Linux命令行安装Oracle12c(转)

转自:

https://blog.csdn.net/sl1992/article/details/80457935

 

文章目录
1.下载Oracle12c
2.配置主机名和IP的映射
3.Oracle安装的先决条件
3.1手动设置
3.1.1配置内核参数
3.1.2限制oracle用户资源使用
3.1.3安装依赖软件包
3.1.4创建新组和新用户
3.2附加设置
3.2.1为oracle用户设置密码
3.2.2修改设置SELINUX
3.2.3确保禁用防火墙
3.2.4创建Oracle安装目录
3.2.5配置Oracle环境变量并验证
4.Oracle安装
4.1上传解压
4.2修改响应文件
4.3静默安装Oracle
5.数据库创建
6.数据库监听配置
7.自动启动和关闭数据库
7.1修改/etc/oratab
7.2创建dbora文件
7.3修改dbora组和文件权限
7.4创建符号链接

Linux命令行安装Oracle12c
1.下载Oracle12c
下载Oracle12.2.0.1.0版本,选择Linux x86-64安装包

2.配置主机名和IP的映射
vi /etc/hosts,添加配置项192.168.1.200 solang

127.0.0.1   localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4
::1         localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6

192.168.1.200  solang

3.Oracle安装的先决条件
参见Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2) Installation On Oracle Linux 6 (OL6) and 7 (OL7)

Perform either the Automatic Setup or the Manual Setup to complete the
basic prerequisites. The Additional Setup is required for all installations.
执行自动设置或手动设置完成基本先决条件。所有安装都需要进行附加设置。

这里我们选择手动设置先决条件

3.1手动设置
3.1.1配置内核参数
[root@solang ~]# vi /etc/sysctl.conf 

添加如下行:

fs.file-max = 6815744
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.shmall = 1073741824
kernel.shmmax = 4398046511104
kernel.panic_on_oops = 1
net.core.rmem_default = 262144
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 1048576
net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 2
net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 2
fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500

运行sysctl -p命令更改当前内核参数

[root@solang ~]# sysctl -p
net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6 = 1
net.ipv6.conf.default.disable_ipv6 = 1
net.ipv6.conf.lo.disable_ipv6 = 1
vm.swappiness = 0
net.ipv4.neigh.default.gc_stale_time = 120
net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 0
net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 0
net.ipv4.conf.default.arp_announce = 2
net.ipv4.conf.lo.arp_announce = 2
net.ipv4.conf.all.arp_announce = 2
net.ipv4.tcp_max_tw_buckets = 5000
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 1024
net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2
fs.file-max = 6815744
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.shmall = 1073741824
kernel.shmmax = 4398046511104
kernel.panic_on_oops = 1
net.core.rmem_default = 262144
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 1048576
net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 2
net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 2
fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500

3.1.2限制oracle用户资源使用
[root@solang ~]# vi /etc/security/limits.conf 

添加如下行:

oracle   soft   nofile    1024
oracle   hard   nofile    65536
oracle   soft   nproc    16384
oracle   hard   nproc    16384
oracle   soft   stack    10240
oracle   hard   stack    32768
oracle   hard   memlock    134217728
oracle   soft   memlock    134217728

3.1.3安装依赖软件包
yum install binutils -y
yum install compat-libcap1 -y
yum install compat-libstdc++-33 -y
yum install compat-libstdc++-33.i686 -y
yum install glibc -y
yum install glibc.i686 -y
yum install glibc-devel -y
yum install glibc-devel.i686 -y
yum install ksh -y
yum install libaio -y
yum install libaio.i686 -y
yum install libaio-devel -y
yum install libaio-devel.i686 -y
yum install libX11 -y
yum install libX11.i686 -y
yum install libXau -y
yum install libXau.i686 -y
yum install libXi -y
yum install libXi.i686 -y
yum install libXtst -y
yum install libXtst.i686 -y
yum install libgcc -y
yum install libgcc.i686 -y
yum install libstdc++ -y
yum install libstdc++.i686 -y
yum install libstdc++-devel -y
yum install libstdc++-devel.i686 -y
yum install libxcb -y
yum install libxcb.i686 -y
yum install make -y
yum install nfs-utils -y
yum install net-tools -y
yum install smartmontools -y
yum install sysstat -y
yum install unixODBC -y
yum install unixODBC-devel -y

3.1.4创建新组和新用户
groupadd -g 54321 oinstall
groupadd -g 54322 dba
groupadd -g 54323 oper

useradd -u 54321 -g oinstall -G dba,oper oracle

[root@solang ~]# groupadd -g 54321 oinstall
[root@solang ~]# groupadd -g 54322 dba
[root@solang ~]# groupadd -g 54323 oper

[root@solang ~]# useradd -u 54321 -g oinstall -G dba,oper oracle

不必非要按照叫oinstall,和dba,只不过一般文档上就这么叫
oinstall组用于安装数据库
dba组用于管理数据库
-g表示这个用户的主组
-G标识这个用户的其它组

一个用户可以属于多个用户组,但是一个用户只能指定一个组作为其主组

3.2附加设置
The following steps must be performed, whether you did the manual or automatic setup.
无论是手动还是自动设置,都必须执行以下步骤。

3.2.1为oracle用户设置密码
[oracle@solang ~]$ passwd oracle

3.2.2修改设置SELINUX
[root@solang ~]# vi /etc/selinux/config
## 将`SELINUX`修改为permissive
SELINUX=permissive
[root@solang ~]# setenforce Permissive
setenforce: SELinux is disabled

3.2.3确保禁用防火墙
[root@solang ~]# systemctl stop firewalld
[root@solang ~]# systemctl disable firewalld

3.2.4创建Oracle安装目录
[root@solang ~]# mkdir -p /usr/local/products/oracle12c
[root@solang ~]# chown -R oracle:oinstall /usr/local
[root@solang ~]# chmod -R 775 /usr/local/

也可以按照Oracle安装文档上的路径进行设置

3.2.5配置Oracle环境变量并验证
切换到新添加的oracle用户名下,在oracle用户下配置环境变量

[root@solang ~]# su oracle
[oracle@solang ~]$ vi .bash_profile

export TMP=/tmp
export TMPDIR=$TMP

export ORACLE_HOSTNAME=solang
export ORACLE_UNQNAME=cdb1
export ORACLE_BASE=/usr/local/products
export ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/oracle12c
export ORACLE_SID=cdb1

export PATH=/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:$PATH
export PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib
export CLASSPATH=$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib

使配置立即生效

[oracle@solang ~]$ source .bash_profile 

[oracle@solang ~]$ echo $ORACLE_HOME
/usr/local/products/oracle12c

4.Oracle安装
4.1上传解压
将下载的linuxx64_12201_database.zip上传到Linux系统/home/oracle目录下

解压

[oracle@solang ~]$ unzip linuxx64_12201_database.zip

4.2修改响应文件
压缩包解压完成后得到名为database的文件夹,其中包含安装文件。

[oracle@solang ~]$ cd database/response/
[oracle@solang response]$ vi db_install.rsp

此数据库安装响应文件db_install.rsp修改的地方,参见Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) Silent Installations中12cR2进行设置

oracle.install.option=INSTALL_DB_SWONLY
UNIX_GROUP_NAME=oinstall
INVENTORY_LOCATION=/usr/local/products/oracle12c/oraInventory
ORACLE_HOME=/usr/local/products/oracle12c
ORACLE_BASE=/usr/local/products
oracle.install.db.InstallEdition=EE
oracle.install.db.OSDBA_GROUP=dba
oracle.install.db.OSBACKUPDBA_GROUP=dba
oracle.install.db.OSDGDBA_GROUP=dba
oracle.install.db.OSKMDBA_GROUP=dba
oracle.install.db.OSRACDBA_GROUP=dba

由于安装时本人将指定保存清单文件的位置设置到了$ORACLE_BASE目录下,出现了警告

WARNING The Central Inventory is located in the Oracle base.
ACTION: Oracle recommends placing this Central Inventory in a location outside the Oracle base directory.
警告 中央清单位于Oracle base中。
操作:Oracle建议将此中央清单放在Oracle基本目录之外的位置。

建议将清单文件位置修改为INVENTORY_LOCATION=/usr/local/oraInventory,不在$ORACLE_BASE目录下即可。

注意:如果不想修改db_install.rsp,可以采用命令行方式直接指定参数进行安装,参见4.3静默安装Oracle

db_install.rsp完整内容如下

####################################################################
## Copyright(c) Oracle Corporation 1998,2017. All rights reserved.##
##                                                                ##
## Specify values for the variables listed below to customize     ##
## your installation.                                             ##
##                                                                ##
## Each variable is associated with a comment. The comment        ##
## can help to populate the variables with the appropriate        ##
## values.                                                        ##
##                                                                ##
## IMPORTANT NOTE: This file contains plain text passwords and    ##
## should be secured to have read permission only by oracle user  ##
## or db administrator who owns this installation.                ##
##                                                                ##
####################################################################


#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Do not change the following system generated value. 
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.responseFileVersion=/oracle/install/rspfmt_dbinstall_response_schema_v12.2.0

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the installation option.
# It can be one of the following:
#   - INSTALL_DB_SWONLY
#   - INSTALL_DB_AND_CONFIG
#   - UPGRADE_DB
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.option=INSTALL_DB_SWONLY

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the Unix group to be set for the inventory directory.  
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
UNIX_GROUP_NAME=oinstall

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the location which holds the inventory files.
# This is an optional parameter if installing on
# Windows based Operating System.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
INVENTORY_LOCATION=/usr/local/products/oracle12c/oraInventory
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the complete path of the Oracle Home. 
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ORACLE_HOME=/usr/local/products/oracle12c

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the complete path of the Oracle Base. 
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ORACLE_BASE=/usr/local/products

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the installation edition of the component.                     
#                                                             
# The value should contain only one of these choices.  
#   - EE     : Enterprise Edition 
#   - SE2     : Standard Edition 2


#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

oracle.install.db.InstallEdition=EE
###############################################################################
#                                                                             #
# PRIVILEGED OPERATING SYSTEM GROUPS                                          #
# ------------------------------------------                                  #
# Provide values for the OS groups to which SYSDBA and SYSOPER privileges     #
# needs to be granted. If the install is being performed as a member of the   #
# group "dba", then that will be used unless specified otherwise below.       #
#                                                                             #
# The value to be specified for OSDBA and OSOPER group is only for UNIX based #
# Operating System.                                                           #
#                                                                             #
###############################################################################

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# The OSDBA_GROUP is the OS group which is to be granted SYSDBA privileges.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.OSDBA_GROUP=dba

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# The OSOPER_GROUP is the OS group which is to be granted SYSOPER privileges.
# The value to be specified for OSOPER group is optional.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.OSOPER_GROUP=dba

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# The OSBACKUPDBA_GROUP is the OS group which is to be granted SYSBACKUP privileges.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.OSBACKUPDBA_GROUP=dba

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# The OSDGDBA_GROUP is the OS group which is to be granted SYSDG privileges.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.OSDGDBA_GROUP=dba

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# The OSKMDBA_GROUP is the OS group which is to be granted SYSKM privileges.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.OSKMDBA_GROUP=dba

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# The OSRACDBA_GROUP is the OS group which is to be granted SYSRAC privileges.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.OSRACDBA_GROUP=dba

###############################################################################
#                                                                             #
#                               Grid Options                                  #
#                                                                             #
###############################################################################
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the type of Real Application Cluster Database

#   - ADMIN_MANAGED: Admin-Managed
#   - POLICY_MANAGED: Policy-Managed

# If left unspecified, default will be ADMIN_MANAGED 
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.rac.configurationType=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Value is required only if RAC database type is ADMIN_MANAGED

# Specify the cluster node names selected during the installation.
# Leaving it blank will result in install on local server only (Single Instance)

# Example : oracle.install.db.CLUSTER_NODES=node1,node2
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.CLUSTER_NODES=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# This variable is used to enable or disable RAC One Node install.
#
#   - true  : Value of RAC One Node service name is used.
#   - false : Value of RAC One Node service name is not used.
#
# If left blank, it will be assumed to be false.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.isRACOneInstall=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Value is required only if oracle.install.db.isRACOneInstall is true.

# Specify the name for RAC One Node Service
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.racOneServiceName=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Value is required only if RAC database type is POLICY_MANAGED

# Specify a name for the new Server pool that will be configured
# Example : oracle.install.db.rac.serverpoolName=pool1
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.rac.serverpoolName=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Value is required only if RAC database type is POLICY_MANAGED

# Specify a number as cardinality for the new Server pool that will be configured
# Example : oracle.install.db.rac.serverpoolCardinality=2
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.rac.serverpoolCardinality=

###############################################################################
#                                                                             #
#                        Database Configuration Options                       #
#                                                                             #
###############################################################################

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the type of database to create.
# It can be one of the following:
#   - GENERAL_PURPOSE                       
#   - DATA_WAREHOUSE 
# GENERAL_PURPOSE: A starter database designed for general purpose use or transaction-heavy applications.
# DATA_WAREHOUSE : A starter database optimized for data warehousing applications.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.type=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the Starter Database Global Database Name. 
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.globalDBName=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the Starter Database SID.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.SID=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify whether the database should be configured as a Container database.
# The value can be either "true" or "false". If left blank it will be assumed
# to be "false".
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.ConfigureAsContainerDB=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the  Pluggable Database name for the pluggable database in Container Database.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.PDBName=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the Starter Database character set.
#                                               
#  One of the following
#  AL32UTF8, WE8ISO8859P15, WE8MSWIN1252, EE8ISO8859P2,
#  EE8MSWIN1250, NE8ISO8859P10, NEE8ISO8859P4, BLT8MSWIN1257,
#  BLT8ISO8859P13, CL8ISO8859P5, CL8MSWIN1251, AR8ISO8859P6,
#  AR8MSWIN1256, EL8ISO8859P7, EL8MSWIN1253, IW8ISO8859P8,
#  IW8MSWIN1255, JA16EUC, JA16EUCTILDE, JA16SJIS, JA16SJISTILDE,
#  KO16MSWIN949, ZHS16GBK, TH8TISASCII, ZHT32EUC, ZHT16MSWIN950,
#  ZHT16HKSCS, WE8ISO8859P9, TR8MSWIN1254, VN8MSWIN1258
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.characterSet=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# This variable should be set to true if Automatic Memory Management 
# in Database is desired.
# If Automatic Memory Management is not desired, and memory allocation
# is to be done manually, then set it to false.
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.memoryOption=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the total memory allocation for the database. Value(in MB) should be
# at least 256 MB, and should not exceed the total physical memory available 
# on the system.
# Example: oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.memoryLimit=512
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.memoryLimit=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# This variable controls whether to load Example Schemas onto
# the starter database or not.
# The value can be either "true" or "false". If left blank it will be assumed
# to be "false".
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.installExampleSchemas=

###############################################################################
#                                                                             #
# Passwords can be supplied for the following four schemas in the             #
# starter database:                                                           #
#   SYS                                                                       #
#   SYSTEM                                                                    #
#   DBSNMP (used by Enterprise Manager)                                       #
#                                                                             #
# Same password can be used for all accounts (not recommended)                #
# or different passwords for each account can be provided (recommended)       #
#                                                                             #
###############################################################################

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# This variable holds the password that is to be used for all schemas in the
# starter database.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.ALL=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the SYS password for the starter database.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.SYS=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the SYSTEM password for the starter database.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.SYSTEM=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the DBSNMP password for the starter database.
# Applicable only when oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.managementOption=CLOUD_CONTROL
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.DBSNMP=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the PDBADMIN password required for creation of Pluggable Database in the Container Database.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.password.PDBADMIN=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the management option to use for managing the database.
# Options are:
# 1. CLOUD_CONTROL - If you want to manage your database with Enterprise Manager Cloud Control along with Database Express.
# 2. DEFAULT   -If you want to manage your database using the default Database Express option.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.managementOption=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the OMS host to connect to Cloud Control.
# Applicable only when oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.managementOption=CLOUD_CONTROL
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.omsHost=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the OMS port to connect to Cloud Control.
# Applicable only when oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.managementOption=CLOUD_CONTROL
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.omsPort=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the EM Admin user name to use to connect to Cloud Control.
# Applicable only when oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.managementOption=CLOUD_CONTROL
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.emAdminUser=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the EM Admin password to use to connect to Cloud Control.
# Applicable only when oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.managementOption=CLOUD_CONTROL
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.emAdminPassword=

###############################################################################
#                                                                             #
# SPECIFY RECOVERY OPTIONS                                                    #
# ------------------------------------                                        #
# Recovery options for the database can be mentioned using the entries below  #
#                                                                             #
###############################################################################

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# This variable is to be set to false if database recovery is not required. Else 
# this can be set to true.
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.enableRecovery=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the type of storage to use for the database.
# It can be one of the following:
#   - FILE_SYSTEM_STORAGE
#   - ASM_STORAGE
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.storageType=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the database file location which is a directory for datafiles, control
# files, redo logs.         
#
# Applicable only when oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.storage=FILE_SYSTEM_STORAGE 
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.fileSystemStorage.dataLocation=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the recovery location.
#
# Applicable only when oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.storage=FILE_SYSTEM_STORAGE 
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.fileSystemStorage.recoveryLocation=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the existing ASM disk groups to be used for storage.
#
# Applicable only when oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.storageType=ASM_STORAGE
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.asm.diskGroup=

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the password for ASMSNMP user of the ASM instance.                 
#
# Applicable only when oracle.install.db.config.starterdb.storage=ASM_STORAGE 
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
oracle.install.db.config.asm.ASMSNMPPassword=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the My Oracle Support Account Username.
#
#  Example   : MYORACLESUPPORT_USERNAME=abc@oracle.com
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MYORACLESUPPORT_USERNAME=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the My Oracle Support Account Username password.
#
# Example    : MYORACLESUPPORT_PASSWORD=password
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MYORACLESUPPORT_PASSWORD=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify whether to enable the user to set the password for
# My Oracle Support credentials. The value can be either true or false.
# If left blank it will be assumed to be false.
#
# Example    : SECURITY_UPDATES_VIA_MYORACLESUPPORT=true
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SECURITY_UPDATES_VIA_MYORACLESUPPORT=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify whether user doesn't want to configure Security Updates.
# The value for this variable should be true if you don't want to configure
# Security Updates, false otherwise.
#
# The value can be either true or false. If left blank it will be assumed
# to be true.
#
# Example    : DECLINE_SECURITY_UPDATES=false
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DECLINE_SECURITY_UPDATES=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the Proxy server name. Length should be greater than zero.
#
# Example    : PROXY_HOST=proxy.domain.com 
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PROXY_HOST=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the proxy port number. Should be Numeric and at least 2 chars.
#
# Example    : PROXY_PORT=25
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PROXY_PORT=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the proxy user name. Leave PROXY_USER and PROXY_PWD
# blank if your proxy server requires no authentication.
#
# Example    : PROXY_USER=username
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PROXY_USER=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the proxy password. Leave PROXY_USER and PROXY_PWD  
# blank if your proxy server requires no authentication.
#
# Example    : PROXY_PWD=password
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PROXY_PWD=

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Specify the Oracle Support Hub URL. 

# Example    : COLLECTOR_SUPPORTHUB_URL=https://orasupporthub.company.com:8080/
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
COLLECTOR_SUPPORTHUB_URL=

4.3静默安装Oracle
静默安装参见Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) Silent Installations,找到12cR2的安装方式进行安装

①命令行方式安装

An alternative to the response file approach is to specify all the parameter values directly on the command line. For simple actions, this looks a lot clearer as you only have to specify non-default values for the action you are trying to perform.
响应文件方法的另一种方式是在命令行上直接指定所有的参数值。对于简单的操作,这看起来更清楚,因为您只需为正在执行的操作指定非默认值。

[oracle@solang response]$ cd ~/database
[oracle@solang database]$ ./runInstaller -ignoreSysPrereqs -ignorePrereq -waitforcompletion \
-showProgress -silent -responseFile /home/oracle/database/response/db_install.rsp \
oracle.install.option=INSTALL_DB_SWONLY \
UNIX_GROUP_NAME=oinstall \
INVENTORY_LOCATION=/usr/local/products/oracle12c/oraInventory \
ORACLE_HOME=/usr/local/products/oracle12c \
ORACLE_BASE=/usr/local/products \
oracle.install.db.InstallEdition=EE \
oracle.install.db.OSDBA_GROUP=dba \
oracle.install.db.OSBACKUPDBA_GROUP=dba \
oracle.install.db.OSDGDBA_GROUP=dba \
oracle.install.db.OSKMDBA_GROUP=dba \
oracle.install.db.OSRACDBA_GROUP=dba

②响应文件方式安装

[oracle@solang response]$ cd ~/database
[oracle@solang database]$ ./runInstaller -ignoreSysPrereqs -ignorePrereq -waitforcompletion \
-showProgress -silent -responseFile /home/oracle/database/response/db_install.rsp

Starting Oracle Universal Installer...

Checking Temp space: must be greater than 500 MB.   Actual 21922 MB    Passed
Checking swap space: must be greater than 150 MB.   Actual 511 MB    Passed
Preparing to launch Oracle Universal Installer from /tmp/OraInstall2018-05-25_04-36-06PM. Please wait ...WARNING The Central Inventory is located in the Oracle base.
   ACTION: Oracle recommends placing this Central Inventory in a location outside the Oracle base directory.
You can find the log of this install session at:
 /usr/local/products/oracle12c/oraInventory/logs/installActions2018-05-25_04-36-06PM.log

Prepare in progress.
..................................................   8% Done.

Prepare successful.

Copy files in progress.
..................................................   17% Done.
..................................................   22% Done.
..................................................   27% Done.
..................................................   32% Done.
..................................................   40% Done.
..................................................   45% Done.
..................................................   50% Done.
..................................................   55% Done.
..................................................   60% Done.
..................................................   65% Done.
..................................................   70% Done.
..................................................   75% Done.
..................................................   80% Done.
....................
Copy files successful.

Link binaries in progress.
..........
Link binaries successful.

Setup files in progress.
..............................
Setup files successful.

Setup Inventory in progress.

Setup Inventory successful.

Finish Setup successful.
The installation of Oracle Database 12c was successful.
Please check '/usr/local/products/oracle12c/oraInventory/logs/silentInstall2018-05-25_04-36-06PM.log' for more details.

Setup Oracle Base in progress.

Setup Oracle Base successful.
..................................................   95% Done.

As a root user, execute the following script(s):
    1. /usr/local/products/oracle12c/oraInventory/orainstRoot.sh
    2. /usr/local/products/oracle12c/root.sh

..................................................   100% Done.

Successfully Setup Software.

安装完毕后切换到root用户执行以下脚本

As a root user, execute the following script(s):

/usr/local/products/oracle12c/oraInventory/orainstRoot.sh
/usr/local/products/oracle12c/root.sh
1
2
[oracle@solang ~]$ su
[root@solang ~]# /usr/local/products/oracle12c/oraInventory/orainstRoot.sh
Changing permissions of /usr/local/products/oracle12c/oraInventory.
Adding read,write permissions for group.
Removing read,write,execute permissions for world.

Changing groupname of /usr/local/products/oracle12c/oraInventory to oinstall.
The execution of the script is complete.
[root@solang ~]# /usr/local/products/oracle12c/root.sh
Check /usr/local/products/oracle12c/install/root_solang2018-05-2516-45-15-468131776.log for the output of root script

执行命令sqlplus / as sysdba

[oracle@solang ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 12.2.0.1.0 Production on Sun May 27 11:52:01 2018

Copyright (c) 1982, 2016, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL>

此时数据库软件安装成功。

5.数据库创建
参见Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) : Creating Databases in Silent Mode,使用数据库配置助手DBCA静默模式下创建数据库,具体设置参见Database Configuration Assistant Command Reference for Silent Mode

执行命令

dbca -silent -createDatabase \
 -templateName /usr/local/products/oracle12c/assistants/dbca/templates/General_Purpose.dbc \
 -gdbname cdb1 -sid cdb1 -responseFile /home/oracle/database/response/dbca.rsp \
 -characterSet AL32UTF8 \
 -sysPassword OraPasswd1 \
 -systemPassword OraPasswd1 \
 -createAsContainerDatabase true \
 -numberOfPDBs 1 \
 -pdbName pdb1 \
 -pdbAdminPassword OraPasswd1 \
 -automaticMemoryManagement false \
 -ignorePreReqs

数据文件目录datafileDestination默认安装在$ORACLE_BASE/oradata下

注意:密码设置需要密码长度至少8位,包含至少1个大写字符,1个小写字符和1个数字[0-9]。
否则会有如下警告:

[WARNING] [DBT-06208] The 'SYS' password entered does not conform to the Oracle recommended standards.
   CAUSE: 
a. Oracle recommends that the password entered should be at least 8 characters in length, contain at least 1 uppercase character, 1 lower case character and 1 digit [0-9].
b.The password entered is a keyword that Oracle does not recommend to be used as password
   ACTION: Specify a strong password. If required refer Oracle documentation for guidelines.
[WARNING] [DBT-06208] The 'SYSTEM' password entered does not conform to the Oracle recommended standards.
   CAUSE: 
a. Oracle recommends that the password entered should be at least 8 characters in length, contain at least 1 uppercase character, 1 lower case character and 1 digit [0-9].
b.The password entered is a keyword that Oracle does not recommend to be used as password
   ACTION: Specify a strong password. If required refer Oracle documentation for guidelines.
[WARNING] [DBT-06208] The 'PDBADMIN' password entered does not conform to the Oracle recommended standards.
   CAUSE: 
a. Oracle recommends that the password entered should be at least 8 characters in length, contain at least 1 uppercase character, 1 lower case character and 1 digit [0-9].
b.The password entered is a keyword that Oracle does not recommend to be used as password
   ACTION: Specify a strong password. If required refer Oracle documentation for guidelines.

执行

[oracle@solang ~]$ dbca -silent -createDatabase \
>  -templateName /usr/local/products/oracle12c/assistants/dbca/templates/General_Purpose.dbc \
>  -gdbname cdb1 -sid cdb1 -responseFile /home/oracle/database/response/dbca.rsp \
>  -characterSet AL32UTF8 \
>  -sysPassword OraPasswd1 \
>  -systemPassword OraPasswd1 \
>  -createAsContainerDatabase true \
>  -numberOfPDBs 1 \
>  -pdbName pdb1 \
>  -pdbAdminPassword OraPasswd1 \
>  -automaticMemoryManagement false \
>  -ignorePreReqs

Copying database files
1% complete
13% complete
25% complete
Creating and starting Oracle instance
26% complete
30% complete
31% complete
35% complete
38% complete
39% complete
41% complete
Completing Database Creation
42% complete
43% complete
44% complete
46% complete
49% complete
50% complete
Creating Pluggable Databases
55% complete
75% complete
Executing Post Configuration Actions
100% complete
Look at the log file "/usr/local/products/cfgtoollogs/dbca/cdb1/cdb1.log" for further details.

再次执行命令sqlplus / as sysdba

[oracle@solang ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 12.2.0.1.0 Production on Sun May 27 15:28:18 2018

Copyright (c) 1982, 2016, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.2.0.1.0 - 64bit Production

SQL> select status from v$instance;

STATUS
------------
OPEN

SQL>  

此时数据库创建成功。

6.数据库监听配置
未配置监听前执行lsnrctl status

[oracle@solang ~]$ lsnrctl status

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 12.2.0.1.0 - Production on 27-MAY-2018 17:20:08

Copyright (c) 1991, 2016, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1521))
TNS-12541: TNS:no listener
 TNS-12560: TNS:protocol adapter error
  TNS-00511: No listener
   Linux Error: 111: Connection refused

使用默认的netca.rsp文件
​执行命令netca -silent -responseFile /home/oracle/database/response/netca.rsp

[oracle@solang ~]$ netca -silent -responseFile /home/oracle/database/response/netca.rsp

Parsing command line arguments:
    Parameter "silent" = true
    Parameter "responsefile" = /home/oracle/database/response/netca.rsp
Done parsing command line arguments.
Oracle Net Services Configuration:
Profile configuration complete.
Oracle Net Listener Startup:
    Running Listener Control: 
      /usr/local/products/oracle12c/bin/lsnrctl start LISTENER
    Listener Control complete.
    Listener started successfully.
Listener configuration complete.
Oracle Net Services configuration successful. The exit code is 0

再次执行命令lsnrctl status

[oracle@solang ~]$ lsnrctl status

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 12.2.0.1.0 - Production on 27-MAY-2018 18:04:32

Copyright (c) 1991, 2016, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=solang)(PORT=1521)))
STATUS of the LISTENER
------------------------
Alias                     LISTENER
Version                   TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 12.2.0.1.0 - Production
Start Date                27-MAY-2018 18:03:02
Uptime                    0 days 0 hr. 1 min. 30 sec
Trace Level               off
Security                  ON: Local OS Authentication
SNMP                      OFF
Listener Parameter File   /usr/local/products/oracle12c/network/admin/listener.ora
Listener Log File         /usr/local/products/diag/tnslsnr/solang/listener/alert/log.xml
Listening Endpoints Summary...
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=solang)(PORT=1521)))
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=EXTPROC1521)))
Services Summary...
Service "6d2bd82e6b445902e053f05313acb216" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "cdb1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "cdb1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "cdb1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "cdb1XDB" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "cdb1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "pdb1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "cdb1", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
The command completed successfully

此时数据库监听配置成功。

参见Configuring the Network Environment
启动或关闭监听

lsnrctl start
lsnrctl stop
1
2
7.自动启动和关闭数据库
参见Automating Database Startup and Shutdown,以root用户登录

7.1修改/etc/oratab
[root@solang ~]# vi /etc/oratab

# 最后一行,将N修改为Y
cdb1:/usr/local/products/oracle12c:Y

7.2创建dbora文件
[root@solang ~]# vi /etc/init.d/dbora

#! /bin/sh
# description: Oracle auto start-stop script.
#
# Set ORA_HOME to be equivalent to the $ORACLE_HOME
# from which you wish to execute dbstart and dbshut;
#
# Set ORA_OWNER to the user id of the owner of the
# Oracle database in ORACLE_HOME.

ORA_HOME=/usr/local/products/oracle12c
ORA_OWNER=oracle

case "$1" in
'start') 
    # Start the Oracle databases:
    # The following command assumes that the oracle login
    # will not prompt the user for any values
    # Remove "&" if you don't want startup as a background process.
    su - $ORA_OWNER -c "$ORA_HOME/bin/dbstart $ORA_HOME" &
    touch /var/lock/subsys/dbora
    ;;

'stop')
    # Stop the Oracle databases:
    # The following command assumes that the oracle login
    # will not prompt the user for any values
    su - $ORA_OWNER -c "$ORA_HOME/bin/dbshut $ORA_HOME" &
    rm -f /var/lock/subsys/dbora
    ;;
esac

ORA_HOME设置为$ORACLE_HOME,ORA_OWNER设置为oracle用户

7.3修改dbora组和文件权限
chgrp dba /etc/init.d/dbora
chmod 750 /etc/init.d/dbora

[root@solang ~]# chgrp dba /etc/init.d/dbora
[root@solang ~]# chmod 750 /etc/init.d/dbora

7.4创建符号链接
ln -s /etc/init.d/dbora /etc/rc.d/rc0.d/K01dbora
ln -s /etc/init.d/dbora /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S99dbora
ln -s /etc/init.d/dbora /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/S99dbora

[root@solang ~]# ln -s /etc/init.d/dbora /etc/rc.d/rc0.d/K01dbora
[root@solang ~]# ln -s /etc/init.d/dbora /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S99dbora
[root@solang ~]# ln -s /etc/init.d/dbora /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/S99dbora

将机器重启,Oracle数据库开机自动启动。

在oracle用户中单独启动和关闭数据库

[oracle@solang ~]# $ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbstart $ORACLE_HOME
[oracle@solang ~]# $ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbshut $ORACLE_HOME


本文参考:
Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2) Installation On Oracle Linux 6 (OL6) and 7 (OL7)
Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) Silent Installations
Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) : Creating Databases in Silent Mode
Database Configuration Assistant Command Reference for Silent Mode
Database Administrator’s Guide
Oracle Database Documentation
CentOS下装oracle 12c(命令行模式安装)
Configuring the Network Environment
Automating Database Startup and Shutdown on Linux
Automating Database Startup and Shutdown
CentOS 6.8静默安装oracle11g
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原文链接:https://blog.csdn.net/sl1992/article/details/80457935

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