]), line.list[1].statseq, line.seq);
			insert_Edge(&(railway->list[seq_inrail]), line.list[line.size - 2].statseq, line.seq);
		}
		else
		{// the start station in a non-loop has no previous station
			insert_Edge(&(railway->list[seq_inrail]), line.list[1].statseq, line.seq);
		}
	}
	else if (seq_inline == line.size - 1 - line.isloop)
	{// the last station
		if (line.isloop)
		{// the line is a loop, with the same station as start and end
			insert_Edge(&(railway->list[seq_inrail]), line.list[0].statseq, line.seq);
			insert_Edge(&(railway->list[seq_inrail]), line.list[line.size - 3].statseq, line.seq);
		}
		else
		{// the last station in a non-loop has no following station
			insert_Edge(&(railway->list[seq_inrail]), line.list[line.size - 2].statseq, line.seq);
		}
	}
	else
	{
		insert_Edge(&(railway->list[seq_inrail]), line.list[seq_inline + 1].statseq, line.seq);
		insert_Edge(&(railway->list[seq_inrail]), line.list[seq_inline - 1].statseq, line.seq);
	}
}

void update_Station(Railway *railway, Line line, int seq_inline, int seq_inrail)
{// update a station's edges in a railway system
	if (seq_inline == 0)
	{// the first station
		if (line.isloop)
		{// the line is a loop, with the same station as start and end
			insert_Edge(&(railway->list[seq_inrail]), line.list[1].statseq, line.seq);
			insert_Edge(&(railway->list[seq_inrail]), line.list[line.size - 2].statseq, line.seq);
		}
		else
		{// the start station in a non-loop has no previous station
			insert_Edge(&(railway->list[seq_inrail]), line.list[1].statseq, line.seq);
		}
	}
	else if (seq_inline == line.size - 1 - line.isloop)
	{// the last station
		if (line.isloop)
		{// the line is a loop, with the same station as start and end
			insert_Edge(&(railway->list[seq_inrail]), line.list[0].statseq, line.seq);
			insert_Edge(&(railway->list[seq_inrail]), line.list[line.size - 3].statseq, line.seq);
		}
		else
		{// the last station in a non-loop has no following station
			insert_Edge(&(railway->list[seq_inrail]), line.list[line.size - 2].statseq, line.seq);
		}
	}
	else
	{
		insert_Edge(&(railway->list[seq_inrail]), line.list[seq_inline + 1].statseq, line.seq);
		insert_Edge(&(railway->list[seq_inrail]), line.list[seq_inline - 1].statseq, line.seq);
	}
}

int in_Rail(Railway railway, char name[])
{// find the station and return its sequence number in railsystems
	int iter_rail;
	for (iter_rail = 0; iter_rail < railway.size; iter_rail++)
	{
		if (strcmp(railway.list[iter_rail].name, name) == 0)
			return iter_rail;
	}

	return -1; // not found
}

void input_Line(Railway *railway, Line line)
{// inputting a processed line into a railway system
	int seq_inline, seq_inrail;
	if (railway->size == 0) // empty system
	{// initialize a railway system
		for (seq_inline = 0; seq_inline < line.size; seq_inline++)
		{// in an empty railway system, the inline seq equals the inrail seq
			railway->list[seq_inline].link = NULL;
			input_Station(railway, line, seq_inline, seq_inline);
		}
	}
	else
	{
		int seq_fromsize = railway->size;
		for (seq_inline = 0; seq_inline < line.size - line.isloop; seq_inline++)
		{
			seq_inrail = in_Rail(*railway, line.list[seq_inline].name);
			if (seq_inrail != -1)
			{// this station already exists in the railway system
				update_Station(railway, line, seq_inline, seq_inrail);
			}
			else
			{// this is a new station
				input_Station(railway, line, seq_inline, seq_fromsize);
				seq_fromsize++;
			}
		}
	}
}

void process_Line(Railway *railway, Line *line)
{// pre-process the statseq of the stations in a line (for the inputting of stations)
	int seq_inline, seq_inrail;
	if (railway->list == NULL)
	{// empty railway system
		for (seq_inline = 0; seq_inline < line->size; seq_inline++)
			line->list[seq_inline].statseq = seq_inline;
	}
	else
	{
		int seq_fromsize = railway->size;
		for (seq_inline = 0; seq_inline < line->size; seq_inline++)
		{
			seq_inrail = in_Rail(*railway, line->list[seq_inline].name);
			if (seq_inrail != -1)
			{// this station already exists in the railway system
				line->list[seq_inline].statseq = seq_inrail;
			}
			else
			{// new station
				line->list[seq_inline].statseq = seq_fromsize;
				seq_fromsize++;
			}
		}
	}
}

void Dijkstra(Railway *railway, char startname[], char destname[], int path[])
{
	int start = in_Rail(*railway,startname);
	int dest = in_Rail(*railway, destname);
	int *dist = (int *)malloc(railway->size*sizeof(int)); 
	// dist[] stores the minimum distance from start to the indexed station
	// 0 means this station has been enclosed
	memset(dist, INF, railway->size*sizeof(int));
	dist[start] = 0;

	Edge *link = railway->list[start].link;
	while (link != NULL)
	{
		dist[link->adjseq] = link->weight;
		path[link->adjseq] = start;
		link = link->next;
	}
	
	while (dist[dest] == INF)
	{
		int min = INF, minstat = dest, iter;
		for (iter = 0; iter < railway->size; iter++)
		{
			if (dist[iter] != 0 && dist[iter] < min)
			{// not enclosed, and find the minimum
				min = dist[iter];
				minstat = iter;
			}
		}
		link = railway->list[minstat].link;
		if (link == NULL) exit(1);
		while (link != NULL)
		{
			if (dist[minstat] + link->weight < dist[link->adjseq])
			{
				dist[link->adjseq] = dist[minstat] + link->weight;
				path[link->adjseq] = minstat;
			}
			link = link->next;
		}
		dist[minstat] = 0;
	}
	
	
	free(dist);

	/* just for debugging
	while (dest != start)
	{
		printf("%s<-",railway->list[dest].name);
		dest = path[dest];
	}
	printf("%s\n", railway->list[start].name);
	*/
}

int get_Lineseq(Railway railway, int stat1, int stat2)
{
	Edge *link = railway.list[stat1].link;
	while (link != NULL)
	{
		if (link->adjseq == stat2)
			return link->lineseq;
		link = link->next;
	}
	return -1; // not connected
}

void depict_Path(Railway *railway, int start, int dest, int path[])
{
	int *track = (int *)malloc(railway->size*sizeof(int));
	memset(track, INF, railway->size*sizeof(int));
	int iter = 0;
	while (dest != start)
	{
		track[iter++] = dest;
		dest = path[dest];
	}
	track[iter] = start;

	int i = 0, j = iter;
	while (i < j)
	{// reverse track[]
		int tmp;
		tmp = track[j];
		track[j] = track[i];
		track[i] = tmp;
		i++, j--;
	}

	/*for (i = 0; i <= iter; i++)
		printf("%s %d -", railway->list[track[i]].name, railway->list[track[i]].lineseq);*/
	
	int currstats = 1;
	printf("%s-",railway->list[track[0]].name);
	for (i = 1; i < iter; i++)
	{
		if (   get_Lineseq(*railway, railway->list[track[i - 1]].statseq, railway->list[track[i]].statseq)
			!= get_Lineseq(*railway, railway->list[track[i + 1]].statseq, railway->list[track[i]].statseq))
		{// the previous station and the next one is not on the same line: transfering 
			printf("%d(%d)-%s-", get_Lineseq(*railway, railway->list[track[i - 1]].statseq, 
				railway->list[track[i]].statseq), currstats, railway->list[track[i]].name);
			currstats = 1;
		}
		else
		{
			currstats++;
		}
	}
	printf("%d(%d)-%s\n", get_Lineseq(*railway, railway->list[track[i - 1]].statseq, 
		railway->list[track[i]].statseq), currstats, railway->list[track[iter]].name);
}

int main()
{
	FILE *fin;
	fin = fopen("bgstations.txt","r");
	if (fin == NULL) exit(1);
	
	int linenum, lineseq, statnum, trans;
	int i, j;
	char statname[MAXSTRLEN];
	Railway *beijing = (Railway *)malloc(sizeof(Railway));
	beijing->size = 0;
	Line *newline = (Line *)malloc(sizeof(Line));
	fscanf(fin,"%d\n",&linenum);

	for (i = 1; i <= linenum; i++)
	{
		fscanf(fin, "%d %d\n",&lineseq, &statnum);
		newline->seq = lineseq;
		newline->size = statnum; 
		newline->isloop = 0;
		newline->list = (Station *)malloc(statnum*sizeof(Station));
		for (j = 0; j < statnum; j++)
		{
			fscanf(fin, "%s %d\n", statname, &trans);
			newline->list[j].lineseq = i;
			strcpy(newline->list[j].name,statname);
			newline->list[j].trans = trans;
		}
		if (strcmp(newline->list[0].name, statname) == 0)
			newline->isloop = 1;
		process_Line(beijing, newline);
		input_Line(beijing, *newline);
		free(newline->list);
		fscanf(fin, "\n");
	}

	char startname[MAXSTRLEN], destname[MAXSTRLEN];
	scanf("%s",startname);
	scanf("%s",destname);
	int *path = (int *)malloc(beijing->size*sizeof(int));
	Dijkstra(beijing, startname, destname, path);

	depict_Path(beijing, in_Rail(*beijing, startname), in_Rail(*beijing, destname), path);
	/* just for debugging
	for (i = 0; i < beijing->size; i++)
	{
		printf("%s %d %d\n", beijing->list[i].name, beijing->list[i].statseq, beijing->list[i].trans);
		Edge *curr = beijing->list[i].link;
		while (curr != NULL)
		{
			printf("	%s %d %d\n", beijing->list[curr->adjseq].name, curr->adjseq, beijing->list[curr->adjseq].trans);
			curr = curr->next;
		}
	}*/
	
	free(newline);
	free(path);
	fclose(fin);
	return 0;
}


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