iczelion tut16

Tutorial 16: Event Object


We will learn what an event object is and how to use it in a multithreaded program.

Download the example here.

Theory:生气大哭偷笑惊恐哭得意

From the previous tutorial, I demonstrated how threads communicate with a custom window message. I left out two other methods: global variable and event object. We will use both of them in this tutorial.
An event object is like a switch: it has only two states: on or off. When an event object is turned on, it's in the "signalled" state. When it is turned off, it's in the "nonsignalled" state. You create an event object and put in a code snippet in the relevant threads to watch for the state of the event object. If the event object is in the nonsignalled state, the threads that wait for it will be asleep.When the threads are in wait state, they consume little CPU time.
You create an event object by calling CreateEvent function which has the following syntax:

CreateEvent proto lpEventAttributes:DWORD,/
                              bManualReset:DWORD,/
                              bInitialState:DWORD,/
                              lpName:DWORD

lpEventAttribute--> If you specify NULL value, the event object is created with default security descriptor.
bManualReset--> If you want Windows to automatically reset the event object to nonsignalled state after WaitForSingleObject call, you must specify FALSE as this parameter. Else you must manually reset the event object with the call to ResetEvent.
bInitialState--> If you want the event object to be created in the signalled state, specify TRUE as this parameter else the event object will be created in the nonsignalled state.
lpName --> Pointer to an ASCIIZ string that is the name of the event object. This name is used when you want to call OpenEvent.

If the call is successful, it returns the handle to the newly created event object else it returns NULL.
You can modify the state of an event object with two API calls: SetEvent and ResetEvent. SetEvent function sets the event object into signalled state. ResetEvent does the reverse.
When the event object is created, you must put the call to WaitForSingleObject in the thread that wants to watch for the state of the event object. WaitForSingleObject has the following syntax:

WaitForSingleObject proto hObject:DWORD, dwTimeout:DWORD

hObject --> A handle to one of the synchronization object. Event object is a type of synchronization object.
dwTimeout --> specify the time in milliseconds that this function will wait for the object to be in signalled state. If the specified time has passed and the event object is still in nonsignalled state, WaitForSingleObject returns the the caller. If you want to wait for the object indefinitely, you must specify the value INFINITE as this parameter.

Example:

The example below displays a window waiting for the user to select a command from the menu. If the user selects "run thread", the thread starts the savage calculation. When it's finished, a message box appears informing the user that the job is done. During the time that the thread is running, the user can select "stop thread" to stop the thread.

.386
.model flat,stdcall
option casemap:none
WinMain proto :DWORD,:DWORD,:DWORD,:DWORD
include /masm32/include/windows.inc
include /masm32/include/user32.inc
include /masm32/include/kernel32.inc
includelib /masm32/lib/user32.lib
includelib /masm32/lib/kernel32.lib

.const
IDM_START_THREAD equ 1
IDM_STOP_THREAD equ 2
IDM_EXIT equ 3
WM_FINISH equ WM_USER+100h

.data
ClassName db "Win32ASMEventClass",0
AppName  db "Win32 ASM Event Example",0
MenuName db "FirstMenu",0
SuccessString db "The calculation is completed!",0
StopString db "The thread is stopped",0
EventStop BOOL FALSE

.data?
hInstance HINSTANCE ?
CommandLine LPSTR ?
hwnd HANDLE ?
hMenu HANDLE ?
ThreadID DWORD ?
ExitCode DWORD ?
hEventStart HANDLE ?

.code
start:
    invoke GetModuleHandle, NULL
    mov    hInstance,eax
    invoke GetCommandLine
    mov CommandLine,eax
    invoke WinMain, hInstance,NULL,CommandLine, SW_SHOWDEFAULT
    invoke ExitProcess,eax

WinMain proc hInst:HINSTANCE,hPrevInst:HINSTANCE,CmdLine:LPSTR,CmdShow:DWORD
    LOCAL wc:WNDCLASSEX
    LOCAL msg:MSG
    mov   wc.cbSize,SIZEOF WNDCLASSEX
    mov   wc.style, CS_HREDRAW or CS_VREDRAW
    mov   wc.lpfnWndProc, OFFSET WndProc
    mov   wc.cbClsExtra,NULL
    mov   wc.cbWndExtra,NULL
    push  hInst
    pop   wc.hInstance
    mov   wc.hbrBackground,COLOR_WINDOW+1
    mov   wc.lpszMenuName,OFFSET MenuName
    mov   wc.lpszClassName,OFFSET ClassName
    invoke LoadIcon,NULL,IDI_APPLICATION
    mov   wc.hIcon,eax
    mov   wc.hIconSm,eax
    invoke LoadCursor,NULL,IDC_ARROW
    mov   wc.hCursor,eax
    invoke RegisterClassEx, addr wc
    invoke CreateWindowEx,WS_EX_CLIENTEDGE,ADDR ClassName,/
            ADDR  AppName,/
           WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW,CW_USEDEFAULT,/
           CW_USEDEFAULT,300,200,NULL,NULL,/
           hInst,NULL
    mov   hwnd,eax
    invoke ShowWindow, hwnd,SW_SHOWNORMAL
    invoke UpdateWindow, hwnd
    invoke GetMenu,hwnd
    mov  hMenu,eax
    .WHILE TRUE
            invoke GetMessage, ADDR msg,NULL,0,0
            .BREAK .IF (!eax)
            invoke TranslateMessage, ADDR msg
            invoke DispatchMessage, ADDR msg
    .ENDW
    mov     eax,msg.wParam
    ret
WinMain endp

WndProc proc hWnd:HWND, uMsg:UINT, wParam:WPARAM, lParam:LPARAM
    .IF uMsg==WM_CREATE
        invoke CreateEvent,NULL,FALSE,FALSE,NULL
        mov  hEventStart,eax
        mov  eax,OFFSET ThreadProc
        invoke CreateThread,NULL,NULL,eax,/
                             NULL,0,/
                             ADDR ThreadID
        invoke CloseHandle,eax
    .ELSEIF uMsg==WM_DESTROY
        invoke PostQuitMessage,NULL
    .ELSEIF uMsg==WM_COMMAND
        mov eax,wParam
        .if lParam==0
            .if ax==IDM_START_THREAD
                invoke SetEvent,hEventStart
                invoke EnableMenuItem,hMenu,IDM_START_THREAD,MF_GRAYED
                invoke EnableMenuItem,hMenu,IDM_STOP_THREAD,MF_ENABLED
            .elseif ax==IDM_STOP_THREAD
                mov  EventStop,TRUE
                invoke EnableMenuItem,hMenu,IDM_START_THREAD,MF_ENABLED
                invoke EnableMenuItem,hMenu,IDM_STOP_THREAD,MF_GRAYED
            .else
                invoke DestroyWindow,hWnd
            .endif
        .endif
    .ELSEIF uMsg==WM_FINISH
        invoke MessageBox,NULL,ADDR SuccessString,ADDR AppName,MB_OK
    .ELSE
        invoke DefWindowProc,hWnd,uMsg,wParam,lParam
        ret
.ENDIF
    xor    eax,eax
    ret
WndProc endp

ThreadProc PROC USES ecx Param:DWORD
        invoke WaitForSingleObject,hEventStart,INFINITE
        mov  ecx,600000000
        .WHILE ecx!=0
                .if EventStop!=TRUE
                        add  eax,eax
                        dec  ecx
                .else
                        invoke MessageBox,hwnd,ADDR StopString,ADDR AppName,MB_OK
                        mov  EventStop,FALSE
                        jmp ThreadProc
                .endif
        .ENDW
        invoke PostMessage,hwnd,WM_FINISH,NULL,NULL
        invoke EnableMenuItem,hMenu,IDM_START_THREAD,MF_ENABLED
        invoke EnableMenuItem,hMenu,IDM_STOP_THREAD,MF_GRAYED
        jmp   ThreadProc
        ret
ThreadProc ENDP
end start

Analysis:

In this example, I demonstrate another thread technique.

    .IF uMsg==WM_CREATE
        invoke CreateEvent,NULL,FALSE,FALSE,NULL
        mov  hEventStart,eax
        mov  eax,OFFSET ThreadProc
        invoke CreateThread,NULL,NULL,eax,/
                             NULL,0,/
                             ADDR ThreadID
        invoke CloseHandle,eax

You can see that I create the event object and the thread during the processing of WM_CREATE message. I create the event object in the nonsignalled state with automatic reset. After the event object is created, I create the thread. However the thread doesn't run immediately because it waits for the event object to be in the signalled state as the code below:

ThreadProc PROC USES ecx Param:DWORD
        invoke WaitForSingleObject,hEventStart,INFINITE
        mov  ecx,600000000

The first line of the thread procedure is the call to WaitForSingleObject. It waits infinitely for the signalled state of the event object before it returns. This means that even when the thread is created, we put it into a dormant state.
When the user selects "run thread" command from the menu, we set the event object into signalled state as below:

            .if ax==IDM_START_THREAD
                invoke SetEvent,hEventStart

The call to SetEvent turns the event object into the signalled state which in turn makes the WaitForSingleObject call in the thread procedure return and the thread starts running. When the user selects "stop thread" command,  we set the value of the global variable "EventStop" to TRUE.

                .if EventStop==FALSE
                        add  eax,eax
                        dec  ecx
                .else
                        invoke MessageBox,hwnd,ADDR StopString,ADDR AppName,MB_OK
                        mov  EventStop,FALSE
                        jmp ThreadProc
                .endif

This stops the thread and jumps to the WaitForSingleObject call again. Note that we don't have to manually reset the event object into nonsignalled state because we specify the bManualReset parameter of the CreateEvent call as FALSE.

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